Thomas Graham - Historia

Thomas Graham - Historia

Thomas Graham

(Tr: t. 202; 1. 115'6 "; b. 22'2" 'dph. 12'2 ", s. 10 k.; Cl." Strath')

Thomas Graham, un arrastrero de vapor de tornillo con casco de acero construido en 1918 en Bowling, Escocia, por Scott and Sons, para el Almirantazgo británico, fue alquilado por la Marina para el servicio con el Destacamento de Barreminas del Mar del Norte en mayo de 1919. Con sede en Kirkwall, Escocia , sirvió con el destacamento en el verano de 1919. Aparentemente, el último deber oficial del barco era transportar el cuerpo del Capitán Roscoe C. Bulmer, el comandante del Destacamento de Barrido de Minas del Mar del Norte, desde Kirkwall a Inverness, Escocia. El capitán Bulmer había resultado gravemente herido en un accidente automovilístico en Kirkwall el 4 de agosto de 1919 y había muerto a bordo del Black Nawk (Destroyer Tender No. 9) al día siguiente.

Thomas Graham fue devuelto al Almirantazgo el 7 de agosto.


Navegación

Elizabeth Graham, mi abuela esposa de James Graham Glenwherry, su bisabuelo Alex Graham participó en el ataque al cuartel militar de Belfast en 1737, y el folklore dice que él fue el hombre que mató a tiros al soberano (alcalde) durante el ' Heart's Of Steel 'disturbios, por lo que su familia se hizo conocida durante generaciones como el "Sovereign Graham's".

Ann Graham, primera de los tres hijos de Elizabeth y James

Richard Graham, sirvió en 1st W.W. segundo hijo de Elizabeth y James. Más tarde fue OC del I.R.A durante los pogromos en Ballinahinch, Co. Down. Década de 1920. En los EE. UU. Se unió a Cathal O'Byrne, como apoyo musical de Cathal para recaudar fondos a través de conciertos itinerantes para recaudar dinero allí para construir casas para los católicos que habían sido quemados de sus hogares en el pogromo, Amcomria Street, Beechmount era una de esas calles de casas nuevas.

Mi padre de 17 años en Los Ángeles

James Graham, mi padre, tercer hijo de Elizabeth y James, sirvió en el ejército irlandés.

Catherine 'Kitty' Graham (de soltera Mullan), mi madre y criada en Ardoyne. Su familia se originó en el condado de Toomebridge, Antrim. Provenía de un orgulloso origen republicano católico irlandés. Fue nombrada en honor a su abuela Catherine Mullan.

Mi hermana Bridie, la mayor de 12 hijos

Mi hermana patsy

Mi hermana Elizabeth. (Betty)

Mi hermano Richard, Richard escapó de la prisión de Crumlin Road en Belfast el 7 de junio de 1957, una prisión que en ese momento se decía que era la más segura de Irlanda y el Reino Unido. Muy individualista y no conformista.

Mi hermana annie

Mi hermano paddy

Mi hermana Myrtle, 1965

Mi hermana geraldine

Mi hermana Myrtle Doris, 1951

Mis hermanos, gemelos, Brian y amperio Noel

James Graham, mi padre, muy orgulloso católico irlandés pero igualmente orgulloso de sus raíces presbiterianas irlandesas

La tumba de mi padre

Joe y su hija Deborah en la tumba de Coventry de mi padre, febrero de 2007

Joe, Richard y Brian en la tumba del padre 2007

Mi hermano Hughie en Fathers Grave

Tumba de mi madre. Ciudad del molino.

Joe Graham, abril de 1981, en Los Ángeles Radio desmiente la propaganda negra sobre los huelguistas de hambre que Adam Butler del gobierno británico y N.I.O estaban vendiendo por televisión y radio de California.

Mis nietos

Deborah y Simon

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Dr. Thomas Graham

El Dr. Graham ha estado en Flagler College desde 1973. Actualmente es Profesor Emérito de Historia en el Departamento de Humanidades.

Recibió su doctorado en historia de la Universidad de Florida en 1973. Sus títulos de maestría y licenciatura provienen de la Universidad Estatal de Florida en 1967 y 1965.

El interés de investigación del Dr. Graham se centra en la historia de los Estados Unidos del siglo XIX. Es autor de Flagler's St. Augustine Hotels (Pineapple Press, 2004), The Awakening of St. Augustine (St. Augustine Historical Society, 1978), Charles H. Jones, periodista y político de la Edad Dorada (University Press of Florida , 1990) y St. Augustine del Sr. Flagler. Jones fundó el Jacksonville, Florida Times-Union en la década de 1880.

Es ex presidente y miembro honorario vitalicio de la Sociedad Histórica de San Agustín y ha sido miembro de la Junta Directiva de la Sociedad Histórica de Florida.

Nacido en Miami en 1943, su árbol genealógico se remonta a las familias Sánchez y Álvarez hasta principios del siglo XVII en St. Augustine.


Empresa negra , Octubre de 1996, pág. 60 de septiembre de 2001, pág. 80 febrero de 2005, pág. 112.

Boston Globe , 6 de junio de 1999, pág. N5 4 de diciembre de 2001, pág. D1.

Boston Herald , 17 de mayo de 1998, pág. 67.

BusinessWeek , 9 de octubre de 2000, pág. 206 3 de octubre de 2005, pág. 48 10 de octubre de 2005, pág. 95.

Business Wire, 24 de julio de 2001.

Noticias diarias (Nueva York, NY), 20 de septiembre de 2005, pág. 54.

Noticias multicanal , 28 de enero de 2002, pág. 22W.

New York Times , 3 de abril de 1998, pág. B2 2 de mayo de 1999, sec. 3, pág. 2 18 de julio de 1999, sec. 14WC, pág. 3 de 20 de septiembre de 2005, pág. C8.


Dublin Core

Título

Descripción

En la entrevista 1, Graham habló sobre su autoría de un próximo libro sobre zonas libres de armas nucleares, las negociaciones que llevaron a la extensión del Tratado de No Proliferación Nuclear en 1995, sus recuerdos de aprender el arte de la diplomacia y el camino que tomó para convertirse en un negociador de control de armas. Luego compartió su experiencia de haber sido perseguido políticamente por su trabajo, comentó sobre el activismo antinuclear de Linus Pauling y elogió las actividades del presidente Barack Obama con respecto a la no proliferación nuclear.

A partir de ahí, Graham transmitió sus recuerdos de la negociación en nombre de múltiples administraciones presidenciales y habló de su trabajo para prohibir el uso de armas químicas y biológicas. La entrevista concluyó con los pensamientos de Graham sobre el cambio climático, incluido el papel crucial que podría desempeñar la energía nuclear en la reducción de la dependencia mundial de los combustibles fósiles.

De 1970 a 1997, el Embajador Graham participó en la negociación de todos los acuerdos importantes de control de armas y no proliferación que involucraban a los Estados Unidos. Durante este mismo período de tiempo, participó en discusiones diplomáticas con representantes de más de cien países.


Dublin Core

Título

Descripción

En la entrevista 2, Graham habló sobre sus primeros años, incluida la participación de su familia en la política, la configuración de su perspectiva política y su primer trabajo en derecho y gobierno. Luego comentó sobre el intento, en 1993, de eliminar la Agencia de Control de Armas y Desarme (ACDA), la lucha de la era Reagan por el tratado de misiles antibalísticos que fue iniciado por el avance de la Iniciativa de Defensa Estratégica, también conocida como & quotStar Wars & quot y sus propios recuerdos personales de ser denunciados por enemigos políticos que abrigaban intereses creados contra su trabajo. A continuación, reflexionó sobre la disolución final de ACDA en 1999 y el papel desempeñado por el senador Jesse Helms en provocar la desaparición de la agencia.

Más adelante en la sesión, Graham habló de su participación en un grupo llamado Republicanos por Obama y brindó un largo recuerdo de las negociaciones que llevaron a la firma y ratificación del Tratado sobre Fuerzas Armadas Convencionales en Europa a principios de la década de 1990 y compartió sus recuerdos de la colapso del bloque soviético en Europa del Este, incluida su experiencia personal al observar la salida final de los ministros comunistas de Praga. La entrevista concluyó con las reflexiones de Graham sobre el papel que desempeñó la ACDA en la defensa de la moratoria de la prohibición de los ensayos nucleares, incluida una decisión fundamental relacionada con las ambiciones chinas de ensayos nucleares. También respondió a una pregunta final en la que pedía un consejo que ofrecería a quienes esperaban librar al mundo de las armas nucleares.

