Suelos Opus Sectile [rosetones]

Suelos Opus Sectile [rosetones]


Mosaicos Romanos

Los mosaicos romanos eran una característica común de las casas privadas y los edificios públicos en todo el imperio, desde África hasta Antioquía. Los mosaicos no solo son hermosas obras de arte en sí mismos, sino que también son un registro invaluable de elementos cotidianos como ropa, alimentos, herramientas, armas, flora y fauna. También revelan mucho sobre las actividades romanas como los concursos de gladiadores, los deportes, la agricultura, la caza y, a veces, incluso capturan a los propios romanos en retratos detallados y realistas.

Un mosaico de suelo romano que data de entre 350 y 375 d.C. y que representa peces. La comida fue un tema popular entre los mosíacos durante todo el período romano. Procedencia: Toragnola, Roma. (Museos Vaticanos, Roma).

Técnica

Mosaicos, también conocidos como opus tesellatum, se hicieron con pequeños cuadrados negros, blancos y de colores que normalmente medían entre 0,5 y 1,5 cm, pero los detalles finos a menudo se representaban utilizando piezas aún más pequeñas de tan solo 1 mm de tamaño. Estos cuadrados (teselas o tessellae) fueron cortados de materiales como mármol, azulejos, vidrio, smallto (pasta de vidrio), cerámica, piedra e incluso conchas. Primero se preparó una base con mortero fresco y el teselas colocados lo más juntos posible con cualquier espacio y luego rellenados con mortero líquido en un proceso conocido como lechada. A continuación, se limpió y pulió todo el conjunto.

Orígenes e influencias del amplificador

El juego de pisos con pequeños guijarros se utilizó en la Edad del Bronce tanto en la civilización minoica basada en Creta como en la civilización micénica en la Grecia continental. La misma idea, pero reproduciendo patrones, se utilizó en el Cercano Oriente en el siglo VIII a. C. En Grecia, el primer piso de guijarros que intentó diseños data del siglo V a. C. con ejemplos en Corinto y Olynthus. Suelen ser de dos tonalidades con diseños geométricos claros y figuras sencillas sobre un fondo oscuro. A finales del siglo IV a. C. se estaban utilizando colores y se han encontrado muchos buenos ejemplos en Pella en Macedonia. Estos mosaicos a menudo se refuerzan con incrustaciones de tiras de terracota o plomo, que a menudo se utilizan para marcar contornos. De hecho, no fue hasta la época helenística en el siglo III a. C. que los mosaicos realmente despegaron como una forma de arte y paneles detallados utilizando teselas en lugar de guijarros, se empezaron a incorporar en suelos estampados. Muchos de estos mosaicos intentaron copiar pinturas murales contemporáneas.

Un mosaico de suelo romano del siglo III d.C. que representa a Baco, dios del vino. Desde via Flaminia, Roma. (Palazzo Massimo, Roma).

A medida que evolucionaron los mosaicos en el siglo II a. C., más pequeños y cortados con mayor precisión teselas se utilizaron, a veces tan pequeños como 4 mm o menos, y los diseños emplearon un amplio espectro de colores con lechada coloreada para que coincida con el entorno teselas. Este tipo particular de mosaico que utilizó colores y sombreados sofisticados para crear un efecto similar a una pintura se conoce como opus vermiculatum y uno de sus mayores artesanos fue Sorus de Pérgamo (150-100 a. C.) cuyo trabajo, especialmente su mosaico de las Palomas Bebidas, fue muy copiado durante siglos después. Además de Pérgamo, destacados ejemplos de helenística opus vermiculatum se han encontrado en Alejandría y Delos en las Cícladas. Debido al trabajo que implicaba la producción de estas piezas, a menudo se trataba de pequeños mosaicos de 40 x 40 cm colocados en una bandeja de mármol o con borde en un taller especializado. Estas piezas fueron conocidas como emblemata ya que a menudo se usaban como piezas centrales para pavimentos con diseños más simples. Tan valiosas eran estas obras de arte que a menudo se retiraban para reutilizarlas en otro lugar y se transmitían de generación en generación dentro de las familias. Varios emblemata podría hacer un solo mosaico y gradualmente, emblemata comenzaron a parecerse más a su entorno cuando se les conoce como paneles.

Evolución en el diseño

Con un tema como los mosaicos, donde hay dificultades de datación, tremenda variación en la calidad artística, el gusto del público y las convenciones regionales, es problemático describir una evolución estrictamente lineal de la forma de arte. Sin embargo, se pueden observar algunos puntos importantes de cambio y diferencias regionales.

Detalle del mosaico de Alejandro, que representa a Alejandro Magno en su caballo Bucéfalo, durante la batalla de Issus. De la Casa de Fauno en Pompeya.

Inicialmente, los romanos no divergían de los fundamentos del enfoque helenístico de los mosaicos y, de hecho, estaban muy influenciados en términos de temas, motivos marinos y escenas de la mitología griega, y los propios artistas, como los muchos firmados por Roman. los mosaicos a menudo llevan nombres griegos, lo que demuestra que incluso en el mundo romano el diseño del mosaico todavía estaba dominado por los griegos. Uno de los más famosos es el mosaico de Alejandro, que era una copia de una pintura original helenística de Philoxenus o Aristeides de Thebes. El mosaico es de la Casa del Fauno, Pompeya y representa a Alejandro Magno montando a Bucéfalo y enfrentándose a Darío III en su carro de guerra en la Batalla de Issus (333 a. C.).

Un mosaico de suelo romano que data del siglo IV d.C. y que representa a Dionisos luchando contra los indios. Dionysos fue un tema muy popular en los mosaicos romanos. Procedencia: Villa Ruffinella, Roma. (Palazzo Massimo, Roma).

Los mosaicos romanos a menudo copiaban los de colores anteriores, sin embargo, los romanos desarrollaron sus propios estilos y se desarrollaron escuelas de producción en todo el imperio que cultivaron sus propias preferencias particulares & # 8211 escenas de caza a gran escala e intentos de perspectiva en las provincias africanas, vegetación impresionista y un observador de primer plano en los mosaicos de Antioquía o la preferencia europea por los paneles de figuras, por ejemplo.

Un mosaico de suelo romano que data del siglo III d.C. y que representa una de las cuatro estaciones. Los mosaicos en blanco y negro fueron muy populares durante el período romano en Italia. Procedencia: via Prenestina, Roma. (Palazzo Massimo, Roma)

El estilo romano dominante (pero no exclusivo) en la propia Italia usaba solo blanco y negro teselas, un gusto que sobrevivió hasta bien entrado el siglo III d.C. y que se usó con mayor frecuencia para representar motivos marinos, especialmente cuando se usó para baños romanos (los del primer piso de las Termas de Caracalla en Roma son un excelente ejemplo). También hubo una preferencia por representaciones más bidimensionales y un énfasis en los diseños geométricos. C ª. 115 EC en las Termas de Buticosus en Ostia hay el ejemplo más temprano de una figura humana en mosaico y en el siglo II EC las figuras recortadas se hicieron comunes. Con el tiempo, los mosaicos se volvieron cada vez más realistas en su representación de figuras humanas y los retratos precisos y detallados se hicieron más comunes. Mientras tanto, en la parte oriental del imperio y especialmente en Antioquía, el siglo IV d.C. vio la expansión de mosaicos que usaban motivos bidimensionales y repetidos para crear un efecto de 'alfombra', un estilo que influiría mucho en las iglesias cristianas y judías posteriores. sinagogas.

Un piso de mosaico romano en diseño geométrico que data de finales del siglo I d.C. De una villa cerca del castillo de Guido, cerca de Roma. (Palazzo Massimo, Roma).

Otros diseños de piso

Los pisos también se pueden colocar usando piezas más grandes para crear diseños a mayor escala. Opus signinum suelo utilizado mortero-agregado coloreado (generalmente rojo) con blanco teselas colocados para crear patrones amplios o incluso dispersos al azar. Cruza usando cinco rojos teselas y una central teselas en negro fue un motivo muy común en Italia en el siglo I a. C. y continuó en el siglo I d. C., pero más típicamente usando solo azulejos negros.

