¿Por qué se crearon las primeras universidades?

¿Por qué se crearon las primeras universidades?

He leído mi libro de historia mundial e investigué un poco en línea, pero no he podido saber por qué se crearon las primeras universidades.


Universidad: del latín universitas magistrorum et scholarium ("comunidad de profesores y académicos)"

La universidad (como la conocemos hoy) no se creó ex nihilo sino que surgió de otra cosa, que fue la búsqueda del aprendizaje en los centros urbanos entre aquellos que podían pagarlo.

La educación superior europea desde el siglo VI se encontraba a menudo en las escuelas catedralicias cristianas o en las escuelas monásticas. Los monjes o monjas eran los instructores habituales. Un ejemplo de una de esas escuelas que luego se transformó en una universidad es la Universidad de París. Pero la Iglesia no fue la única fuente de educación superior. Durante siglos ha existido una tradición de tutores privados para los hijos de aquellos con los medios para pagarlos y, por supuesto, las oportunidades para que unos pocos elegidos estudien con eruditos famosos de los que se nos ha transmitido "el método socrático".

La Universidad de Bolonia fue fundada en 1088 y podría decirse que es la universidad más antigua de Europa. Se estableció como un gremio / grupo de estudiantes que estaban aprendiendo derecho civil y canónico, y encontraron interés en formar una sociedad / gremio por otras razones.

La Universidad surgió en torno a sociedades de ayuda mutua de estudiantes extranjeros llamadas "naciones" (ya que estaban agrupadas por nacionalidad) para la protección contra las leyes de la ciudad que imponían castigos colectivos a los extranjeros por los crímenes y deudas de sus compatriotas. Estos estudiantes luego contrataron a académicos de la ciudad para enseñarles. Con el tiempo, las diversas "naciones" decidieron formar una asociación más grande, o universitas, es decir, la universidad.

El "por qué" en este caso fue tanto la protección contra el acoso político como el avance de la educación.

En contraste, podemos mirar a la Universidad de Nápoles, fundada en 1232. Es la más antigua apoyado por el estado institución de educación superior e investigación en el mundo.

Una universidad fundada por un jefe de Estado era ligeramente diferente del modelo gremial / corporativo con el mismo propósito general. El emperador Federico II creó esta universidad con la esperanza de frenar u oponerse a las universidades del norte de Italia (como Bolonia y Padua) que consideraba demasiado independientes. o bajo la fuerte influencia del Papa.

El "por qué" en este caso fue tanto la política como el avance de la educación.

La independencia fue otorgada por la Carta, que otorgó al Emperador la máxima autoridad. Contrató profesores, que se convertirían en empleados reales pagados con fondos reales. Además, el propio Emperador examinó candidatos y otorgó títulos.

(Es algo irónico que Tomás de Aquino fuera uno de los primeros egresados ​​distinguidos de la Universidad de Nápoles, dada la tensión ideológica entre el clero y ese emperador).


Durante la época medieval, lo único cercano a lo que llamaríamos educación lo hacía la iglesia. Generalmente por monjes y monjas, estudiando textos religiosos y artículos similares. Algunas de estas escuelas tendían a ser mucho mejores en esto que otras, y esencialmente esto les dio la oportunidad a los más dotados en la academia de estudiar más y se convirtió en algo más que aprender a leer y escribir, se convirtió más en el estudio de los textos y lo que podrían significar. Las escuelas excepcionales se transformaron luego lentamente en lo que se conoció como universidades.

Todo esto creció en Europa y, finalmente, empezaron a salir de las manos de la iglesia. Empezaron a ser creados por la realeza. Con cosas como El redescubrimiento de la obra de Aristóteles, había muchos jóvenes que anhelaban aprender cosas como matemáticas, astronomía y literatura. Estos estudiantes no siempre estudiaron textos religiosos o similares (aunque puede haber jugado un papel), se trataba más del estudio de cosas nuevas y emocionantes como la ciencia y la ingeniería. Podría decirse que aquí es donde comenzó la cultura universitaria moderna.

si quieres más información, la página de wikipedia sobre universidades tiene algunos buenos ejemplos de universidades creadas en esta época, pero obviamente recuerda que es wikipedia, y es solo para hacerte una idea del mundo en ese momento: https: //en.wikipedia .org / wiki / University # Medieval_universities


Estados Unidos modeló su sistema educativo según el de Alemania (comenzó con el jardín de infancia, por supuesto) y luego terminó con su "Gimnasio" o doctorado.

Las primeras universidades estaban en el norte del estado de Nueva York (Cornell, Colgate) y eran "universidades de concesión de tierras" dedicadas al estudio de la agricultura.