De 1970 a 1997, el Embajador Graham participó en la negociación de todos los acuerdos importantes de control de armas y no proliferación que involucraban a los Estados Unidos. Durante este mismo período de tiempo, participó en discusiones diplomáticas con representantes de más de cien países.


Thomas Graham - Historia

Algunas de las propiedades físicas de los gases dependen de la identidad del gas. Una de estas propiedades físicas se puede ver cuando se estudia el movimiento de los gases.

En 1829, Thomas Graham utilizó un aparato similar al que se muestra en la Figura 4.15 para estudiar la difusión de gases, la velocidad a la que se mezclan dos gases. Este aparato consiste en un tubo de vidrio sellado en un extremo con yeso que tiene orificios lo suficientemente grandes como para permitir que un gas entre o salga del tubo. Cuando el tubo está lleno de H2 gas, el nivel de agua en el tubo aumenta lentamente porque el H2 las moléculas del interior del tubo escapan a través de los orificios del yeso más rápidamente de lo que las moléculas del aire pueden entrar en el tubo. Al estudiar la velocidad a la que cambiaba el nivel del agua en este aparato, Graham pudo obtener datos sobre la velocidad a la que los diferentes gases se mezclaban con el aire.

Graham descubrió que la velocidad a la que los gases se difunden es inversamente proporcional a la raíz cuadrada de sus densidades.

Esta relación finalmente se conoció como la ley de difusión de Graham.

Para comprender la importancia de este descubrimiento, debemos recordar que volúmenes iguales de gases diferentes contienen el mismo número de partículas. Como resultado, el número de moles de gas por litro a una temperatura y presión determinadas es constante, lo que significa que la densidad de un gas es directamente proporcional a su peso molecular. Por lo tanto, la ley de difusión de Graham también se puede escribir de la siguiente manera.

Se obtuvieron resultados similares cuando Graham estudió la velocidad de efusión de un gas, que es la velocidad a la que el gas escapa a través de un orificio hacia el vacío. La velocidad de efusión de un gas también es inversamente proporcional a la raíz cuadrada de la densidad o del peso molecular del gas.

La ley de derrame de Graham se puede demostrar con el aparato que se muestra a continuación. Un matraz de filtro de pared gruesa se evacua con una bomba de vacío. Se llena una jeringa con 25 ml de gas y se mide con un cronómetro el tiempo necesario para que el gas escape a través de la aguja de la jeringa al matraz con filtro evacuado. Los datos experimentales de la siguiente tabla se obtuvieron utilizando una aguja especial con un orificio muy pequeño (0,015 cm) a través del cual podía escapar el gas.

El tiempo necesario para que muestras de 25 ml de diferentes gases escapen a través de un orificio de 0,015 cm hacia el vacío

Compuesto Hora (s) Peso molecular
H2 5.1 2.02
Él 7.2 4.00
NUEVA HAMPSHIRE3 14.2 17.0
aire 18.2 29.0
O2 19.2 32.0
CO2 22.5 44.0
ASI QUE2 27.4 64.1

Como podemos ver cuando estos datos se grafican a continuación, el tiempo requerido para que muestras de 25 mL de diferentes gases escapen al vacío es proporcional a la raíz cuadrada del peso molecular del gas. los índice en el que los gases se derraman es, por tanto, inversamente proporcional a la raíz cuadrada del peso molecular. Las observaciones de Graham acerca de la velocidad a la que los gases se difunden (se mezclan) o se derraman (escapan a través de un orificio) sugieren que las partículas de gas relativamente ligeras como el H2 Las moléculas o átomos de He se mueven más rápido que las partículas de gas relativamente pesadas como el CO2 más o menos2 moléculas.

Una gráfica del tiempo requerido para que las muestras de 25 mL de diferentes gases escapen a un matraz de vacío versus la raíz cuadrada del peso molecular del gas. Las moléculas relativamente pesadas se mueven más lentamente y el gas tarda más en escapar.

La teoría cinética molecular se puede utilizar para explicar los resultados que obtuvo Graham cuando estudió la difusión y efusión de gases. La clave de esta explicación es el último postulado de la teoría cinética, que asume que la temperatura de un sistema es proporcional a la energía cinética promedio de sus partículas y nada más. En otras palabras, la temperatura de un sistema aumenta si y solo si hay un aumento en la energía cinética promedio de sus partículas.

Dos gases, como H2 y O2, a la misma temperatura, por tanto, debe tener la misma energía cinética media. Esto se puede representar mediante la siguiente ecuación.

Esta ecuación se puede simplificar multiplicando ambos lados por dos.

Luego se puede reorganizar para dar lo siguiente.

Sacar la raíz cuadrada de ambos lados de esta ecuación da una relación entre la razón de las velocidades a las que se mueven los dos gases y la raíz cuadrada de la razón de sus pesos moleculares.

Esta ecuación es una forma modificada de la ley de Graham. Sugiere que la velocidad (o tasa) a la que se mueven las moléculas de gas es inversamente proporcional a la raíz cuadrada de sus pesos moleculares.


Historia de Graham, escudo familiar y escudos de armas

La distinguida familia Graham, que está profundamente entretejida en el intrincado tapiz de la historia escocesa, encuentra su origen en el orgulloso pueblo normando. El nombre proviene del lugar Grantham en Lincolnshire, registrado en Domesday Book como Graham.

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Los primeros orígenes de la familia Graham

El apellido Graham se encontró por primera vez en Midlothian, donde se establecieron después de acompañar al conde David de Huntingdon a Escocia durante el siglo XII. En 1128, el rey David I otorgó las tierras de Abercorn y Dalkeith a William de Graham, quien es el primer miembro registrado del Clan Graham en Escocia y fue testigo de varias cartas reales.

Henry de Graham heredó las propiedades de su suegro en Eskdale en 1243. Sir John de Grahame fue un fiel compañero del patriota escocés Sir William Wallace y murió en la batalla de Falkirk en 1298.

"[Grahamston] deriva su nombre de Sir John the Graham, quien fue asesinado aquí en la batalla que peleó Wallace con Edward I." [1]

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Historia temprana de la familia Graham

Esta página web muestra solo un pequeño extracto de nuestra investigación de Graham. Otras 422 palabras (30 líneas de texto) que cubren los años 1086, 1128, 1237, 1298, 1488, 1427, 1707, 1450, 1603, 1715, 1745, 1782, 1464, 1513, 1505, 1548, 1608, 1612, 1650, 1648, 1689, 1648, 1695, 1634, 1694, 1702, 1680, 1689 y se incluyen bajo el tema Historia temprana de Graham en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible.

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Variaciones ortográficas de Graham

Las variaciones ortográficas de este apellido incluyen: Graham, Grahame, Graeme, Grame, Greumach (gaélico), Montross y muchos más.

Primeros notables de la familia Graham (antes de 1700)

Notable entre la familia en este momento era William Graham, cuarto Lord Graham (1464-1513), quien se convirtió en el Conde de Montrose en 1505 John Graham (1548-1608), Tercer Conde de Montrose fue el Canciller de la Universidad de St Andrews James Graham (1612-1650), quinto conde y primer marqués de Montrose, un general escocés en las guerras civiles inglesas, que luchó por los realistas de Carlos.
Otras 63 palabras (4 líneas de texto) se incluyen bajo el tema Notables tempranos de Graham en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible.

Migración de la familia Graham a Irlanda

Algunos miembros de la familia Graham se mudaron a Irlanda, pero este tema no se trata en este extracto.
Otras 62 palabras (4 líneas de texto) sobre su vida en Irlanda se incluyen en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible.