Opus sectile era un segundo tipo de pavimento que utilizaba grandes losas de mármol o piedra de colores cortadas en formas particulares. Opus sectile Fue otra técnica de origen helenístico pero los romanos también ampliaron la técnica a la decoración de paredes. Utilizado en muchos edificios públicos, no fue hasta el siglo IV d.C. que se hizo más común en las villas privadas y, bajo la influencia egipcia, comenzó a usar vidrio opaco como material principal.

Un mosaico de suelo romano que data del siglo I a. C. y que representa a Nike. Desde una villa romana cerca de via Ruffinella, Roma. (Palazzo Massimo, Roma).

Otros usos del mosaico

Los mosaicos no se limitaron de ninguna manera al suelo. Las bóvedas, columnas y fuentes a menudo estaban decoradas con mosaicos (opus musivum), nuevamente, especialmente en los baños. El primer ejemplo de este uso data de mediados del siglo I a. C. en el ninfeo de la "Villa de Cicerón" en Formiae, donde se usaban astillas de mármol, piedra pómez y conchas. En otros lugares también se agregaron piezas de mármol y vidrio al conjunto dando el efecto de una gruta natural. En el siglo I d.C., también se utilizaron paneles de mosaico más detallados para embellecer Nymphaea y fuentes. En Pompeya y Herculano, la técnica también se utilizó para cubrir nichos, paredes y frontones y, una vez más, estos murales imitaron a menudo pinturas originales. Las paredes y bóvedas de los baños romanos imperiales posteriores también estaban decoradas con mosaicos con vidrio que actuaba como un reflejo de la luz del sol que golpeaba las piscinas y creaba un efecto brillante. Los pisos de las piscinas en sí mismos a menudo estaban decorados con mosaicos, al igual que los pisos de los mausoleos, a veces incluso incorporando un retrato del difunto. Una vez más, el uso romano de mosaicos para decorar el espacio de las paredes y las bóvedas continuaría influyendo en los decoradores de interiores de las iglesias cristianas del siglo IV d.C.


Arqueólogos restauran el piso del patio del Segundo Templo con la ayuda de un matemático

Los arqueólogos del Proyecto de Cribado del Monte del Templo con sede en Jerusalén confían en que han restaurado con éxito un elemento arquitectónico único del Segundo Templo: una serie de baldosas decoradas regiamente que adornaban los pórticos en la cima del Monte del Templo, que probablemente ocuparon un lugar destacado en los patios. del Segundo Templo durante el reinado del rey Herodes en Jerusalén (37 a 4 a. C.).

Frankie Snyder, miembro del equipo de investigadores del Proyecto Tamizado del Monte del Templo y experto en pisos de estilo antiguo herodiano, dijo que logró restaurar los patrones de azulejos ornamentados “utilizando principios geométricos y similitudes encontradas en el diseño de azulejos utilizado por Herodes en otros sitios." Snyder, quien tiene experiencia académica tanto en matemáticas como en estudios judaicos, explicó que & # 8220 este tipo de suelo, llamado & # 8216opus sectile, 'latín para' trabajo cortado ', es muy caro y se consideraba mucho más prestigioso que el mosaico. suelos de baldosas ".

Surtido de baldosas herodianas / Cortesía de la ciudad de David

& # 8220 Hasta ahora, hemos logrado restaurar siete posibles diseños del majestuoso piso que decoraba los edificios del Monte del Templo, & # 8221, dijo Snyder, quien señaló que no había pisos opus sectile en Israel antes de la época del Rey Herodes. . “Los segmentos de las baldosas estaban perfectamente incrustados, de modo que ni siquiera se podía insertar una cuchilla afilada entre ellos. & # 8221

& # 8220 Nos permite tener una idea del increíble esplendor del Templo & # 8217, & # 8221, dijo el Dr. Gabriel Barkay, cofundador y director del Proyecto de Tamizado del Monte del Templo. Los azulejos restaurados se presentarán al público en general el 8 de septiembre, en la 17ª Conferencia Arqueológica Anual de la Ciudad de David.

Módulo en zigzag, baldosas herodianas / Cortesía de la ciudad de David

"Esta representa la primera vez que los arqueólogos han podido restaurar con éxito un elemento del complejo del Segundo Templo de Herodes", dijo el cofundador y director del Proyecto de Tamizado del Monte del Templo, Zachi Dvira.

El Proyecto de tamizado del Monte del Templo se estableció en respuesta a la extracción ilegal de toneladas de tierra rica en antigüedades del Monte del Templo por el Waqf islámico en 1999. Está ubicado en el Parque Nacional del Valle de Tzurim y cuenta con el apoyo de la Fundación de la Ciudad de David y la Fundación de Arqueología de Israel. La iniciativa se lleva a cabo bajo los auspicios de la Universidad Bar-Ilan y la Autoridad de Parques y Naturaleza de Israel.

Hasta la fecha, se han descubierto aproximadamente 600 segmentos de baldosas de piedra de colores, y más de 100 de ellos datan definitivamente del período del Segundo Templo de Herodes. Este estilo de piso es consistente con los encontrados en los palacios de Herodes en Masada, Herodes y Jericó, así como en majestuosos palacios y villas en Italia, también atribuidos a la época de Herodes. Los segmentos de baldosas, en su mayoría importados de Roma, Asia Menor, Túnez y Egipto, se crearon a partir de piedras pulidas y multicolores cortadas en una variedad de formas geométricas. Una característica clave de las tejas herodianas es su tamaño, que corresponde a la medida romana de un pie, aproximadamente 29,6 cm.

Baldosas herodianas Colección Opus / Cortesía de la ciudad de David

La posibilidad de que grandes extensiones del Monte del Templo durante el Segundo Templo estuvieran cubiertas con pisos de opus sectile fue planteada por primera vez por el arqueólogo y director del Parque Nacional de los Muros de Jerusalén con la Autoridad de Parques y Naturaleza de Israel, Assaf Avraham, en 2007.

La teoría de Abraham & # 8217 se basó en una descripción dada por el historiador romano-judío Josefo (siglo I d.C.) quien escribió, & # 8220 ... el [patio del Monte del Templo] descubierto estaba completamente pavimentado con piedras de varios tipos y colores ... & # 8221 (La Guerra Judía 5: 2). Además, la literatura talmúdica registra la magnífica construcción del Monte del Templo, que describe hileras de mármol en diferentes colores: verde, azul y blanco.

& # 8220Ahora, como resultado de las habilidades matemáticas de Frankie Snyder & # 8217, hemos logrado recrear los patrones de mosaico reales & # 8221, dijo el Dr. Barkay, enfatizando que & # 8220 esta representa la primera vez que podemos ver con nuestros propios ojos el esplendor del piso que decoraba el Segundo Templo y sus anexos hace 2.000 años ”.

Barkay relató que al describir el templo que construyó Herodes, & # 8220 el Talmud dice que & # 8216 el que no ha visto el edificio de Herodes & # 8217 no ha visto un edificio hermoso en su vida & # 8221, de modo que aunque nuestra generación aún no ha merecido para ver el Templo en su gloria, & # 8220 con el descubrimiento y restauración de estas baldosas únicas, ahora podemos tener una comprensión y apreciación más profundas del Segundo Templo, incluso a través de esta característica distintiva. & # 8221

Desde el inicio del Proyecto de Tamizado del Monte del Templo en 2004, más de 200.000 voluntarios de todo el mundo han participado en el tamizado, lo que representa un fenómeno sin precedentes en el ámbito de la investigación arqueológica.


Arqueólogo clásico Darius Arya

Darius en el lugar de Hagia Sofia, Estambul, Turquía, mientras filma PBS & # x2019s Ancient Invisible Cities.

No hay nada más nuevo que mirar al pasado, o al menos eso es lo que piensa el arqueólogo con sede en Roma Darius Arya. Para Darius, Roma es más que una historia antigua, es una historia viva y una historia continua que Darius lleva a las salas de conferencias, el campo y las pantallas, grandes y pequeñas.

& # x201CETodo el mundo soñaba con ser Indiana Jones, & # x201D le dice a Darius, & # x201CI pensé que yo & # x2019 lo haría. Quería sumergirme hasta las rodillas en inscripciones antiguas y sitios subterráneos, así que comencé con el latín. & # X201D Mientras estudiaba Estudios Clásicos en la Universidad de Pensilvania, a Darius lo aceptaron para participar en un semestre en Roma en el Centro Intercolegial de Estudios Clásicos. conocido con cariño por los exalumnos y estudiantes del Centro. Si bien su enfoque era griego y latín, Darius quedó cautivado por la historia activa que lo rodeaba y continuó con una maestría y maestría / doctorado en arqueología clásica en la Universidad de Texas Austin, y recibió una beca y beca Fullbright en la Academia Americana. en Roma.