Esto lo hicieron muy bien ...


Historia de la educación estadounidense Parte 3: Universidades, libros de texto y nuestros fundadores

BIll Maher, de Politically Incorrecto, dijo: "Estados Unidos nunca ha sido una nación cristiana". Sin embargo, al leer sobre la fundación de nuestras universidades y los primeros libros de texto que se usaron en este país, no podemos cuestionar nuestro fundamento cristiano.

106 de las primeras 108 universidades se iniciaron en la fe cristiana. A finales de 1860 había 246 universidades en Estados Unidos. Diecisiete de estas eran instituciones estatales, casi todas las demás fueron fundadas por denominaciones cristianas o por personas que declaraban un propósito religioso.

Harvard College, 1636 - Una regla original de Harvard College: `` Que cada estudiante sea instruido con claridad y se le presione seriamente a considerar bien, el objetivo principal de su vida y sus estudios es conocer a Dios y a Jesucristo, que es la vida eterna (Juan 17: 3), y por lo tanto, poner a Cristo en el fondo, como el único fundamento de todo conocimiento y aprendizaje sólidos ''.

William and Mary, 1691 - El College of William and Mary se inició principalmente debido a los esfuerzos del reverendo James Blair para, de acuerdo con su carta constitutiva de 1691, y cita que la Iglesia de Virginia pueda contar con un seminario de ministros del evangelio. , y que los jóvenes puedan ser educados piadosamente en buenas letras y modales, y que la religión cristiana se propague entre los indios occidentales para la gloria de Dios Todopoderoso.

Universidad de Yale, 1701 - La Universidad de Yale fue fundada por ministros congregacionales en 1701, "para la educación liberal y religiosa de la juventud adecuada" para propagar en este desierto la bendita religión protestante reformada ".

Princeton, 1746 - Asociado con el Gran Despertar, Princeton fue fundado por los presbiterianos en 1746. El reverendo Jonathan Dickinson se convirtió en su primer presidente, declarando, "maldito todo ese saber que es contrario a la cruz de Cristo".

Universidad de Pensilvania, 1751 - Ben Franklin tuvo mucho que ver con el inicio de la Universidad de Pensilvania. No fue iniciado por una denominación, pero sus leyes reflejan su carácter cristiano. Considere las dos primeras leyes, relacionadas con la conducta moral (de 1801): & quot1. Ninguno de los estudiantes o eruditos, pertenecientes a este seminario, hará uso de lenguaje indecente o inmoral, ya sea en expresiones inmodestas en maldiciones y juramentos o en exclamaciones que introduzcan el nombre de Dios, sin reverencia y sin necesidad. & quot2. Ninguno de ellos, sin una buena y suficiente razón, faltará a la escuela o llegará tarde, más particularmente en el momento de las oraciones y de la lectura de las Sagradas Escrituras. & Quot;

Algunas otras universidades que comenzaron antes de la independencia de Estados Unidos incluyen: Columbia fundada en 1754 (llamada King's College hasta 1784), Dartmouth, 1770 Brown comenzó por los bautistas en 1764 Rutgers, 1766, por la Iglesia Reformada Holandesa Washington and Lee, 1749 y Hampton-Sydney , 1776, por los presbiterianos.

Puede sorprender a muchos saber que la Biblia fue verdaderamente el primer libro de texto. El Código de New Haven de 1655 requería que los niños fueran obligados y citables debidamente para leer las Escrituras & # 133 y en alguna medida competente para comprender los principales fundamentos y principios de la religión cristiana necesarios para la salvación. & Quot;

una. La Biblia era el texto central: John Adams reflejaba la opinión de los fundadores con respecto al lugar de la Biblia en la sociedad cuando escribió: `` Supongamos que una nación en alguna región distante debería tomar la Biblia como su único libro de leyes, y cada ¡El miembro debe regular su conducta por los preceptos allí expuestos! & # 133 ¡Qué utopía, qué paraíso sería esta región! '' John Adams, 22 de febrero de 1756.

B. Libros de cuernos - Los libros de cuernos fueron traídos a América, desde Europa, por los colonos y fueron comunes desde los años 1500 hasta 1700. Un libro de cuerno era una pieza plana de madera con un asa, sobre la cual se adjuntaba una hoja de papel impreso y se cubría con un cuerno de animal transparente para protegerlo. Un libro de cuernos típico tenía el alfabeto, las vocales, una lista de sílabas, la invocación de la Trinidad y el Padre Nuestro.

C. Catecismos: se utilizaron más de 500 catecismos diferentes en la educación temprana. Más tarde, el Catecismo de Westminister se convirtió en el más destacado.