Migración de Graham +

Algunos de los primeros pobladores de este apellido fueron:

Colonos de Graham en Estados Unidos en el siglo XVII
  • Ant Graham que se estableció en Virginia en 1651
  • Y Graham, que llegó a Virginia en 1651 [2]
  • Donell Graham, quien aterrizó en Virginia en 1655 [2]
  • Elizabeth Graham, quien aterrizó en Maryland en 1676 [2]
  • Jane Graham, quien aterrizó en Maryland en 1677 [2]
  • . (Hay más disponibles en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible).
Colonos de Graham en Estados Unidos en el siglo XVIII
  • Francis Graham, quien aterrizó en Nueva Inglaterra en 1719 [2]
  • Jo Graham, quien se instaló en Georgia en 1733
  • Catharine Graham, quien llegó a Nueva York, NY en 1738 [2]
  • Eliz Graham, quien llegó a Nueva York en 1738 [2]
  • Angus Graham, quien llegó a Nueva York en 1740 [2]
  • . (Hay más disponibles en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible).
Colonos de Graham en Estados Unidos en el siglo XIX
  • James W Graham, que aterrizó en Nueva York en 1801 [2]
  • Alexander Graham, de 34 años, que aterrizó en Nueva York, NY en 1803 [2]
  • Humphry Graham, de 50 años, que llegó a Filadelfia, Pensilvania en 1804 [2]
  • Gilbert Graham, quien aterrizó en Estados Unidos en 1804 [2]
  • Joanna Graham, quien aterrizó en Estados Unidos en 1805 [2]
  • . (Hay más disponibles en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible).

Migración de Graham a Canadá +

Algunos de los primeros pobladores de este apellido fueron:

Colonos de Graham en Canadá en el siglo XVIII
  • Augustine Graham, quien llegó a Nueva Escocia en 1749
  • Donald Graham, quien aterrizó en Nueva Escocia en 1773
  • Donald Graham, quien llegó a Pictou, Nueva Escocia en 1773.
  • Sr. Mires Graham U.E. (n. 1764) que llegó a Annapolis Royal, condado de Annapolis, Nueva Escocia c. 1782 murió en 1833 en Centreville, condado de Digby, Nueva Escocia, casado con Anna Waggoner tuvieron 4 hijos [3]
  • Sr. Oliver Graham U.E. que se estableció en el Distrito Este [Cornwall], Ontario c. 1784 [3]
  • . (Hay más disponibles en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible).
Colonos de Graham en Canadá en el siglo XIX
  • Elizabeth Graham, quien llegó a Nueva Escocia en 1814
  • Elizabeth Graham, quien aterrizó en Nueva Escocia en 1821
  • Duncan Graham, quien llegó a Canadá en 1832
  • Sarah Graham, de 40 años, que llegó a Saint John, New Brunswick en 1833 a bordo del bergantín & quotWilliam & quot de Cork, Irlanda.
  • Catherine Graham, de 18 años, que llegó a Saint John, New Brunswick a bordo del barco & quotQuintin Leitch & quot en 1833.
  • . (Hay más disponibles en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible).

Migración de Graham a Australia +

La emigración a Australia siguió a las Primeras Flotas de convictos, comerciantes y primeros colonos. Los primeros inmigrantes incluyen:

Los colonos de Graham en Australia en el siglo XIX
  • Sr. John Graham, (n. 1786), de 15 años, convicto irlandés que fue condenado en Dublín, Irlanda durante 7 años, transportado a bordo del & quotAtlas & quot el 29 de noviembre de 1801, llegando a Nueva Gales del Sur, Australia, murió en 1859 [4 ]
  • Miss. Mary Ann Graham, convicta irlandesa que fue condenada en Cork, Irlanda durante 7 años, transportada a bordo del & quotAtlas & quot el 29 de noviembre de 1801, llegando a Nueva Gales del Sur, Australia [4]
  • Sr. John Graham, convicto escocés que fue condenado en Perth, Escocia durante 14 años, transportado a bordo del & quotCaledonia & quot el 19 de junio de 1822, llegando a Tasmania (Tierra de Van Diemen) [5]
  • Thomas Graham, un ebanista, que llegó a Nueva Gales del Sur, Australia, en algún momento entre 1825 y 1832.
  • William Graham, un tejedor, que llegó a Van Diemen & # 8217s Land (ahora Tasmania) en algún momento entre 1825 y 1832
  • . (Hay más disponibles en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible).

Migración de Graham a Nueva Zelanda +

La emigración a Nueva Zelanda siguió los pasos de los exploradores europeos, como el Capitán Cook (1769-70): primero llegaron los marineros, balleneros, misioneros y comerciantes. En 1838, la Compañía Británica de Nueva Zelanda había comenzado a comprar tierras a las tribus maoríes y a venderlas a los colonos y, después del Tratado de Waitangi en 1840, muchas familias británicas emprendieron el arduo viaje de seis meses desde Gran Bretaña a Aotearoa para comenzar. una nueva vida. Los primeros inmigrantes incluyen:

Los colonos de Graham en Nueva Zelanda en el siglo XIX
  • Thomas Graham, quien aterrizó en Bay of Islands, Nueva Zelanda en 1836
  • David Graham, quien aterrizó en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda en 1840
  • George Graham, quien aterrizó en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda en 1840
  • W S Graham, quien aterrizó en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda en 1840
  • Sr. Graham, colono australiano que viaja desde Sydney a bordo del barco & quotBee & quot que llega a Bay of Islands, Isla Norte, Nueva Zelanda en 1840 [6]
  • . (Hay más disponibles en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible).

Notables contemporáneos de nombre Graham (posterior a 1700) +

  • Katharine Meyer Graham (1917-2001), editora estadounidense de The Washington Post, sus memorias, Historia personal, ganó el Premio Pulitzer en 1998 y recibió la Medalla Presidencial de la Libertad.
  • Martha Graham (1894-1991), bailarina, coreógrafa estadounidense y ganadora de la Medalla Presidencial de la Libertad
  • William Franklin & quotBilly & quot Graham KBE Jr. (1918-2018), evangelista cristiano evangélico estadounidense y ministro bautista del sur ordenado, anfitrión de las cruzadas anuales Billy Graham (1947-2005), asesor espiritual de todos los presidentes desde Harry Truman hasta Barack Obama
  • Julia & quotJulie & quot Graham (n. 1965), actriz de cine y televisión escocesa, conocida por sus papeles en The Bletchley Circle y Shetland
  • Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham (1852-1936), autor y político escocés
  • Elizabeth Jennings Graham (1827-1901), figura estadounidense de los derechos civiles que insistió en su derecho a viajar en un tranvía de la ciudad de Nueva York en 1854, lo que llevó a la desegregación de los sistemas de tránsito de la ciudad de Nueva York.
  • Andrew Alexander Kenny & quotAlec & quot Graham (1929-2021), obispo anglicano inglés de la Diócesis de Newcastle (1981-1997)
  • Lawrence Otis Graham (1961-2021), abogado estadounidense y autor más vendido del New York Times
  • Ronald Lewis Graham (1935-2020), matemático estadounidense acreditado por la American Mathematical Society como "uno de los principales arquitectos del rápido desarrollo mundial de las matemáticas discretas en los últimos años"
  • Chuck Graham (1965-2020), político estadounidense en el Partido Demócrata
  • . (Otros 32 notables están disponibles en todos nuestros productos PDF Extended History y productos impresos siempre que sea posible).