Lo que ancló y aún ancla a Darius a la Ciudad Eterna es la yuxtaposición única del pasado y el presente en su arte, arquitectura y cultura. & # x201CI tiende a mirar Roma desde el pasado, como hace 2.500 años, y ve constantemente estos hilos en la vida contemporánea aquí y en todo el mundo. & # x201D Su pasión por los estudios clásicos y la arquitectura es imparable, y sobre el pasado dos décadas en Roma, él & # x2019s hizo todo lo posible para compartirlo. Como director del Instituto Americano de Cultura Romana, una organización sin fines de lucro que fomenta la conversación sobre el extraordinario legado cultural de Roma y # x2019 a través de la educación, la divulgación y la narración multiplataforma, Darius creó varias iniciativas de educación y nuevos medios, y como realizador de documentales, él presenta 2018 & # x2019s & # x201CAncient Invisible Cities & # x201D (PBS) y la serie de televisión italiana en curso & # x201CUnder Italy & # x201D (RAI5).

Conservadores cubriendo un antiguo muro en Arya & # x2019s excavación en Parco dei Ravennati en Ostia Antica. La excavación implicó el examen de tumbas ubicadas a lo largo de una antigua vía que flanqueaba el río Tíber, así como el descubrimiento de una casa antigua tardía.

Nos sentamos con Darius para averiguar cómo es vivir, trabajar y cavar en Roma.

1 Has estado coordinando excavaciones en Roma durante 15 años. ¿Cuáles son algunas de las sorpresas que has encontrado? ¿Cuál ha sido su proyecto más satisfactorio hasta la fecha?No importa cuánto planee y estudie, cuando finalmente excave, inevitablemente encontrará cosas que no esperaba, que nunca había soñado. He cruzado un cementerio indocumentado de la era imperial y he descubierto un piso de opus sectile intacto. Mi favorito personal y probablemente el más satisfactorio provino de nuestra excavación en el Parque de los Acueductos, un parque público a menos de ocho millas del centro de Roma. El parque en sí es increíble con su arcada de una milla de largo del antiguo acueducto Aqua Claudia. Estábamos en nuestro tercer verano en las excavaciones, y ya habíamos descubierto un lujoso complejo de baños de 50,000 pies cuadrados, múltiples pisos y cámaras y muchos paneles de mármol in situ. Estábamos a la mitad del día, ya desenterrando hermosos fragmentos de estatuas (signos claros de expoliación de antigüedades tardías) cuando descubrimos una cabeza de mármol de colores. A medida que avanzábamos, nos dimos cuenta de que teníamos toda una estatua intacta de la más alta calidad, una estatua de mármol rojo del siglo II d.C. que representaba a Marsias atada a un árbol, con una musculatura hermosa y detallada y un ojo con incrustaciones de bronce restante. Estaba tan paranoico cuando lo encontramos, que decidí dormir en la trinchera con Marsyas esa noche por miedo a los saqueadores (siempre una amenaza real para cualquier excavación). Extrajimos la estatua a la mañana siguiente con una pequeña grúa y la transportamos a un almacén de la superintendencia para su custodia. Después de una completa restauración y limpieza, nuestras Marsyas están en exhibición pública permanente en la galería Capitoline Museums Montemartini.


Contenido

Hubo muchas curiae durante la historia de la civilización romana, muchas de ellas existiendo al mismo tiempo. Curia significa simplemente "casa de reuniones". Si bien el senado se reunía regularmente en la curia dentro del espacio del comitium, había muchas otras estructuras diseñadas para que se reuniera cuando se presentaba la necesidad: por ejemplo, reunirse con alguien a quien no se le permitía ingresar a las santificadas curias del Senado.

La Curia Julia es la tercera curia nombrada dentro del comitium. Cada estructura fue reconstruida varias veces, pero se originó en un solo templo etrusco, construido para honrar la tregua del conflicto de Sabine. Cuando este templo original fue destruido, Tullus Hostilius lo reconstruyó y le dio su nombre. Duró unos cientos de años hasta que la curia fue destruida por el fuego del improvisado funeral de Publius Clodius Pulcher. Se dedicó una nueva estructura a su benefactor financiero, Faustus Cornelius Sulla.

De hecho, la estructura ahora en el foro es la segunda encarnación de la curia de César. Del 81 al 96, la Curia Julia fue restaurada bajo Domiciano. En 283, fue gravemente dañado por un incendio, en la época del emperador Carinus. [2] De 284 a 305, Diocleciano reconstruyó la Curia. Son los restos del edificio de Diocleciano que se encuentra hoy. En 412, la Curia fue restaurada nuevamente, esta vez por el Prefecto Urbano Annius Eucharius Epiphanius.

El 10 de julio de 1923, el gobierno italiano adquirió la Curia Julia y el convento adyacente de la Iglesia de S. Adriano del Collegio di Spagna por aproximadamente £ 16,000. [3]

El exterior de la Curia Julia presenta concreto revestido de ladrillo con un enorme contrafuerte en cada ángulo. La parte inferior del muro frontal estaba decorada con losas de mármol. La parte superior se cubrió con estuco imitación de bloques de mármol blanco. Un solo tramo de escalones conduce a las puertas de bronce. Las puertas de bronce actuales son réplicas modernas. Las puertas de bronce originales fueron trasladadas a la Basílica de San Juan de Letrán por el Papa Alejandro VII en 1660. [5]

Se encontró una moneda dentro de las puertas durante su traslado. [6] Eso permitió a los arqueólogos fechar las reparaciones hechas a la Casa del Senado y la adición de las puertas de bronce al reinado del emperador Domiciano (81-96 d. C.). La apariencia original de la Casa del Senado se conoce por un denario del emperador Augusto del 28 a. C., que muestra la galería sostenida por columnas en la pared frontal del edificio. [7]

El interior de la Curia Julia es bastante austero. La sala tiene 25,20 m de largo por 17,61 m de ancho. Hay tres amplios escalones que podrían haber acomodado cinco filas de sillas o un total de unos 300 senadores. [5] Las paredes están desnudas, pero originalmente estaban revestidas de mármol a dos tercios de su altura. Las dos características principales del interior de la Curia Julia son su Altar de la Victoria y su llamativo piso.

En el otro extremo del salón se encontraba el "Altar de la Victoria". [5] Consistía en una estatua de Victoria, la personificación de la victoria, de pie sobre un globo, extendiendo una corona. El altar fue colocado en la Curia por Augusto para celebrar la destreza militar de Roma, más específicamente su propia victoria en la Batalla de Actium, en 31 a. C. El altar fue retirado en 384 d.C., como parte de una reacción generalizada contra las tradiciones paganas de la antigua Roma después del surgimiento del cristianismo. [8]

La otra característica principal del interior de la Curia, el piso, contrasta con el exterior incoloro del edificio. En el suelo se muestra la técnica de arte romano del opus sectile en la que los materiales se cortan y se incrustan en paredes y suelos para hacer dibujos de patrones. Claridge lo describe como "rosetas estilizadas en cuadrados que se alternan con pares opuestos de cornucopias entrelazadas en rectángulos, todas trabajadas en pórfido verde y rojo sobre fondos de púrpura frigia amarillo númida". [5]

En su Res Gestae Divi AugustiAugustus escribe sobre el proyecto: "Construí la Casa del Senado. Con el poder del estado enteramente en mis manos por consentimiento universal, extinguí las llamas de las guerras civiles y luego renuncié a mi control, transfiriendo la República a la autoridad de el Senado y el pueblo romano. Para este servicio fui nombrado Augusto por decreto del Senado ". [9] De hecho, la cesión del poder fue más cierta de palabra que de hecho, la construcción de la Curia Julia coincidió con el fin de la Roma republicana.