D. The New England Primer: fue el libro de texto más destacado durante aproximadamente 100 años y se utilizó durante el siglo XIX. Vendió más de 3 millones de copias en 150 años.

mi. Webster's Blue-Backed Speller: publicado por primera vez en 1783, vendió más de 100 millones de copias. Fue uno de los libros de texto más influyentes y se basó en la & quot; Palabra de Dios & quot.

F. Los lectores de McGuffey: escritos por el ministro y profesor universitario William Holmes McGuffey, los lectores de McGuffey "representan la fuerza más significativa en el marco de nuestra moral y gustos nacionales" además de la Biblia.

Si bien había muchos otros libros de texto (especialmente en el siglo XIX), los que acabamos de mencionar fueron algunos de los más importantes.

La educación en religión fue fundamental para nuestros fundadores: Benjamin Rush, firmante de la Declaración de Independencia, escribió: "La única base para una educación útil en una república es la religión". Sin esto, no puede haber virtud, y sin virtud no puede haber libertad, y la libertad es el objeto y la vida de todos los gobiernos republicanos ''. El tipo de educación que moldeó el carácter e ideas de nuestros Fundadores fue completamente cristiano. Impartió carácter cristiano y produjo hombres honestos, trabajadores, compasivos, respetuosos y respetuosos de la ley. Impartió una cosmovisión bíblica y produjo personas que eran pensadores de principios.

Después de servir como contacto de prensa en Los Ángeles para la campaña presidencial de Pat Robertson, April pasó más de diez años investigando y recopilando material pertinente al mundo "cambiante" en el que vivimos.

Los foros del Freedom Tea Party de Shenandoah educan a aquellos que desconocen el despojo de las libertades de Estados Unidos. Ella es miembro de la junta del Consejo Nacional de Currículo Bíblico en Escuelas Públicas, con sede en Greensboro, Carolina del Norte y ABC-Learn, Inc., en San Fernando, California. Shenandoah lleva el título no oficial de Embajador de oración.


Cronología histórica de la educación pública en los EE. UU.

1647
El Tribunal General de la Colonia de la Bahía de Massachusetts decreta que cada pueblo de cincuenta familias debe tener una escuela primaria y que cada pueblo de 100 familias debe tener una escuela de latín. El objetivo es asegurar que los niños puritanos aprendan a leer la Biblia y reciban información básica sobre su religión calvinista.

1779
Thomas Jefferson propone un sistema educativo de dos vías, con diferentes vías en sus palabras para "los trabajadores y los doctos". La beca permitiría a muy pocos de la clase trabajadora avanzar, dice Jefferson, "sacando a algunos genios de la basura".

1785
El Congreso Continental (antes de que se ratificara la Constitución de los Estados Unidos) aprueba una ley que pide un estudio del "Territorio del Noroeste" que incluía lo que se convertiría en el estado de Ohio. La ley creó "municipios", reservando una parte de cada municipio para una escuela local. De estas "concesiones de tierras" finalmente surgió el sistema estadounidense de "universidades de concesión de tierras", las universidades públicas estatales que existen en la actualidad. Por supuesto, para crear estos municipios, el Congreso Continental asume que tiene derecho a ceder o vender tierras que ya están ocupadas por indígenas.

1790
La constitución del estado de Pensilvania exige educación pública gratuita, pero solo para los niños pobres. Se espera que los ricos paguen la educación de sus hijos.

1805
Sociedad de Escuelas Públicas de Nueva York formada por empresarios adinerados para brindar educación a los niños pobres. Las escuelas funcionan según el modelo "lancasteriano", en el que un "maestro" puede enseñar a cientos de estudiantes en una sola sala. El maestro da una lección de memoria a los estudiantes mayores, que luego se la pasan a los estudiantes más jóvenes. Estas escuelas enfatizan las cualidades de disciplina y obediencia que los dueños de las fábricas quieren en sus trabajadores.

1817
Una petición presentada en el Boston Town Meeting pide el establecimiento de un sistema de escuelas primarias públicas gratuitas. El apoyo principal proviene de comerciantes locales, empresarios y artesanos más ricos. Muchos asalariados se oponen porque no quieren pagar los impuestos.

1820
Se abre la primera escuela secundaria pública en los EE. UU., Boston English.

1827
Massachusetts aprueba una ley que hace que todos los grados de las escuelas públicas estén abiertos a todos los alumnos de forma gratuita.

1830
En este momento, la mayoría de los estados del sur tienen leyes que prohíben enseñar a leer a las personas en situación de esclavitud. Aun así, alrededor del 5 por ciento se alfabetiza con un gran riesgo personal.