Eventos históricos para la familia Graham +

Vuelo 1285 de Arrow Air
  • Sr. Thomas Lyle Graham (n. 1958), especialista estadounidense de cuarta clase de Jacksonville, Florida, EE. UU., Que murió en el accidente [7]
  • Sr. Kelly O Graham (n. 1966), especialista estadounidense de cuarta clase de San José, California, EE. UU., Que murió en el accidente [7]
Emperatriz de Irlanda
  • Sra. Elizabeth Graham (1868-1914), n & # 233e Humphreys Pasajera británica de primera clase que regresaba de Hong Kong, China, que viajaba a bordo del Emperatriz de Irlanda y murió en el hundimiento [8]
  • Sr. Walter Graham (1859-1914), pasajero británico de primera clase que regresaba de Hong Kong, China, que viajaba a bordo del Emperatriz de Irlanda y murió en el hundimiento [8]
Vuelo TWA 800
  • Sr. Steven K. Graham (1958-1996), 38 años, de Napa, California, EE. UU., Director de marketing estadounidense a bordo del vuelo TWA 800 de J.F.K. Desde el aeropuerto de Nueva York al aeropuerto Leonardo da Vinci de Roma, cuando el avión se estrelló después del despegue, murió en el accidente [9]
Explosión de Halifax
  • Francis & # 160 Graham (1892-1917), herrero canadiense en Halifax Graving Dock de Dartmouth, Nueva Escocia, Canadá, que murió en la explosión [10]
  • Sra. Florence & # 160 Graham (1894-1917), residente canadiense de Halifax, Nueva Escocia, Canadá, que murió en la explosión [10]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Sr. George Albert Graham (1920-1941), marinero ordinario australiano de Belmore, Nueva Gales del Sur, Australia, que navegó a la batalla a bordo del HMAS Sydney II y murió en el hundimiento [11]
Capucha HMS
  • Sr. Donald Graham (n. 1916), asistente de suministros inglés que sirve para la Royal Navy de Portsmouth, Hampshire, Inglaterra, quien navegó hacia la batalla y murió en el hundimiento [12]
HMS Príncipe de Gales
  • Sr. William Marcus Graham, teniente británico, quien navegó a la batalla en el HMS Prince of Wales y sobrevivió al hundimiento [13]
  • Sr. William Graham, marinero británico capaz, que navegó a la batalla en el HMS Prince of Wales y sobrevivió al hundimiento [13]
  • Sr. Alastair Kennedy Douglas Graham, guardiamarina pagador británico, quien navegó a la batalla en el HMS Prince of Wales y sobrevivió al hundimiento [13]
HMS Repulse
HMS Royal Oak
  • Samuel Graham (m. 1939), marinero británico de la Royal Navy Reserve a bordo del HMS Royal Oak cuando fue torpedeado por el U-47 y hundido murió en el hundimiento [15]
  • Philip William Colles Graham (1920-1939), guardiamarina británico con la Royal Navy a bordo del HMS Royal Oak cuando fue torpedeado por el U-47 y hundido murió en el hundimiento [15]
  • George Munroe Graham (1922-1939), niño británico de primera clase con la Royal Navy a bordo del HMS Royal Oak cuando fue torpedeado por el U-47 y hundido murió en el hundimiento [15]
Dama del lago
  • Miss Jane Graham (n. 1817), viajera irlandesa de Coleraine, Irlanda del Norte, que navegó a bordo del `` Lady of the Lake '' desde Greenock, Escocia, el 8 de abril de 1833 a Quebec, Canadá, cuando el barco chocó contra el hielo y se hundió en la costa de Terranova en el 11 de mayo de 1833 y murió en el hundimiento
  • Miss Mary Ann Graham (n. 1815), viajera que navegó a bordo del `` Lady of the Lake '' desde Greenock, Escocia, el 8 de abril de 1833 a Quebec, Canadá, cuando el barco chocó contra el hielo y se hundió en la costa de Terranova el 11 de mayo de 1833 y ella murió en el hundimiento
RMS Lusitania
  • Sr. Gordon Graham, pasajero estadounidense de tercera clase de San Francisco, California, EE. UU., Que navegó a bordo del RMS Lusitania y murió en el hundimiento [16]
RMS Titanic
  • Sr. Thomas G. Graham, 28 años, bombero / fogonero irlandés de Belfast, Irlanda, que trabajó a bordo del RMS Titanic y sobrevivió al hundimiento [17]
  • Sra. Edith Ware Graham, (n & # 233e Junkins), 59 años, pasajera estadounidense de primera clase de Greenwich, Connecticut, que navegó a bordo del RMS Titanic y sobrevivió al hundimiento en el bote salvavidas 3 [17]
  • Miss Margaret Edith Graham, de 19 años, pasajera estadounidense de primera clase de Greenwich, Connecticut, que navegó a bordo del RMS Titanic y sobrevivió al hundimiento en el bote salvavidas 3 [17]
  • Sr. George Edward Graham (m. 1912), 38 años, pasajero canadiense de primera clase de Winnipeg, Manitoba, que navegó a bordo del RMS Titanic y murió en el hundimiento y fue recuperado por CS Mackay-Bennett [17]
SS Alcoa Puritan
  • B.F. Graham, marinero estadounidense capaz de Mobile, Alabama, que trabajaba a bordo del SS Alcoa Puritan viajando desde Puerto España, Trinidad a Mobile, Alabama cuando fue torpedeado por el submarino U-507 y sobrevivió al hundimiento [18]
USS Arizona
  • El Sr. Donald A. Graham, piloto de primera clase del maquinista de aviación estadounidense que trabajaba a bordo del barco "USS Arizona" cuando se hundió durante el ataque japonés a Pearl Harbor el 7 de diciembre de 1941, sobrevivió al hundimiento [19]

Historias relacionadas +

El lema de Graham +

El lema era originalmente un grito de guerra o eslogan. Los lemas comenzaron a mostrarse con armas en los siglos XIV y XV, pero no fueron de uso general hasta el siglo XVII. Por lo tanto, los escudos de armas más antiguos generalmente no incluyen un lema. Los lemas rara vez forman parte de la concesión de armas: en la mayoría de las autoridades heráldicas, un lema es un componente opcional del escudo de armas y se puede agregar o cambiar a voluntad, muchas familias han optado por no mostrar un lema.

Lema: Ne oublie
Traducción del lema: No lo olvide.


HistoryLink.org

En 1928, Thomas Graham (1868-1946) escribió una serie de artículos en el Examinador de Colville titulado “Hace 50 años”, relatando sus experiencias y observaciones cuando era adolescente en el Valle de Colville. Las memorias que siguen están extraídas de Colección Colville, Libro uno, compilado por Patrick J. Graham (Colville: Colville Examiner, 1989), 79-120. Se reproducen con el amable permiso del Sr. Graham. El material entre paréntesis ha sido resumido del texto o proporcionado para aclaración por HistoryLink.org. Las memorias de Tom Graham brindan una fascinante visión de primera mano de la vida de los pioneros en Colville Valley.

Antecedentes de Thomas Graham y su memoria

La familia de Thomas Graham había llegado al condado de Stevens desde el condado de Monaghan en Irlanda el 14 de octubre de 1878, asistida por James Monaghan (1839-1916), que era hermano de la madre de Tom, Rosanna Graham. El padre de Tom, también Thomas Graham, había emigrado de Escocia a Irlanda, donde se casó con Rosanna Monaghan. La familia de nueve miembros navegó de Liverpool a Nueva York, tomó el Pacífico Sur a San Francisco, luego un barco a Portland y el barco fluvial de Portland a The Dalles, donde siempre era necesario transportar las cascadas antes de continuar en barco de vapor a Wallula. . Desde allí, viajaron por el ferrocarril de madera Dr. Baker hasta Walla Walla, donde James Monoghan se reunió con la familia con dos vagones para transportarlos por Colville Road hasta el área de Colville, una distancia de más de 200 millas. Este viaje a través del puente LaPray de Monaghan sobre el río Spokane duró siete días y la familia acampó todo el camino. Pasaron una noche en la granja de Monaghan, ahora parte de Chewelah, antes de continuar hacia Pinkney City, la ciudad que creció junto al fuerte militar Colville, a poco más de tres millas al norte de la actual Colville.

Tom tenía solo 10 u 11 años cuando su familia llegó al Valle de Colville. Pasó ese invierno asistiendo al internado de la misión católica en la ubicación del actual Ward. Dejó la escuela esa primavera y lanzó su carrera como un cartero muy joven trabajando para su tío, James Monaghan, quien tenía el contrato para transportar correo tres veces a la semana entre los militares Fort Colville y Colfax, una ruta de aproximadamente 130 millas. Tom y sus hermanos un poco mayores, John y James, intercalaron el correo con las tareas domésticas en el rancho Monaghan en la tierra que ahora es la ciudad de Chewelah.

Intercalados entre los recuerdos de los incidentes de Graham hay largas listas de nombres de colonos y sus familias y la ubicación general de sus hogares. Algunos eran ex soldados que habían estado estacionados en Fort Colville, algunos eran ex empleados francocanadienses de la Compañía de la Bahía de Hudson y otros, como las familias Monaghan y Graham, eran inmigrantes de Europa o pioneros del este de los Estados Unidos. Muchas de las familias eran de sangre mixta, y los colonos varones habían tomado esposas indias. Estas listas son invaluables para los genealogistas, pero demasiado largas para reimprimirlas aquí.

Historylink ha dividido las memorias de Graham en tres partes: la primera trata de las aventuras de los hermanos Graham entregando el correo entre Spokane Falls y Fort Colville. El segundo cubre la agricultura, la ganadería y el transporte de mercancías en el Valle de Colville. El tercero relata los recuerdos de Tom Graham de los indios del valle.

Parte 1: La llegada y la ruta del correo

. Nuestra primera entrada a Pinkney City fue el domingo. Solo había una calle en la ciudad, y estaba sólidamente bordeada por indios y cayos, junto con sus jinetes; en algunos casos, dos y tres paseos por un caballo. Como el domingo era día de mercado, todos vinieron a la ciudad y, por supuesto, se vistieron con sus mejores galas. Los indios, con sus llamativas mantas y tocados, eran un espectáculo sorprendente para un grupo de novatos como nosotros.