En el pasado, la Curia Hostilia y el Comitium "estaban orientados por los puntos cardinales de la brújula, lo que puede haberlos marcado como un espacio especialmente augurado y, en cualquier caso, los distingue oblicuamente del rectángulo del Foro que se formó a lo largo de los siglos". Rompiendo con la tradición, la Curia Julia fue reorientada por Julio César "en líneas más 'racionales', cuadrándola con las líneas rectangulares del Foro y aún más de cerca con su nuevo foro, al que la nueva Casa del Senado formaba un apéndice arquitectónico más. en consonancia con la creciente subordinación del Senado ". El reducido poder del Senado romano durante el Período Imperial se refleja en la ubicación y orientación menos prominentes de la Curia Julia. [10]

Aún así, los dos edificios tenían similitudes. Tanto la Tabula Valeria de la Curia Hostilia como el Altar de la Victoria de la Curia Julia en la Curia Julia, dan fe de la preeminencia duradera del ejército de Roma a pesar del papel reducido del Senado.

17 de febrero de 2012. Una vista del Foro Romano visto desde una ventana del Palazzo Senatorio: en el centro la iglesia de Santa Martina y Luca en la esquina inferior derecha el Arco de Septimio Severo

13 de noviembre de 2013 Vista de la Curia Julia y la iglesia de Santa Martina y Luca


Pietra dura en Italia

Los Tribuna en la Galería Uffizi de Florencia. Tenga en cuenta el suelo con incrustaciones de mármol y la mesa central octogonal con tapa de pietra dura. & copiar Marta de Bortoli a través de Wikimedia Commons

El mayor impulso para el desarrollo de la pietra dura en Italia fue la familia gobernante Medici. Los Médicis fueron una de las familias de comerciantes más poderosas del Renacimiento italiano y los mecenas más prolíficos de las artes.

Fue en 1588 cuando el Gran Duque Fernando I de Medici fundó la Galleria dei Layori, quizás el primer taller en Europa que se especializa en tallado en piedra dura. Esperaba que el nuevo taller pudiera decorar sus residencias con opus sectile piedra dura como los palacios romanos de la antigüedad.

Fue en este taller donde se empezaron a producir los primeros objetos de pietra dura. Extendiéndose más allá del ámbito de las características arquitectónicas, los artesanos del Galleria Comenzó a construir ataúdes, tableros de mesa e incluso armarios. Todos estos se utilizaron para amueblar los vastos palacios de los Medici.

A medida que el arte se desarrolló a lo largo del siglo XVI en Florencia, se conoció como opera di commessi (literalmente, & lsquofitted together funciona & rsquo), donde el nombre italiano moderno commesso viene de.

Estas primeras piezas de pietra dura eran caras: piedras como jaspe, pórfido, cuarzo y ágata tenían que ser extraídas y enviadas desde rincones remotos del mundo antes de ser ensambladas en un commesso panel.

Fue debido a este exotismo y lujo y ndash combinado con la experiencia técnica necesaria para completar tal trabajo y ndash que la pietra dura pronto se convirtió en muy deseable entre los coleccionistas más importantes de Europa.

Quizás el mayor logro del taller florentino fueron las decoraciones en la sala conocida como el Tribuna en la Galería de los Uffizi en Florencia, anteriormente el centro administrativo Medici & rsquos.

los Tribuna Fue donde la familia Medici albergó tradicionalmente sus colecciones más importantes de pinturas y antigüedades, incluidas las obras de Miguel Ángel y da Vinci.

El piso octogonal de la habitación fue decorado en la década de 1580 con una elaborada incrustación de pietra dura de mármol policromo, y originalmente estaba amueblado con un gran gabinete de pietra dura, que luego fue destruido. El centro de la sala está ocupado actualmente por una gran mesa de pietra dura octogonal del siglo XVII.

El taller de Florencia que construyó los elementos de pietra dura para los Uffizi y otros palacios en la ciudad continuaría funcionando, sorprendentemente, hasta la década de 1920. Su trabajo de pietra dura se convertiría en artículos de colección y rsquo especialmente populares para los grandes turistas en los siglos XVIII y XIX.

Pietra dura en India

Algunos de los elaborados trabajos de pietra dura en el Taj Mahal. Tenga en cuenta las piedras preciosas de colores brillantes que se utilizan aquí, como la malaquita verde. & copiar Teufel1987 a través de Wikimedia Commons

A partir del siglo XVI, el conocimiento de la técnica también se extendió desde Florencia y llegó a lugares tan lejanos como el subcontinente indio.

Pietra dura tendría un profundo impacto en la India de los siglos XVI y XVII. Este fue el período del Imperio Mughal en India, un período asociado con el florecimiento del arte y la arquitectura.

Los mogoles gobernantes admiraban la técnica recién descubierta y encargaban trabajos elaborados en las piezas: el estilo resultante de pietra dura o parchin kari era distintivamente no europeo en sus imágenes y uso.

El trabajo de parchinkari indio nuevamente se usó principalmente en entornos arquitectónicos más que decorativos: uno de los primeros ejemplos es la famosa Tumba del Emperador Humayun (1508-1556) en Delhi, que se completó en 1569-70.

Quizás el edificio indio más famoso que presenta incrustaciones de pietra dura, sin embargo, es el Taj Mahal, quizás la imagen icónica de la arquitectura mogol de la Edad de Oro. Algunas de las incrustaciones de pietra dura se muestran arriba.

El Taj Mahal está decorado con opulencia con incrustaciones florales de pietra dura en sus paredes interiores, pisos y mausoleos, y utiliza piedras preciosas raras como cornalina, lapislázuli, turquesa y malaquita.


Decoración de incrustaciones de piedras policromadas

Opus sectile es una forma de realizar decoraciones utilizando piezas de piedra policromada cortadas con precisión, generalmente mármol, para realizar patrones y figuras en superficies planas.

El opus sectile se utilizó en pavimentos, paredes y superficies más pequeñas, como mesas.

La técnica era muy cara y solo se utilizaba en contextos de alto nivel, donde los mosaicos policromados y las pinturas no eran adecuados.

En la Villa Romana del Casale, una casa de campo romana muy rica en Sicilia del siglo IV d.C. con más de 3500 m 2 de mosaicos geométricos y figurativos policromos, solo una habitación, la sala de audiencias principal donde el maestro de la casa recibía a sus invitados, había un piso en opus sectile.


Sitios romanos tardíos y bizantinos de Estambul

El almirante Constantine Lips construyó un convento, dedicado a la Theotokos Panachrantos (la Inmaculada Madre de Dios), en 907-908. El emperador León VI el Sabio participó en su inauguración y pronto el monasterio se convirtió en uno de los más grandes de Constantinopla.

Este monasterio consta de dos iglesias.

Iglesia de Theotokos Panachrantos (iglesia del norte)

los Katolikon del monasterio posiblemente se construyó sobre los restos de una iglesia del siglo VI. En su construcción se utilizaron lápidas de un cementerio romano.

La iglesia era la segundo en Constantinopla en adoptar el plan de cruz en cuadrado (el primero es el Nea Ekklesia del Gran Palacio de 880), y es el iglesia más antigua con ese plan sobreviviendo en la ciudad. Tiene un naosdividido en nueve bahías. La bahía central está cubierta por una cúpula, que estaba sostenida por cuatro columnas. La cúpula actual con ocho ventanas es de época otomana, al igual que los dos arcos apuntados que atraviesan toda la iglesia, reemplazando las columnas. Las bases de las tres columnas se han mantenido en sus posiciones originales. Los brazos abovedados del núcleo de cruz en escuadra terminan en enormes ventanas triples en las fachadas norte y sur. los naos culmina en el este por un tripartito bemay al oeste por una bahía de tres nártex. Los ábsides de la iglesia son altos e interrumpidos por ventanas: por una triple ventana en el ábside central y por ventanas simples en los ábsides laterales.

Esta iglesia tenía, además, seis capillas. En la planta baja, había dos capillas frente a la prótesis y el diaconicón. Inusualmente, también había pequeñas capillas en el techo en los cuatro bordes del edificio: dos sobre las bahías de la esquina occidental del edificio. naos, uno sobre el prótesis, y uno sobre el diaconicón. En una de estas capillas, se encontró un icono de mármol del siglo X de la mártir Eudokia de Heliópolis, en el siglo XX.