1820-1860
El porcentaje de personas que trabajan en la agricultura se desploma a medida que las granjas familiares son devoradas por empresas agrícolas más grandes y las personas se ven obligadas a buscar trabajo en pueblos y ciudades. Al mismo tiempo, las ciudades crecen enormemente, impulsadas por las nuevas industrias manufactureras, la afluencia de personas de las zonas rurales y muchos inmigrantes de Europa. Durante los diez años que van de 1846 a 1856, llegan 3,1 millones de inmigrantes, un número equivalente a un octavo de la población total de Estados Unidos. Los dueños de la industria necesitaban una fuerza laboral dócil y obediente y buscan que las escuelas públicas la proporcionen.

1836
El dueño de esclavos James Bowie y el asesino de indios Davy Crockett se encuentran entre los muertos en la Batalla del Alamo en Texas, en su intento de tomar Texas por la fuerza desde México.

1837
Horace Mann se convierte en director de la recién formada Junta de Educación del Estado de Massachusetts. Edmund Dwight, un importante industrial, cree que una junta de educación estatal era tan importante para los propietarios de las fábricas que se ofreció a complementar el salario estatal con dinero extra propio.

1840
Más de un millón de inmigrantes irlandeses llegan a los Estados Unidos, expulsados ​​de sus hogares en Irlanda por la hambruna de la papa. Los católicos irlandeses de la ciudad de Nueva York luchan por el control local de las escuelas en los vecindarios como una forma de evitar que sus hijos sean alimentados a la fuerza con un plan de estudios protestante.

1845
Estados Unidos anexa Texas.

1846
El presidente James Polk ordena la invasión de México.

Se abre la Escuela de Reforma de Massachusetts en Westboro, donde se envía a los niños que se han negado a asistir a las escuelas públicas. Esto da comienzo a una larga tradición de "reformatorios", que combinan los sistemas de educación y justicia juvenil.

1848
La guerra contra México termina con la firma del Tratado de Guadalupe-Hidalgo, que le da a Estados Unidos casi la mitad de lo que entonces era México. Esto incluye todo lo que ahora es el suroeste de los EE. UU., Además de partes de Utah, Nevada y Wyoming y la mayor parte de California. El tratado garantiza los derechos de ciudadanía a todas las personas que viven en estas áreas, en su mayoría mexicanos y nativos. También garantiza el uso continuado del idioma español, incluso en la educación. Ciento cincuenta años después, en 1998, California viola ese tratado al aprobar la Proposición 227, que haría ilegal que los maestros hablen español en las escuelas públicas.

1851
El estado de Massachusetts aprueba primero su ley de educación obligatoria. El objetivo es asegurarse de que los hijos de inmigrantes pobres se "civilicen" y aprendan a ser obedientes y moderados, para que sean buenos trabajadores y no contribuyan a la agitación social.

1864
El Congreso prohíbe que se enseñe a los nativos americanos en sus idiomas nativos. Los niños nativos de hasta cuatro años son separados de sus padres y enviados a internados fuera de la reserva de la Oficina de Asuntos Indígenas, cuyo objetivo, como dijo un funcionario de la BIA, es "matar al indio para salvar al hombre".

1865-1877
Los afroamericanos se movilizan para llevar la educación pública al Sur por primera vez. Después de la Guerra Civil, y con el fin legal de la esclavitud, los afroamericanos en el sur hacen alianzas con los republicanos blancos para impulsar muchos cambios políticos, incluida por primera vez la reescritura de las constituciones estatales para garantizar la educación pública gratuita. En la práctica, los niños blancos se benefician más que los niños negros.

1877-1900
La reconstrucción finaliza en 1877 cuando se retiran las tropas federales, que habían ocupado el sur desde el final de la Guerra Civil. Los blancos recuperan el control político del Sur y sientan las bases de la segregación legal.

1893-1913
El tamaño de las juntas escolares en las 28 ciudades más grandes del país se reduce a la mitad. La mayoría de los puestos basados ​​en distritos locales (o "pupilos") se eliminan a favor de elecciones en toda la ciudad. Esto significa que las comunidades de inmigrantes locales pierden el control de sus escuelas locales. La composición de las juntas escolares cambia de pequeños empresarios locales y algunos asalariados a profesionales (como médicos y abogados), grandes empresarios y otros miembros de las clases más ricas.

1896
Decisión de Plessy v. Ferguson. La Corte Suprema de Estados Unidos dictamina que el estado de Luisiana tiene derecho a exigir vagones de ferrocarril "separados pero iguales" para negros y blancos. Esta decisión significa que el gobierno federal reconoce oficialmente la segregación como legal. Un resultado es que los estados del sur aprueban leyes que exigen la segregación racial en las escuelas públicas.