Pronto supimos cómo se hacían las cosas en Estados Unidos. Cuando llegó el domingo, una congregación de buen tamaño, independientemente del credo, se reunió en la Iglesia Católica. . El primer sacerdote que conocimos celebrando la misa allí fue el padre Joset, un suizo que vino aquí en 1844 como uno de los asistentes a la iglesia Mission cerca de Kettle Falls. No hace falta decir que el padre [Joseph] Joset no dominaba muy bien el idioma inglés. Entonces, después de la misa, el Sr. Monaghan le preguntó a mi madre si le había gustado el sermón. Rápida como un relámpago vino la respuesta: "Estuvo bien, pero todavía no sé si nos estaba bendiciendo o maldiciéndonos". Los servicios se realizaban en esta iglesia una vez al mes, a los que asistían los soldados de la guarnición y los colonos.

. A principios de abril de 1979, dejé la escuela e hice mi primer viaje fuera de Fort Colville, llevando el correo de los Estados Unidos. . Al llegar a un punto opuesto a la actual casa de Monaghan [1928], al norte de Addy, entré en un pozo de barro que resultó casi sin fondo. En su lucha por salir del lodo, los caballos arrancaron la lengua de la diligencia y salieron del lodo. Revisando el daño y viendo que no había forma de repararlo, simplemente dejé la plataforma allí, desenganchando los caballos de la lengua. Tomé el arnés de un caballo y se lo puse al otro, y también até las dos bolsas de correo al mismo caballo. Monté el otro caballo a pelo hasta Chewelah, donde le entregué el atuendo a mi hermano John, quien hizo el viaje a Walker’s Prairie y, a su vez, entregó el correo al conductor entre ese punto y Spokane Falls. Sería bueno mencionar en este momento que el conductor en la línea de Colfax a Spokane Falls era un Sr. Yale. uno de los mejores pilotos de escenario que he visto.

. Siempre tendré un recuerdo vívido de la hospitalidad de la familia [Joseph] LaPray durante la primavera de 1883. Llevaba el correo de Estados Unidos entre Chewelah y Fort Spokane cuando me sorprendió una tormenta inusual. Después de dejar la casa de Guy Haines, la lluvia, el aguanieve y el viento eran tan fuertes que casi me congelaba mientras cruzaba Walker's Prairie. Así que fui a la casa de LaPray, en ese momento una cabaña de troncos a un cuarto de milla de la carretera principal.

Cuando me acerqué a la puerta y llamé al Sr. LaPray, salió y me ayudó a abrir mi mano izquierda para que pudiera soltar las riendas de la brida, mi ropa estaba rígida y congelada. Me ayudó a entrar en la casa, donde ardía un fuego ardiente en la gran chimenea. La Sra. La Pray hizo descongelar mi ropa mientras el Sr. La Pray estaba poniendo mi caballo en el establo. Sin tener ropa que me quedara, me acostaron desnuda mientras la Sra. LaPray secaba mi ropa.

Mientras tanto, el Sr. LaPray entró e informó que no podía desatar la bolsa de correo de la silla. Entonces, por una noche, el correo de los EE. UU. Se dejó reposar en el establo. Cuando la cena estuvo lista, me envolví en una manta y cené con la familia. .

Guy Haines fue director de correos en Walker's Prairie, cargo que ocupó durante un largo período de años. En su casa estaba una de nuestras estaciones de escenario donde generalmente transferíamos el correo de los EE. UU. Al conductor desde Spokane Falls. La casa de los Haines era un lugar de parada para todos los viajeros, donde siempre estaban seguros de una cálida bienvenida, una buena comida y una buena cama. La granja de Haines estaba ubicada en el mismo lugar donde los primeros misioneros Congregacionales, [Elkanah] Walker y [Cushing] Eells, comenzaron sus labores misionales entre los indios del condado de Stevens. . Father Eells, as he was called, as well known to all the old settlers of Stevens County. He was often a passenger on our stage. The best part of the time he drove his own rig, a sorrel horse and buggy. His kindly ways endeared him to all who met him.

. It was a standing order from Mr. Monaghan, owner of the stage line, that all priests and ministers, regardless of creed or color, were to be carried at half fare. So an incident that occurred in ’79, while in no way reflecting on the traveling ministers, will bear repeating. A minister and his wife came from Walla Walla, riding on the stage, receiving the benefits of the lower fare rates due to all [those] of his supposed calling. However, on arriving at Fort Colville or Pinkney City, their subsequent actions proved they were imposters, he being a tinhorn gambler, while the wife was just a little lower in the scale of humanity. Having them again for passengers on the return trip, this time they paid full fare with the remark from the woman that they could afford it as following the U.S. paymaster was a paying proposition.

. The next [homestead was that of] James Monaghan, where the greater part of the town site of Chewelah now stands. My parents, brothers and sisters resided on and operated the farm for some years after coming to Stevens County. There in the fall of 1879 my oldest brother, Philip, join the family, coming from Australia. It was here also that my sister Rosanna was born in the same house where my cousin, John Robert Monaghan, the hero of Samoa, was born. [James Monaghan’s son, a Navy ensign and graduate of the Naval Academy at Annapolis, was killed defending a wounded comrade during in a skirmish in Samoa in 1899. In 1906 a large statue of him was erected at Riverside and Monroe streets in Spokane.]

. It was during our residence at Chewelah that my brothers and I each took our turn in handling Uncle Sam’s mail, as well as operating the farm. In those early days my brother John was the only one of us [legally] old enough to carry the mails, as a carrier had to be 16 years old before Uncle Sam would entrust him with anything so valuable. However, the good nature of the different postmasters throughout Stevens County kept them from inquiring too closely into the age of the drivers.

. The postmaster at Spokane Falls, Sylvester Heath, had some trouble with Mr. Yale, the driver between Colfax and Spokane Falls, with the result that Mr. Yale was ordered out of the post office. Not moving as fast as the postmaster thought he should, Mr. Heath came from behind his counter and ejected Mr. Yale bodily. This was what Mr. Yale was playing for, and as soon as he got Mr. Heath out of the post office, he turned on him and gave him a good thrashing. As soon as he was able to do so, he wrote Mr. Monaghan to discharge the fighting driver. I suppose that was one of the letters that were never answered. So Mr. Heath retaliated by refusing to allow my brother James to take the mail out on the next trip, saying he was not old enough to carry the U.S. mail. Being informed by friends of what was to happen, Jim took a mail sack in each hand, hefted them, saying: “Pshaw! They ain’t heavy. I can carry both of them.” With that he put them into the stage and drove off, leaving Postmaster Heath to make the best of it. There was no more trouble after this because of our age.

Let me relate an incident that occurred in the summer of 1879. Perhaps there are still [1828] old timers living who will remember the old log bridge that spanned the Colville River at the Reid Montgomery place. Every stick in it was round logs, even to the floor. On the day of this incident a heavily laden U.S. government mule team had crossed on its way to Fort Colville. At the point where the structure crossed the main stream the heavy wagon had broken one of the outside stringers. When a few hours later my brother John crossed with the stage wagon, he drove onto the broken part, innocent of the fact that anything was amiss with the bridge.

In less time that it takes to tell it, the broken part upset into the river, taking horses, rig and driver with it. The driver escaped by swimming, and on reaching the riverbank, called for help. The neighbors working in the hay fields soon responded to his call, as did also a band of Indians, who were camped nearby. It was found one of the horses was dead. An Indian named Buckskin Jim swam to where the outfit was and unharnessed the dead horse and started the carcass down the river. He then took the live horse and swam down the river perhaps 300 yards to a point where the bank of the river was clear of brush and low enough to get the animal ashore. In the meantime, my brother, who was an excellent swimmer, had rescued the sacks of mail and brought them to our home. When postmaster James O’Neil heard of the accident, he came over there with the keys, opened the mail sacks and dried the contents in the oven over our kitchen stove. In the meantime the rig was gotten out of the river and taken across the bridge by hand. Another horse was brought from our place, and the broken parts mended, and everything was ready to finish the trip to Walker’s Prairie.

. [Another incident occurred] in the summer of 1882, while we were operating a daily stage from Spokane to Colville. Mr. Monaghan had exchanged three large mules . for nine head of horses. The animals were corralled at Wild Goose Bill’s place, where the town of Wilbur now is. Six of them were sold for cavalry horses to the U.S. government to be used at the garrison at Walla Walla. But the other three proved to be outlaws and could not be used for the same purpose, so they were sent to the Monaghan ranch at Chewelah [for my brothers and me to work with them.] We got them quiet enough to drive them on the stage, but had not had the time to break them to ride.