La mampostería consta de hiladas alternas de ladrillos y pequeños bloques de piedra. Los ladrillos se hunden en una gruesa capa de mortero, como es típico en la arquitectura bizantina del siglo X. En el interior, la iglesia estaba decorada con paneles de mármol y tejas de colores, y las bóvedas estaban cubiertas por mosaicos. Destacan los parteluces, cornisas y ménsulas de la iglesia, ornamentados con diversos motivos (como follaje, palmetas, rosetones, plantas fantásticas, cruces, pavos reales y águilas). Estos forman lo que es una de las colecciones más destacadas de decoración escultórica bizantina media de la ciudad.

Archivolt with the busts of the Apostles, from the Church of Theotokos Panachrantos of the Monastery of Constantine Lips (late 13th or early 14th century Istanbul Archaeology Museum)

Church of Hagios Ioannis Prodromos (south church)

The Monastery of Lips was restored by Theodora, the widow of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, between 1281 and 1304. She had another church erected south of the existing church. Dedicated to Saint John the Forerunner, that church served as a mausoleum for the members of the Palaiologan dynasty, starting with Theodora herself.

The south church is a notable example of Palaiologan architecture. Its centerpiece is a simple square bay crowned by a dome. The central bay is surrounded on three sides by an ambulatory and further on the west by a narthex (originally domed). These spaces were filled with tombs. The ambulatory is lower than the domed core and the bema, providing access of light through triple windows on three sides of the central bay.

The walls and vaults of the church were covered with mosaics. The floor of the naos was paved in the opus sectile technique. los bema has a marble floor, which has been preserved.

On the three apses of the south church, niches and windows of various sizes can be seen. More attention gets the attractive brickwork of the apses. The bricks are arranged to form various interesting patterns, like arches, hooks, meanders, sun crosses, and fans. Between these patterns there are white bands of stone separated by two to five courses of bricks. Such decorations, showing the influence of the East, became common in the Late Byzantine architecture.

Exonarthex-parecclesion

In the early 14th century, in order to create space for additional burial sites, a long exonarthex was added to the two churches, together a with parecclesion of the south church. These were interconnected, forming a space that surrounds the complex on the west and south sides. The tombs were placed in the arcosolia, built along the outer walls of the structure. The façades of the exonarthex y el parecclesion closely follow the style of the two churches.

44-45. Rotunda and Church of Myrelaion

Aksaray Caddesi, Mesihpaşa Caddesi, Laleli Caddesi & Şair Haşmet Sokak, Laleli

We can distinguish two surviving structures in the Myrelaion complex: a rotunda (cistern) and a church (mosque).

44. Rotunda of Myrelaion

5th century converted into a cistern in early 10th century

In around 920, Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos bought a property in the Myrelaion neighbourhood of Constantinople. (Myrelaion means ‘place of myrrh’ in Greek.) His intention was to build here a new imperial residence, as a replacement of the Great Palace.

On the site that he acquired stood a giant rotunda from the 5th century. With its diameter of 41.8 m, it was the largest circular building in the city y el second largest in the ancient world (after the Pantheon of Rome, which measures 43.3 m). The identity and the original function of the rotunda is unclear. It has been suggested that it was the palace of the Theodosian princess Arcadia. Its sigma-shaped portico (destroyed) may be identified as the Amastrianon, which served as a market and a place for public executions in the Medieval period.

The rotunda was converted, possibly by Romanos himself, into a cistern. Its dome was destroyed, and its surface was levelled. The interior was filled with columnas to support a vaulted system. This structure can be visited in the bazaar that it houses. The capitals of the columns are very beautiful, especially when considering their current surroundings.

On the surface of the cistern Romanos built the Palace of Myrelaion. It resembled a Roman corridor villa and was much smaller than the rotunda. Later he turned the palace into a nunnery and the substructure into a burial chapel. Almost nothing remains of the palace today.

In the 1960s, archaeologists discovered a fragment of a porphyry sculpture from the rotunda. It turned out to be the missing heel of the Portrait of the Tetrarchs, which had been stolen from Constantinople and brought to Venice during the Fourth Crusade (now displayed at a corner of the façade of St Mark’s Basilica). This statue probably originates from the Philadelphion, a square close-by, where the Mese branched in two, considered the physical centre, or the mesomphalos, of the city.

45. Church of Myrelaion

A church was attached to the Palace of Myrelaion. In 922, Theodora, the wife of Romanos, died and was buried here, followed in 931 by his eldest son and co-emperor Christopher. By burying his family in the Church of Myrelaion, Romanos broke a tradition that had started from Constantine the Great, whereby all the Byzantine emperors were supposed to be laid to rest in the Church of the Holy Apostles. In 948, Romanos himself was buried here. His example was followed by later Komnenian and Palaiologan emperors, who, too, preferred private burial churches.

The Church of Myrelaion is one of the first churches in the city with the cross-in-square plan, after the Nea Ekklesia of the Great Palace and the northern church of the Monastery of Lips.

The church has a naos surmounted by a dome with a fluted surface, forming the so-called umbrella dome, o la pumpkin dome. The cross arms of the naos are topped by groin vaults. los naos was originally partitioned by four columns (replaced by piers in the Ottoman period). To the east is a sanctuary with three polygonal apses (the bema, los prothesis, y el diaconicon). To the west is a narthex with a dome on its central bay. Originally, the church also had an exonarthex, but that was replaced by a wooden portico in the Ottoman era. The mosaics and marble that decorated the interior have totally disappeared.

On the outside, unusual elements include semi-cylindrical buttresses, which create a flowing effect on the façades, and small rounded windows. Rare is also the fact that the masonry is entirely made of bricks.

In around 1500 the church was converted into a mosque and named after its substructure (‘bodrum’ means basement in Turkish).

46-47. Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

In the 9th and 10th century there was a monastery near the Cistern of Aetius on the Sixth Hill of Constantinople. It has been, for long time, identified as the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra, but there is no conclusive evidence to prove that. The structures today known as the Odalar Mosque, Kasım Ağa Mosque and İpek Bodrum Cistern were probably all part of that monastery, with the first being its katholikon, the second an annex, and the third its water source.

46. Katholikon of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

Odalar Mosque
Müftu Sokaĝi 20-22, Karagümrük
First church – 9th or 10th century second church – mid- or late-12th century

El primero katholikon of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra was erected in the 9th or 10th century. It had a square plan with three apses. Under it was a basement composed of 24 vaulted rooms and a vaulted crypt with an apse. These spaces may have had a profane use before. These were later turned into a cistern.

The second church was built in the middle or at the end of the 12th century. It used 16 rooms of the basement of the old church as a substructure, and its floor was 3.3 m above that of the first church. The plan was cross-in-square, with the typical dome, four columns, tripartite naos and narthex. Atypical was the diaconicon, which was larger than the prothesis. The walls were build up of stone and bricks, the recessed-brick technique being used with the latter.

Several frescoes survive from the two churches, depicting the Theotokos Enthroned, the Deesis, the Prophets, the Life of Mary, and Saint Mercurius. Some are now in Istanbul Archaeology Museum.

In 1475, when the Ottomans conquered the Genovese city of Caffa (today Feodosia) in Crimea, this neighbourhood was populated with Christian settlers. The church was given to the Dominicans, who had brought a large icon of the Hodegetria type with them and who dedicated the church to Saint Mary of Constantinople. By the beginning of the 16th century, the area had become predominantly Italian. Sultan Murad IV decided to move all the foreigners that were not Ottoman subjects to Galata and Pera, as a result of which, in 1636, the church was closed and, in 1640, turned into a mosque. The icon found its way to the Church of SS Peter and Paul in Galata. The mosque got its current name after 1782, when married Janissaries moved to the neighbourhood (with ‘oda’ meaning ‘room’ in Turkish). The building was destroyed in a fire in 1919 and has fallen in ruin since then.

47. Annex of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

Kasım Ağa Mosque
Koza Sokak, Karagümrük
13th-15th century

This small building was probably an annex of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra. It was roughly square in plan, with a single nave preceded by an atrium in the north east and a projecting room in the east. It has no apse. Its masonry suggests that it was a Palaiologan structure, but also that there were different construction phases. It seems to have fallen in ruins by 1453, and a mosque was built in its place in 1460 or 1506.

48. Church of Hagia Thekla of the Palace of Blachernae

Atik Mustafa Paşa Mosque / Hazreti Cabir Mosque
Çember Sokak, Ayvansaray
Mid-9th century 1059

For a long time it was thought that this church was dedicated to Saints Peter and Mark. It is more probable, however, that it is, instead, the Church of Hagia Thekla of the Palace of Blachernae.