The arrangement of the daily stage was to bring all the passengers in [the mail stage] over the Cottonwood Road. This left the mail for the Walker’s Prairie and Deep Creek post offices to be continued as usual three times a week. There was not much mail to be carried over that route, so it was carried on horseback. . On one occasion it was found that one small sack of first class mail had been overlooked in the post office at Spokane. This, of course, was an awful breach of regulations. When it was called to my brother Jim’s attention, he undertook to remedy the mistake by taking the mail to Chewelah on horseback over the Cotton Road. But on reaching our first stage station at Peavine Jimmie’s place on the Little Spokane, he found there was nothing to ride but one of the unbroken outlaw horses.

It so happened that L. W. Meyers was there at the time with a load of freight for his own store that he operated at his home near the Colville mission. . Telling his troubles to Mr. Meyers, who himself was a splendid horseman and a great lover of horses, he assisted Jim to get the animal saddled and the sack of mail tied behind the saddle. But from the caper that the outlaw horse was cutting up, it was decided to lead the animal across the bridge spanning the Little Spokane River before mounting him, because of the fact that the land there was level and [there were] no fences or other obstructions to contend with except a stand of open timber. For a time, Mr. Meyers enjoyed the sight of a real bucking match, with horse and rider each striving for mastery. The animal finally plunged between two trees literally tearing both rider and saddle off. In spite of the shock he sustained, [Jim] held onto the lariat, so the horse did not get away from him. Mr. Meyers tried to persuade [him] to let the whole thing go to the devil, but the boy had his Irish up and would not be dissuaded, so the whole performance was gone through again.

This time the rider had proved the master, and the outlaw was ridden to Chewelah that day, and from there to Spokane by way of Walker’s Prairie and Deep Creek. On the return trip, needless to say, that horse was broken before he reached Spokane again. Mr. Meyers never forgot that incident, and when we realized there was not a single settler to be met with between the Little Spokane and the Joe Morrrell ranch near Chewelah, except our stage station three miles east of Loon Lake, it was a strenuous job for anyone to undertake.

Part 2: Farming and ranching in the Colville Valley, freighting on the Colville Road.

. Let us remember that even at that early day, that part of the Colville Valley now known as Chewelah was on the map. That point was a natural stopping place for all travelers, where they could be sure of finding all accommodations necessary to make traveling as comfortable as could be expected. If some of the people of today [1928, during the agricultural depression of the 1920s that preceded the Great Depression of the 1930s] think it impossible to eke out any existence at the time of which I write, I wonder what they would have done had they come into the valley of the Colville when those old settlers did. For instance, John Inkster came to this valley in 1848, Thomas Brown in 1854, Guy Haines in 1859, Peter King in 1851. Many others came into the Colville Valley in the early ‘60s and resided here until their deaths. How did they make a living for themselves and their families? . They were all engaged in farming, producing an abundance of all farm crops, hay, oats, wheat potatoes and other vegetables . [as well as large bands of cattle, horses, sheep, and sometimes hogs].

. In those days every settler, as well as most of the Indians, raised a great number of horses. We never thought about feeding them -- except the ones we were using. The other ones ran on the open range, and were taken up when it was necessary to break some of them to work or ride. We were all handy with a lariat in fact it was seldom necessary to throw a second time at the animal you wanted. Every boy caught and broke his own riding horse. The animal was usually ridden bareback for the simple reason that we did not have a saddle to ride.

. On the James Monaghan ranch was a large band of cattle, purchased around Colville during the time he was engaged in the mercantile business there. They were driven to Chewelah every fall and fed there during the winter. It fell to the lot of my brothers and myself to round up these cattle during the fall of 1879. Usually all range cattle would come from the range into the valley as soon as the weather commenced getting stormy, so the work of gathering them began during the last of December. We started at the John Wynne farm, where the town of Colville is now, picking them up at the different farms on the way. .

Mr. Heller had a large band of cattle. He always fed them in an open timber lot outside of his field, where a branch of Heller Creek ran through his feedlot. It took considerable hard driving to cut the cattle out from his band. In running after a large steer the animal jumped across the creek, but my horse stopped at the edge of the water so suddenly that I went over his head, but fortunately landed on the opposite bank, pretty well shaken up, but no bones broken. . Joe LaPray was probably the largest cattle raiser in the county, grazing a great many of them on the breaks of the Spokane River during the entire year.

. There was always a good market for our livestock. The hogs were used for home consumption, every settler curing his own bacon, and all extra dressed pork found a ready market at the Oppenheimer mill. . The cattle were always in demand, not only in the home market, but buyers from outside points came here to purchase them.

The late D. M. [Daniel] Drumheller of Spokane never missed a year without coming to the Colville Valley and purchasing a large band of cattle. I also remember in the summer of 1881, a young man named Thomas McKenzie came here from Montana and purchased about 700 head of steers and dry cows, at an average price of $14 a head. He drove these cattle over the old Mullan Road through Idaho, and when swimming them across the Coeur d’Alene River, near the old mission, in trying to keep them together, he was drowned in the river at that point. The cattle were held on the range at that point until his sister came and took charge of them.

Again I remember in the summer of 1894, D. M. Drumheller and associates from Wyoming purchased all the cattle available throughout Stevens County. I sold several head to this outfit and helped to deliver them to the shipping point at Spokane. We arrived in Spokane with 1,200 head of cattle just a few days after the strike on the Northern Pacific Railroad. We were unable to ship them, as there was not a wheel turning on that road. We held them on the prairie east of Spokane for three weeks, finally shipping them over the Great Northern road to Miles City [Montana], this being the nearest point at which they could be unloaded and driven to the range where they were to be kept. The average price paid for these cattle was about $22.

There was always a ready market for all grain raised in the valley. The wheat was sold to the Oppenheimer Bros. And delivered to their flourmill on the Little Pend Oreille River. The oats were delivered at the garrison of Fort Colville, being purchased by whomever had the contract to furnish such supplies to the U.S. government at that point. The wheat usually sold for $1 per bushel and oats at 50 cents per bushel. Potatoes also brought 50 cents per bushel to the grower. Hay brought $12 per ton, delivered loose at the garrison, where about 400 tons were consumed. In those days every farmer absolutely owned his livestock and farm products. There were no mortgages on their farms or livestock or crops, so the prices received were their own to do with as they pleased.

The Oppenheimer gristmill was owned by the three Oppenheimer brothers, Samuel, Joseph, and Marcus. Here the greater part of the wheat grown in the Colville Valley was manufactured into flour and other mill products. .

There were two grades of flour made at the mill. Their best brand was known as the XXX and this brand was equal to any manufactured in any part of the Northwest. The flour was shipped as far south as Walla Walla, and also to all the mining camps operating on both sides of the international line on the north. On the mill farm there was produced a large band of hogs, numbering about 200 head. These hogs were fattened, dressed and cured into the finest hams, shoulders and bacon. .

The main road to Fort Colville passed by the mill. So I was a frequent visitor there carrying their mail to and from the post office, as well as any express matter that might be shipped to the mill. The kitchen latchstring was always out, a nice slice of well cooked ham to be found in the cupboard.

. Besides their regular farm operations, every farmer had one or more four-horse teams on the road to haul freight from Walla Walla during the slack season, between the time of planting and harvesting of their crops. The prices paid for such hauling during the summer months was about 3 cents per pound. This brought to the team owner a nice sum of money on the side. The cost of the trip was small, as there was plenty of bunch grass to be found at all points along the road. There was very little grain fed on these trips, and it usually took 12 days to make the round trip. Of course the trip was not pleasant during the early spring months, when the roads were soft. In fact, I have seen the road through the Chewelah valley so bad that it took four good horses to pull an empty wagon through it. During this time it was necessary to [use Cottonwood Road rather than the main road for this portion of the trip].

Freighting during the late fall was not very pleasant, as it was no unusual thing to get caught in a snowstorm. I remember one such instance, when John Morrell got caught in a storm. He unhitched his four-horse team and tied them to the wagon to wait until the storm had passed. Taking his blankets, he got under the wagon for shelter, but during the night the horses broke loose and drifted with the storm with their harness on them. One of the horses was a bay stallion owned by his father. Not being able to get any trace horses, he struck out on foot and reached Lyons Ferry on the Snake River. When spring opened up only one of the horses could be found, that was the stallion, and he had lost all his harness but the collar, which was still on his neck.