In the middle of the 9th century, Princess Thekla, a daughter of Emperor Theophilus (829-842), is known to have enlarged an oratory located some hundred meters east of the Church of the Saint Mary of Blachernae and dedicated it to her patron saint. Because the church displays many archaic elements it is sometimes suggested that it dates from that time. Examples of the archaic elements include the L-shaped piers, which form the internal side of the cross to support the dome, and simple, barrel-vaulted corner bays. If the church can be dated to this period, it would be the earliest surviving post-Iconoclast church and the first cross-in-square type of a church in the city.

It is known that in 1059, Isaac I Komnenos built a larger church around here, to commemorate his surviving a hunting accident. That church was famous for its frescoes and mosaics. Anna Komnene writes that her grandmother Anna Dalassene used to come here often to pray. It may be that the church as we see it today dates from this (or an even later) period.

The church is oriented to north-east and south-west. On the south-east side it has three polygonal apses. Originally the church looked much lighter than today, as the floor was 1.50 metres lower and the dome was taller and filled with windows. The dome was heavily damaged in the 1509 earthquake, after which the church was turned into a mosque. The current dome is from the Ottoman period, as are the roof, the cornice, and the porch. The windows were later thoroughly reworked. The interior was plastered over as well, including the early-15th-century frescoes depicting the Archangel Michael and Saints Cosmas and Damian.

The mosque is important for Muslims, because of the türbe attributed to a companion of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Eyüp), who fell during the First Arab Siege of Constantinople (674-678).

49. Church of Saint Mary of the Mongols

Tevkii Cafer Mektebi Sokak 1, Fener
Original church – 11th century narthex – 1281-1285 current modification – 18th century

This church stands near the Phanar Greek Orthodox College. Its earliest stage is the 11th century, when it was part of a male monastery dedicated to Theotokos Panagiotissa. Era un tetraconch church with a central dome. Each of the four sides of the central square were flanked with semicircular apses, each having three apsidioles. This type of a ground plan is uncommon in the area around Constantinople, but it is still not the only example: the Church of Panagia Kamariotissa on Heybeliada is also a tetraconch church.

The monastery was abandoned after the Fourth Crusade. In 1261 it was re-established by Isaac Doukas, uncle of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos. The complex was renovated in 1266-1267. In 1281, it was renovated again by Maria Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Michael VIII, who established it as a nunnery. She added a three-bay narthex to the church and 33 cells, a bath, gardens, and vineyards for the nuns. Maria had been a consort of Abaqa Khan, the second ruler or the Mongol Il-khanate, from which the Greek name of the church, Panagia Mouchliotissa, derives.

This church is known in Turkish as Kanlı Kilise (the Bloody Church). The name comes from the fact that the last resistance of the Byzantines against the Ottomans took place on May 29, 1453 in its surroundings.

Tradition has it that Sultan Mehmed II gave the church to the mother of Atik Sinan, or Christodoulos, the Greek architect of the Fatih Mosque, in acknowledgment of his work. The grant was later confirmed by Sultan Bayezid II. Copies of the firmans ensuring its survival are still preserved inside the church. Even though there were some later attempts to convert the church into a mosque, the earlier grants prevented it from falling from the hands of the Greeks. That makes it the only church in Istanbul that has been continuously used by the Greek Orthodox Church.

The church was modified heavily in the 18th century. It lost its southern semi-dome and the southern bay of the narthex, over which three aisles were built. The only surviving Byzantine features are the eastern and northern apses and the two northern bays of the narthex.

The original interior of the church is gone as well. A mosaic icon of the Panagia Mouchliotissa is housed in the church, dating from the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century. The traces of the mural painting visible today, depicting the Last Judgment, originate from the post-Byzantine period.

50. Monastery of Christ Pantepoptes

Eski Imaret Mosque
Küçük Mektepli Sokak 11, Zeyrek
1085

This church was the katholikon of a monastery established by Anna Dalassene in around 1085. Dedicated to Christ the All-Seeing, it is unique in the Byzantine history in that, as far as it is known, no other monastery in the empire of all those dedicated to Christ ever bore this epithet. For Anna Dalassene, the monastery was a major symbol of his family’s struggle for supremacy, which had culminated in the accession to power of his son Alexios I Komnenos in 1081. As an extremely powerful woman and the mother of the Komnenoi, she was also called Pantepoptes by her descendants. She later retired in this monastery, where she died and was buried.

The church has a cross-in-square plan, with four vaulted crossarms. It has two narthexes: the esonarthex is original, while the exonarthex may be a Palaiologan addition, replacing an open portico. Over the narthex and the two western bays of the quincunx runs a gallery, probably built for the private use of Anna Dalassene. It was endowed with two rooms and possibly connected with outside structures. Chapels may have stood above the prothesis y diaconicon. Of the original interior nothing remains, except for some red marble around the doorways and some columns.

In the exterior, elements typical of Byzantine architecture under the Macedonian dynasty (867-1056) co-exist with innovations which where to become commonplace in the Komnenian era (1081-1185). los scalloped roofline of the 12-sided dome, for example, is typical of the Macedonian architecture, while the small recessed niches in the walls represent the Komnenian period.

This church is the oldest extant building in Istanbul where the use of the recessed-brick technique puede ser visto. This technique, a trademark of the middle-period Byzantine architecture, means the placement of a band of bricks in a way that it is slightly recessed, while placing another band, as usual, on the outer line of the wall. The recessed bricks are covered with mortar, which creates the alternation of red (brick) and light-coloured (mortar) bands on the walls. In the upper parts, stone is used.

The church is also notable for the use of cloisonné masonry, i.e dressed stones laid in regular courses and framed by bricks horizontally and vertically. This technique was typical in Greek architecture of the period (cf. the Byzantine churches of Athens ), but virtually unknown in Constantinople. Decorative motifs such as sunbursts, meanders and basket-weave patterns can be found on the façades. Dog-tooth frets decorate the cornices. Unique is also the brick-tiled roofing, as in Constantinople churches were normally roofed with lead.

After the conquest of 1453, the complex was known for the soup kitchen (imaret) it housed. The mosque that the church has been converted to is still called Eski İmaret Camii, or the Mosque of the Old Soup Kitchen.

51. Chapel of the Monastery of Menodora, Metrodora and Nymphodora / Chapel of the Monastery of Kyra Martha

Manastır Mescidi (Monastery Mosque)
Turgut Özal Millet Caddesi & Karanfilli Çavuş Sokak, Topkapı
Late 11th century or the Palaiologan era

It has been speculated that this cute building, located near the Gate of Saint Romanos, was part of the Monastery of Menodora, Metrodora and Nymphodora. Others have suggested that it was an annex of the Monastery of Kyra Martha. Its size indicates that it was a chapel within a monastery rather than its katholikon.

The original plan of the building is not known. The current structure has a single nave, a tripartite bema in the east and a vaulted narthex in the west. Two carved capitals separate the naos from the narthex. Foundations of columns have been found in the naos, which may suggest that it was originally a cross-in-square building. It may have also had an exonarthex, a chapel in the south (with its own narthexes on three sides), and an open portico.

52. Church of Hagia Theodosia / Church of Hagia Euphemia in Petrio / Church of Christos Euergetes

Gül Mosque
Vakıf Mektebi Sokak 16, Ayakapı
Late 11th or early 12th century

This church has traditionally been identified as the church of the Monastery of Hagia Theodosia. Theodosia was one of the nuns who gathered on January 19, 729 to prevent the removal of the icon of Christ which stood over the Chalke Gate at the Great Palace of Constantinople. She let the man executing the order given by Emperor Leo III the Isaurian to fall from the ladder, causing his death. She was captured and executed. After the end of Iconoclasm, Theodosia was recognised as a martyr, and she soon became one of the most venerated saints in Constantinople.

It has also been argued that the building was the Church of Hagia Euphemia in Petrio. Some suggest that the church was part of the Monastery of Christos Euergetes (Christ the Benefactor).

The church lies on a high vaulted basement, which gives it an impressive look. Its masonry shows the use of the technique of the recessed brick, which makes it probable that it dates from the late 11th or early 12th century. Another element that contributes to the credibility of this dating are its side apses, which consist of five niches divided into four tiers and decorated with ornamental brickwork and a cornice. This makes the church stylistically very similar to the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator, which was built between 1118 and 1136. The plainer central apse is probably a later Byzantine reconstruction.