. [I always remember] the homestead of Antoine Gendron, a former employee of the Hudson’s Bay Company, [who came to] the post about 1846. He was married to a native [Indian] woman. They were the parents of a large family. . Besides the regular farm crops, there was also raised a large band of both cattle and horses. The latchstring was always out at the Antoine Gendron home, as it was with all the old pioneers. The honesty of the settlers was never questioned in those days. Let me illustrate a few incidents in proof of this. During the time James Monaghan was in the mercantile business at old Colville he carried charge accounts, as was the custom of the period. Some years after closing his business, in looking over his old accounts, he found some of his old customers still indebted to him. Apparently he had never sent them a statement of how their accounts stood. So, during the winter of 1884, he sent a memorandum of a few of those whose names appeared on his books, asking me to see what I could do about collecting them.

The first one I approached was Mr. Gendron, who not only acknowledged the indebtedness, but also offered to deliver two tons of oats at the Monaghan ranch at Chewelah in payment of the account. I also visited Michael La Fleur on the same mission. He took me out to his horse corral and told me to pick out any horse there and give him a receipted bill, which I did. I picked out a beautiful sorrel mare, and while I was in the house writing the receipt, his boys roped the animal and helped me take her to the Chewelah ranch.

Another thing that would also illustrate the honesty of the community of those days is worth telling here. During such times as Mr. Monaghan was away from his place of business, Antoine Paradis was placed in charge of the store. When the day’s business was over, Mr. Paradis pocketed the day’s receipts and returned to his home on the west side of the Colville Valley several miles distant, always making the trip on horseback, with no thought of ever meeting a holdup man.

Part 3: Memories of Indians

. That winter, ’78-’79, I was a pupil at the Catholic Sisters’ school at the Colville Mission, now Ward. This was an Indian school with about 250 children -- all Indians and half breeds except Miss Lizzie Labrie and my sister Mary Ann -- the only white girls, and myself -- the only white boy. . I will never forget one occasion when, with an Indian boy named Edward, I played hooky from school. We roamed over the hills east of the mission. When hunger overtook us I wanted to return to school. But hunger had no terror for the Indian boy. He made out a good dinner by eating the stalks of the wild sunflowers that grew luxuriantly all over the hills. [This was probably balsamroot, which the Indians of the Northwest used as a survival food.] However, when evening came, we returned to school and took our punishment, which was going to bed without any supper.

. [In the Colville Valley, Indians and whites] did plenty of hunting, fishing, horseracing, also foot racing. I do not think any people love a horserace more than the Indians did, and they would bet the last thing they had on their favorite horse. With them it was strictly a question of the best horse winning. There was no trickery of any kind. If a race was not satisfactory, they would insist it would be run over again until it was satisfactorily settled.

I will illustrate this to show their inherent honesty. The rider [myself] with his own horse was matched against an Indian horse and the rider in a three-mile race . Just north of the present magnesite plant [at Chewelah], for the first two miles it was nip and tuck between the two horses, but toward the finish the Indian boy left me so far behind that there was no question as to who had the best horse. But unfortunately the Indian boy did not ride through the gate. I took advantage of his mistake and rode through the gate, of course winning the race. However, it was decided that the other fellow had the best horse. So all bets were paid to the Indian without any kick from anyone.

While the Indians were horseracing every day during the week, it was only on Sunday afternoon that the settlers had time to indulge in the sport. On one occasion, after an afternoon of this sport, we boys had a bay stallion that had cleaned up everything that was pitted against him. We put him in the barn for the night, but on Monday morning he was nowhere to be found. After more than a month had elapsed, the horse was found in the barn, he had been returned as quietly as he had been taken away. It transpired that the Indians had taken him . [to] use for breeding purposes. He was returned in good condition, so no questions were ever asked. This was the only thing that ever occurred between us and the Indians that might be considered unfriendly. We used to employ the Indians during the haying and harvesting season, and most of them were good workers.

Whatever failings the Indians or half-breeds might have, dishonesty was not one of them. It often happened that a freighter would break down his wagon or have some other trouble that would compel him to leave his wagon and load of freight on the road for a considerable length of time, but I have never heard of a single instance where any article on the wagon was stolen. We never thought of locking a door. The latchstring was always out. Someone might come in, eat a lunch, but nothing was ever stolen.

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James Monaghan family, ca. 1893

Courtesy Northwest Museum of Arts & Culture

Oppenheimer Mill on the Little Pend Oreille River, ca. 1880


History of the Graham Family

The treatment and torture dealt out to these pious religious people, who held tenaciously to the principles of the Presbyterian faith, by the [2] church of England, under the false cloak of religion, would of itself fill a volume much larger than that contemplated in these pages, and reference is merely made to show the stern and unwavering character of a people who were driven from post to pillar, and suffered almost unendurable hardships and degradations, rather than depart from a principle which they believed to be the teachings of the Bible, as well as having the approval of their conscience. Thus, more than two centuries ago our ancestral parents left their beautiful homes in their native land, and looking for the last time on the green sloping swords of the Grampian Hills and bid farewell forever to the graves of their fathers and mothers, and left behind all that was near and dear to them, even as their own lovely Scotland, and took up their march for the Emerald Isle, in the vain hope that the persecutions and trials which had hitherto made life hideous, would cease and they would be free to exercise their faith[,] which had so long been the desire of their conscience. [3] But alas! for human expectations. Their sojourn is but for a while, until the broad and inviting land across the Atlantic bade them once more take up their line of march and plant their homes in the New World, where they would be free to worship God according to the dictates of their own conscience, unhindered by church or state. Among the many families who thus emigrated from Scotland to Ireland and later from Ireland to America, we might mention the following names: Forbesses, Stuarts, Hamiltons, Montgomerys, Alexanders, Grahams, Shaws, Moores, Lewises, Pattons, Mathews, Prestons, Baxtons, Lyles, Grigsbys, Crawfords, Comminses, Browns, Wallaces, Wilsons, Caruthers, Campbells, McClungs, McCues, McKees, McCowns, Lockridges, Boyds, Barclays, McDonals and Baileys, described as, “knights and gentlemen of Scotland, whose prosperity holds good to this day.” They were Irish Presbyterians, who, being of Scotch extraction, were called Scotch-Irish.

[4] These names are to-day familiar house-hold words of the names of our own land and are but a repetition, and of the same lineal descent of their noble ancestors, who, more than two centuries ago stood ever firm to the Magna Charta of Scottish rights, and rallied under their brave banners, emblazoned with the faith of their own creed, in the famous golden letters, “For Christ’s Crown and Covenant,” they waited undaunted, the tyranny of their foes.

As we have said, their sojourn in Ireland was but temporary, as to a large proportion of those who emigrated there. Of course, many hindered by poverty and other causes no doubt, made that their permanent home.

The relief which they sought, they found but temporary in their new found homes in Ireland. Under the rule of tyrant kings, their suffering and punishment was endurable only for its contrasts with their former suffering. Tithes and taxes demanded from their wrecked estates to support a church, not of their own choice restrained [5] from speaking their own opinions living in a strange land dwelling among enemies of their faith, all combined to make them an unhappy and restless people. Longing for new homes, the silent whispers came across the ocean that the Mayflower, years before had landed others, persecuted like themselves, safely on the other side of the blue waters. This gave them hope. “For thou, O, God, hast proved us, and thou hast tried us as silver is tried thou broughtest us into the net thou layest afflictions upon our loins thou hast caused men to ride over our heads we went through fire and through water but though broughtest us out into a wealth place.” Gathering together what little worldly goods they possessed, which was very meagre, and often nothing, save their Bible. They embarked for the New World, landing upon the banks of the Deleware, [sic] and many rested for a season in the land of Pennsylvania.

William Penn, having been formerly a subject of the King of England, and witnessed the perse- [6] cution of his own church (though he himself was a favorite of King James) it was but natural that these people should seek out in the New World, those that had been persecuted for conscience sake in the old world.

Among those who sought fresh relief and new homes amid the untrodden forests of America, few stood higher or occupied positions more exalted than the Grahams. During that bloody, treacherous, and ever memorable struggle in England, Ireland and Scotland, in which King James was dethroned, and William, Price of Orange, a presbyterian, became his successor — a time when no man could remain neutral, but, all must declare, either for the time honored established church of England the papistry of King James or for that faith which they believed to be taught in Holy Writ. According to the dictates of their own conscience, the Grahams occupied prominent positions on either side.