The church has a cross-domed plan (cf. the Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa). It is surmounted by five domes, one big in the centre and four smaller ones at the corners. The central dome, which has a low external drum and no windows, and the broad pointed arches that carry it are from the Ottoman period.

Because of the larger scale of the church, the dome was supported by piers, and not columns. The eastern piers are interesting because they contain both a small chamber. One of them may have contained the tomb of Saint Theodosia, but later also the tomb of the Ottoman saint Gül Baba according to some. (The more famous türbe of Gül Baba is located in the Rózsadomb neighbourhood in Budapest.) The inscription in Ottoman Turkish above the entrance (‘Tomb of the Apostle, disciple of Jesus, peace with him’), bears witness to the religious syncretism of the 16th-century Constantinople.

Another interesting elements is the upper gallery. It occupies three walls of the naos, running from the chapel located atop the prothesis to the one that lies above the diaconicon. It is possible that the gallery is a Palaiologan addition.

The church was turned into a mosque in around 1490. It became to be known as the Gül Mosque. That name may be explained by the presence of the tomb of Gül Baba or, more probably, by the fact that during the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453 the church was adorned with garlands of roses (‘gül’ means ‘rose’ in Turkish). The night before, Emperor Constantine XI and Patriarch Athanasius II had participated at the feast of Saint Theodosia in the church and prayed for the city. The next morning, the Ottomans found many people still gathered in the church. They took them as prisoners of war, threw away the relics and cast the body of the saint to the dogs.

53.(-55.) Monastery of Christ Pantocrator

Zeyrek Mosque
İbadethane Arkası Sokak, İbadethane Sokak & Fazilet Sokak, Zeyrek
1118-1136

In 1118, Empress Irene of Hungary founded a monastery dedicated to the Christ Pantocrator on an eastern slope of the Fourth Hill of Constantinople. To the north of its katholikon, Emperor John II Komnenos soon added another church, dedicated to the Theotokos Eleousa (Merciful Mother of God). He also built a large funerary chapel, dedicated to Archangel Michael, to connect the two churches. These three structures must have been completed by October 1136, when the typikon of the monastery, one of the very few surviving, was issued.

The monastery is special in that no other Byzantine church, only the Church of the Holy Apostles excluded, received as many imperial burials. Both John II and Irene were buried here (in 1143 and 1134, respectively), followed by Emperor Manuel I (1180) and Empress Bertha of Sulzbach (1159). The tradition continued in the Palaiologan era, when emperors Manuel II (1425) and John VIII (1448) were laid to rest here. los typikon of the monastery describes the funerary chapel as a heroon, a term reserved for the mausoleum of Constantine the Great and his successors at the Church of the Holy Apostles, showing the imperial ambitions of the Komnenoi. The reputation of the monastery was further raised, when the icon of the Theotokos Hodegetria – the city’s most revered icon – was brought here.

The complex of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator is the second largest religious edifice built by the Byzantines still standing.

Church of Christ Pantocrator (south church)

Church of Christ Pantocrator (south church)

Chapel of Archangel Michael (on the left) and Church of Theotokos Eleousa (north church on the right)

The churches are both typical examples of the Middle Byzantine architecture. They have a cross-in-square plan: a nine-bay naos, a central dome supported by four columns (changed in the Ottoman era), a tripartite bema, and a narthex. They both had a matroneum, or a women’s gallery, above the narthex. In the south church, the central bay of the matroneum is also covered by a dome. The north church has only one dome, which is oval.

The Chapel of Archangel Michael has two bays. It is possible that the bay on the east functioned as a liturgical area, while the one on the west was a funerary space. The both bays of the chapel are capped by an elliptical dome.

All the three structures have polygonal apses with windows and niches. The south church, which is larger, also has an exonarthex and a courtyard, which were added together with the north church and the chapel.

The masonry shows the use of the recessed-brick technique. It is slightly sloppy, incorporating bricks of different sizes. This may be explained by the fact that the building material comes from a much older structure, as hinted by the many Early Byzantine brick stamps that have been found here.

Brickwork on the apses of the chapel and the north church

Brickwork on the apse of the chapel

The two churches and the chapel were richly decorated. The most beautiful decorative element that remains is the colourful opus sectile suelo, covering the naos of the southern church. Motifs that are commonly found in imperial palaces can be seen here, such as birds of prey, fantastic beasts, and the wheel of the zodiac. Scenes from the life of Samson are also displayed. The floor is now, unfortunately, hidden under the carpet of the mosque.

Fragments of coloured glass have been found from the south church as well, suggesting the presence of stained-glass windows. The north church has intricate sculptural decorations, for example, on the capitals and cornices, which show traces of Armenian bole and gold leaf. Some traces of mosaics can also be found in the complex. Tambien hay spolia from the Church of Saint Polyeuctus.

Cornice and traces of mosaics in the north church

Capitals in the north church

Marble revetments in the south church

De acuerdo con la typikon, the monastery complex included a 50-bed hospital, a home for 24 elderly men, a medical school, and a leprosarium.

It has been suggested that, during the Fourth Crusade, the treasury of the monastery was raided and its contents was carried off to Venice. It may be that some panels of the Pala d’Oro, now serving as the altar retable in Saint Mark’s Basilica in Venice, comes from the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator. During the Latin occupation in 1204-1261, the monastery served as the Venetian headquarters of Constantinople.

54. Library of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator

Şeyh Süleyman Mosque
Zeyrek Caddesi 24, Zeyrek

The library of the monastery may have located 120 m south-west of the katholikon, in a building known today as the Şeyh Süleyman Mosque.

It is not clear when that building was constructed. It consists of a square substructure and a hexagonal superstructure with a dome supported by pendentives. The lower part is made of ashlar masonry, while in the upper part bricks are used. It is sometimes argued that it is a Palaiologan structure, but the masonry indicates that it is an older building. It may have been an Early Byzantine mausoleum. The pointed arches on the façade are part of an Ottoman renovation.

55. Pantocrator Cistern / Unkapanı Cistern

Atatürk Bulvarı, northeast of the katholikon
6th or early 12th century

The monastery was supplied with water by a number of cisterns. The largest of them covers an area of 18 m and 55 m. It is built inside a hill, and it has an exposed wall with a series of niches. According to some, its roots go back to the 6th century. The other cisterns here were built at the same time with the monastery.

56. Church of Hagios Ioannis Prodromos in Troullo

Hirami Ahmet Paşa Mosque
Koltukçu Sokak 4, Çarşamba
9th or 12th century

This small church dedicated to John the Baptist is located near the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos in the conservative Çarşamba neighbourhood of Istanbul. Its appellation ‘en to Troullo’ (‘trullus’ means ‘dome’ in Latin) may be related to the vicinity of a domed palace.

The church is usually dated to the 12th century. Es un cross-in-square church with a tripartite bema and a narthex. Four columns support an octagonal drum which bears the dome. The arms of the cross to the north and south are covered with barrel vaults. The central apse, which projects boldly outside, is opened by a large window, divided in three by two pillars with capitals. There are other tripartite windows that lit the interior.

Some date the church to the 9th century. This may be due to the unadorned semicircular apses y el circular drum of the dome, which were common in the provinces in the 9th and 10th centuries. Es probable que el bema extended west in some period, to include the three eastern bays of the naos. Another factor that contributes to an earlier dating is the alternation of bands of ashlar and brick, which was typical in Constantinople from the 8th to the 10th century, but not thereafter, when the recessed-brick masonry dominated.

The church had primarily a funerary purpose. The narthex had at least four arcosolia. Two more arcosolia were located in the naos.

Since 1456 the church served as a convent for nuns who had been evicted from the nearby Church of Pammakaristos, which had been made the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople. It was converted into a mosque between 1587 and 1598. The mosque has no minaret.

57. Church of Hagios Theodoros in Karbounaria

Vefa Mosque / Molla Gürani Mosque
Tirendaz Sokak, Molla Şemsettin Cami Sokak & Divan Efendi Sokak, Vefa
Church proper – 11th or 12th century exonarthex – 13th or 14th century

This church, located in the Byzantine neighbourhood named after the coal market (karbounaria), is traditionally identified as the Church of Hagios Theodoros. It is a typical middle-Byzantine church. Tiene un cross-in-square plan. Its masonry shows the use of the recessed-brick technique. The exterior has occasional decorative motifs, such as snake patterns. The apse is interrupted by windows and niches.

Several structures were added to the church in the Palaiologan era. The most important of them was the five-bay exonarthex. It has a bipartite façade. The lower part has triple arcades (originally open), while on the upper part there are windows framed by large semicircular blind arcades. The masonry consists of alternating courses of red bricks and white stones, especially remarkable on the north façade.

los exonarthex has three domes. All of these were originally covered with mosaics, traces of which survive. The best preserved is the image of the Theotokos with Child Christ surrounded by eight prophets on one of the domes. los exonarthex is further decorated with columns, capitals, and closure slabs – all reused material from the Early Byzantine period.

To the south-west corner of the church a belfry was added at the same time with the exonarthex. Similarly to the Chora Church, a two-storey annex on the north side can be found. Remains of underground cisterns have also been found under the south and west sides of the church, hinting to the existence of a monastery in the Byzantine period.

58. Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa

Kalenderhane Mosque
16 Mart Şehitleri Caddesi & Medrese Sokak, Vefa
1190s sanctuary – 6th-12th centuries

This church, constructed at the end of the 12th century, was most probably dedicated to Theotokos Kyriotissa (Enthroned Mother of God). It is one of the most impressive Middle Byzantine buildings in Istanbul.

Es un cross-domed church (like the church housing the Gül Mosque and Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki). The central bay of the naos is covered by a dome with the diameter of 8 m and with 16 ribs. Because of the larger scale of the church, the dome is supported by four massive piers instead of four slender columns as in a typical cross-in-square church. Deep barrel vaults form the side-arms of the cross. In the west, there is a narthex, which was originally surmounted by an upper gallery, like in the churches of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator. Un exonarthex was later added to the structure.

The interior is dominated by polychrome marble panels and mouldings. Only a third of these seen today are original. The rest is either secondary revetment or plaster imitating marble.

The masonry of the church is made of alternating layers of brick and stone.

The oldest parts of the church are the bema, los prothesis, y el diaconicon. los prothesis is the apse of a church that was built on this site in the 6th century. That church may have been connected to a 4th- or 5th-century bathhouse. los bema of the 12th-century church uses the apse from a church which was built in the 7th century south of the older church. los diaconicon consists of two chapels, known as the Francis Chapel y Melismos Chapel, built in the Middle Byzantine period before the main church. The masonry of the Francis Chapel is similar to that of the northern church of the Monastery of Lips. The Melismos Chapel is made in the recessed-brick technique, which was common from the late 11th century on.

los bema was home to a mosaico representing the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple. It probably comes from the earlier church and dates back to the 6th or 7th century, being the only surviving religious mosaic from the pre-Iconoclastic period in Constantinople, y el earliest surviving representation of the hypapante in Byzantine art.

Mosaic of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple from the Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa (late 6th or early 7th century Istanbul Archaeology Museum)

The Francis Chapel housed a fresco cycle portraying the life of Saint Francis of Assisi. It is the oldest representation of the saint, painted only some years after his death, in the mid-13th century, when the church was being used by the Franciscans. The fresco cycle, too, can be found in the Istanbul Archaeology Museums.

After the Fall of Constantinople the church was given by Sultan Mehmed II to the Kalenderi sect of dervishes, after whom today’s mosque is named.


Opus Sectile Flooring [Rosettes] - History

A reconstructed tile from the Second Temple.. (photo credit:ZACHI DVIRA/TEMPLE MOUNT SIFTING PROJECT)

For the first time since its destruction at the hands of the Roman Empire 2,000 years ago, archaeologists announced on Tuesday that they have reconstructed several floor tiles from Jerusalem’s Second Temple’s courtyard.

According to Dr. Gabriel Barkay and Zachi Dvira, co-founders and co-directors of the Temple Mount Sifting Project, the reconstruction is unprecedented.

“This represents the first time that archaeologists have been able to successfully restore an element from the Herodian Second Temple complex,” said Dvira at an unveiling of the tiles at the project’s headquarters in Tzurim Valley National Park, located on the western slopes of Mount Scopus.

The regally-designed ancient tiles likely featured prominently in the courtyards of the holy Temple during King Herod’s reign between 37 to 4 BCE, added Barkay.

“It enables us to get an idea of the Temple’s incredible splendor,” he said.

The Temple Mount Sifting Project, supported by the City of David Foundation and the Israel Archaeology Foundation, was established in response to the illegal removal of tons of antiquities-rich earth from the Temple Mount by the Islamic Waqf in 1999.

It is run under the auspices of Bar-Ilan University and the Israel Parks & Nature Authority.

Frankie Snyder, a member of the Temple Mount Sifting Project’s team of researchers, and an expert in the study of ancient Herodian-style flooring, said they succeeded in restoring the ornate tile patterns using geometric principles, and through similarities found in tile design used by Herod at other sites.

“This type of flooring, called ‘opus sectile’ (Latin for ‘cut work’) is very expensive, and was considered to be far more prestigious than mosaic tiled floors,” said Snyder, who has an academic background in mathematics and Judaic Studies.

“So far, we have succeeded in restoring seven potential designs of the majestic flooring that decorated the buildings of the Temple Mount,” added Snyder, noting that there were no opus sectile floors in Israel prior to the time of King Herod.

“The tile segments were perfectly inlaid, such that one could not even insert a sharp blade between them,” he explained.

To date, approximately 600 colored stone floor tile segments have been uncovered, with more than 100 of them definitively dated to the Herodian Second Temple Period.

“This style of flooring is consistent with those found in Herod’s palaces at Masada, Herodian, and Jericho, among others – as well as in majestic palaces and villas in Italy, also attributed to the time of Herod,” said Snyder.

The tile segments – mostly imported from Rome, Asia Minor, Tunisia, and Egypt – were created from polished multicolored stones, cut in a variety of geometric shapes.

“A key characteristic of the Herodian tiles is their size, which corresponds to the Roman foot, approximately 29.6 cm,” noted Snyder.

The possibility that large expanses of the Temple Mount during the Second Temple Period were covered with opus sectile flooring was first raised in 2007 by archaeologist Assaf Avraham, director of the Jerusalem Walls National Park, with the Israel Nature and Parks Authority.

Avraham’s theory was based on a description given by the Romano-Jewish historian Josephus (1st Century CE), who wrote, “…the uncovered [Temple Mount courtyard] was completely paved with stones of various types and colors… (The Jewish War 5:2).”

Moreover, Talmudic literature records the meticulously-planned construction of the Temple Mount, describing rows of marble in different colors, including green, blue and white.

“Now, as a result of Frankie Snyder’s mathematical skills, we have succeeded in recreating the actual tile patterns,” said Barkay.

“Referring to the Temple that Herod built, the Talmud says that, ‘Whoever has not seen Herod’s building, has not seen a beautiful building in his life,’” he continued. “Though we have not merited seeing the Temple in its glory, with the discovery and restoration of these unique floor tiles, we are now able to have a deeper understanding and appreciation for the Second Temple, even through this one distinctive characteristic.”

Since the Temple Mount Sifting Project’s inception in 2004, more than 200,000 volunteers from around the world have taken part in the sifting, representing an unprecedented phenomenon in the realm of archaeological research.

The restored tiles will be presented to the general public on Thursday at the 17th Annual City of David Archaeological Conference.


Mus e de Beaux-Arts et d'Arch ologie de Vienne: bronze statue of Caius Julius Pacatianus (?) and an ivory jewel box in the foreground

The museums of Saint-Pierre and Saint-Romain-en-Gal are not the only ones at Vienne which show works of art of the Roman period. A limited number of relatively small exhibits are on display in a museum which was inaugurated in 1895 mainly to house paintings and faience. The statue of Pacatianus was found in 1874 broken into very many small pieces. Similar to that of the God of Coligny at Lyon it was reassembled. The head is clearly too small for the body, so either the fragments belonged to two statues or the head (which is less old than the body) replaced a previous one. A separate bronze inscription which was found in the same location suggested that the statue portrayed Caius Julius Pacatianus, a magistrate from Vienne who held many offices at the time of Emperor Septimius Severus and was the patron of Italica, but the inscription could refer to another statue.


Ver el vídeo: Cortes perfectos Opus sectile. Mariposa