One Richard Graham, known as Viscount Preston, held the position of Secretary of State of [7] Scotland, under King James, about the year 1685 and history tells us that he was one [of] the privy council, and most trusty advisers of the king that his plans and recommendations were often adhered to, rather than those of the king himself. As a leader of the House of Commons, he counseled King James to reassemble the Houses of Parliament, in order to secure a peaceful settlement of differences between church and state. He was also made Lord Lieutenant for both the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, a position very rare and remarkable for one man to occupy.

During the absence of King James from the throne, who, on account of his fear of opposers, had fled to Salisbury, Richard Graham and four associates were appointed a committee, known as the Council of Five, to transact the business of the Throne until such time as might be deemed expedient for the king to return.

The positions of high honor and trust, held and occupied by this one man were many, and to rehearse [8] them all in detail, would require more space than it is our purpose here to consume in this brief sketch suffice it to say that he seems to have been a leader of his party in both civic and military affairs a minister at the courts of foreign countries honored, trusted and adhered to, and we might add, obeyed by kings feared and esteemed by the House of Commons, and held in the highest respect by the common people. While he was true and devoted to King James, in the sense of patriotism, it does not appear that he was a persecutor of those who differed from the king’s religious views.

James Graham, of Claverhouse, viscount of Dundee, was also a noted character in that eventful struggle, and while his persecution of those who differed from the religious persuasions of King James, must ever be deplored, we take consolation in the fact that he but carried out the dictates and decrees of his Master. That his fidelity to the king was ever true through life, and even in the hour of death, is fully substantiated [9] in his last utterance, after having spent an eventful life in the king’s cause.

After King James had vacated the throne, and William and Mary had been triumphantly crowned, and the armies of James abandoned and scattered, General Graham, with his indomitable will and ever-to-be admired energy, hoping against hope, collected together such as he could of the remaining fragmentary army of his escaped master and repaired to the Highlands of Scotland, where he succeeded in interesting the Scottish Chiefs of those Highland Clans, in behalf of the cause of the late king. The remoteness of these semi-barbarians from the active scene of war, coupled with their disinclination to inform themselves of the nature of the conflict, soon led them through the fluency of Graham’s speech to espouse his cause. Having sought and obtained the sympathy of all the principal chiefs of the various clans, he assembled them together and a council was held to decide the mode of warfare. The detached fragmentary of the army whom [10] Graham hitherto commanded, chagrined with former defeats, protested against a battle with those who espoused the cause of King William. While the leaders of the Highland Clans urged immediate assault, saying their men were ready and eager for the fray.

General Graham was influenced by the counsel of the Highlanders, assuring them that he would lead them to victory that he himself would march in front of his army to this, his subordinate officers objected, saying, he was too valuable a leader to expose his person in front of the battle, and urged him to remain in the rear and dictate the movements of his army in the on-coming conflict. To this Graham replied, “your people are accustomed to seeing their leader in the van of battle, and there I shall be seen this day, but after the decision of this day, I shall be more careful of my person and not expose myself in action as heretofore has been my custom.” After that statement, his army was commanded to move forward, himself being in the lead. [11]

Soon the foe was met and the battle of Killikrankie was fought. Early in the engagement Graham was shot, having raised his hand above his head and standing erect in his stirrups, giving command, his shield or armour raised above his waistband, exposing his person, when the ball took effect, he fell from his horse and one of his subordinate officers coming up to him, inquired if his injuries were fatal, Graham answered by saying, “How goes the cause of the king?” The attendant answered, “the cause of the king is well how is your lordship?” Graham replied, “it matters not for me, so the cause of the king is safe.” These were his last words. Though dying on the field, his army won a great victory and the battle of Killikrankie has passed into history, as one of the most memorable events of that time. History hands down to us other names of the Grahams, who were more or less noted in their day and time, of which we might mention, Malcolm Graham, who is last, but by no means least, stood high in society and was [12] bound with a golden chain by King James the II to Ellen Douglass, the girl he loved so well dishonoring thus thy loyal name.

Fetters and warden for the Greame (Graham)
His chain of gold the king unstrung
The links o’er Malcolm’s neck he flung,
Then gently drew the glittering band,
And laid the clasp on Ellen’s hand.

SCOTT’S LADY OF THE LAKE.From the above selection it will be noticed that the name is spelled Greame. Whether the author drew upon his poetical license for this misnomer or whether the name was sometimes so spelled by the Scotts, we are unable to determine.

In the early settlement of this country, when people paid but little attention to the orthography of names — the name was often spelled Grimes. There seems, however, to have been no authority whatever for this contortion of the name.

The only excuse that might be offered for this misapplication of the name is that the names of the early settlers were scarcely, if ever, seen in print and but seldom in writing, but were handed [13] orally from one to another, thus giving plenty of opportunity for misunderstandings. We can recall many names, which in our youth were pronounced differently from what they now are. To illustrate, the name Stevenson was called “Stinson” the name Withrow was called “Watherow” Stodghill was called “Stargeon” and so on. We even find in this day a few of the old-styled fathers and mothers who do not like to discontinue the old-fashioned way of expressing these names.

The Graham name in all English history and in the history of our country, as well as in all the legal writings pertaining to the family, from the earliest settlement in America down to the present time, is spelled as we now have it — Graham.

The people of Scotland of the same family tree were known as clans and these clans seem to have been bound together by very strong and endearing ties.

Such were the adhesion of these family clans that they kept themselves almost entirely aloof [14] from other clans marriage and intermarriage by members of one clan to another was scarcely admissible. If a member of one clan provoked or insulted a member of another clan, the insult was resented by the clan whose member had been insulted thus we find arose many of the clan feuds, with which Scottish history so much abounds.

Each clan had its official head chief or leader, whose duty it was to dictate to his people such a course as seemed to him most wise and discreet or that happened to please the whims of his own fancies. In military affairs this leader or chief was expected to occupy the most dangerous positions and to perform the most daring of the exploits in the heat of battle. He must either win a victory, in which he performed some noble part, or die in defeat.

The Graham clan was a very large and influential one, and, perhaps, at the time of its greatest power, had for its official head James Graham, the Earl of Montrose, who laid down his life for love to his king.

[15] It is claimed in Scottish history that the Graham family dates back for a thousand years, and has been conspicuous in the annal of their country, “from hovel to the palace, in arts, in eloquence and in song”. “It was a daring man by the name of Graham that first broke through the walls of Agricola which the Roman general had built between the firths of the Clyde and Forth to keep off the incursions of the Northern Britons, and the ruins of which, still visible, are called to this day the ruins of Graham’s Dyke”.

From Scotland to Virginia

The first immigration of the Grahams to this country, of which we have any account, occurred about the year 1720 to 1730, the exact date of which cannot now be known.

It is, however, a matter of history that one Michael Graham settled in Paxtong Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, about the date referred to and that he was a direct descendant of the Earl of Montrose, who was beheaded. The descendants of Michael Graham afterwards settled in the Valley of Virginia and became noted [16] for their scholarly attainments, as well as their religious zeal.

Of these, however, we may speak further on. It is known that at or near the same period of the coming of Michael to this country other members of the same family, kith and kin, also settled in this country, among whom were John Graham (the writer’s great grandfather), who settled for a time, it is believed, in Pennsylvania and later moved to the Great Calf Pasture River in Augusta county, Virginia. It is to be regretted that we cannot give the exact date of the settlement on the Calf Pasture River, but conclude that not earlier than the year 1740, nor later than 1745.

We find that he purchased a tract of six hundred and ninety-six acres of land in the year 1746, from John Lewis and James Patton. It will be remembered that John Lewis was the first settler in Augusta county, or rather in the territory which afterwards became Augusta, having planted his home in the then remote wilderness in the [17] year 1732, at Belle Fontaine Springs near Staunton. He was the father of General Andrew Lewis who commanded in the famous battle of Point Pleasant in 1774. John Graham (whom we will call senior) reared a family of four sons and five daughters on the banks of the Calf Pasture and died there about the year 1771, born about the year 1700. His oldest son’s name was Lanty (Lancelot). The names of the other three were John, James and Robert. His daughters’ names were Jane, Elizabeth, Anne, Rebecca and Florence, who was the writer’s grandmother on his mother’s side, she having married James Graham (her cousin).


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