1905
La Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos requiere que California extienda la educación pública a los hijos de inmigrantes chinos.

1917
Se aprueba la Ley Smith-Hughes, que proporciona fondos federales para la educación vocacional. Las grandes corporaciones manufactureras impulsan esto porque quieren eliminar la capacitación laboral de los programas de aprendizaje de los sindicatos y ponerla bajo su propio control.

1924
Una ley del Congreso convierte a los nativos americanos en ciudadanos estadounidenses por primera vez.

1930-1950
La NAACP presenta una serie de demandas por la desigualdad salarial de los maestros para negros y blancos en los estados del sur. Al mismo tiempo, los estados del sur se dan cuenta de que están perdiendo mano de obra afroamericana en las ciudades del norte. Estas dos fuentes de presión dieron como resultado cierto aumento del gasto en escuelas negras en el sur.

1932
Una encuesta de 150 distritos escolares revela que tres cuartas partes de ellos están utilizando las llamadas pruebas de inteligencia para colocar a los estudiantes en diferentes pistas académicas.

1945
Al final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, el G.I. Bill of Rights otorga becas universitarias a miles de hombres de la clase trabajadora por primera vez en la historia de Estados Unidos.

1948
Se forma el Educational Testing Service, que fusiona la Junta de Examen de Entrada a la Universidad, el Servicio Cooperativo de Pruebas, la Oficina de Registros de Graduados, el Comité Nacional de Exámenes de Maestros y otros, con enormes subvenciones de las fundaciones Rockefeller y Carnegie. Estos servicios de pruebas continuaron el trabajo de eugenistas como Carl Brigham (creador del SAT) que investigó "demostrando" que los inmigrantes eran débiles mentales.

1954
Brown contra la Junta de Educación de Topeka. La Corte Suprema está de acuerdo unánimemente en que las escuelas segregadas son "inherentemente desiguales" y deben ser abolidas. Casi 45 años después, en 1998, las escuelas, especialmente en el norte, están tan segregadas como siempre.

1957
Un tribunal federal ordena la integración de las escuelas públicas de Little Rock, Arkansas. El gobernador Orval Faubus envía a su Guardia Nacional para evitar físicamente que nueve estudiantes afroamericanos se matriculen en Central High School para blancos. A regañadientes, el presidente Eisenhower envía tropas federales para hacer cumplir la orden judicial no porque apoye la eliminación de la segregación, sino porque no puede permitir que un gobernador estatal use el poder militar para desafiar al gobierno federal de los Estados Unidos.

1968
Los padres afroamericanos y los maestros blancos chocan en el área de Ocean Hill-Brownsville de la ciudad de Nueva York, por el tema del control comunitario de las escuelas. Los maestros se declaran en huelga y la comunidad organiza escuelas libres mientras las escuelas públicas están cerradas.

1974
Milliken contra Bradley. Una Corte Suprema compuesta por personas designadas por Richard Nixon establece que las escuelas no pueden ser segregadas en los distritos escolares. Esto efectivamente segrega legalmente a los estudiantes de color en los distritos del centro de la ciudad de los estudiantes blancos en los distritos suburbanos blancos más ricos.

Finales de la década de 1970
La llamada "revuelta de los contribuyentes" conduce a la aprobación de la Proposición 13 en California y medidas imitadoras como la Proposición 2-1 / 2 en Massachusetts. Estas propuestas congelan los impuestos a la propiedad, que son una fuente importante de financiamiento para las escuelas públicas. Como resultado, en veinte años California cae del primer gasto por estudiante en la nación en 1978 al número 43 en 1998.

Decenio de 1980
La Ley Federal de Colegios Tribales establece un colegio comunitario en cada reserva indígena, lo que permite a los jóvenes ir a la universidad sin dejar a sus familias.

1994
La Proposición 187 se aprueba en California, por lo que es ilegal que los hijos de inmigrantes indocumentados asistan a la escuela pública. Los tribunales federales sostienen que la Propuesta 187 es inconstitucional, pero el sentimiento antiinmigrante se extiende por todo el país.

1996
Liderando el camino hacia atrás nuevamente, California aprueba la Proposición 209, que prohíbe la acción afirmativa en el empleo público, la contratación pública y la educación pública. Otros estados se suben al carro con sus propias iniciativas y los elementos de la derecha esperan aprobar una legislación similar a nivel federal.

1998
¡California otra vez! Esta vez, un multimillonario llamado Ron Unz logra poner una medida en la boleta electoral de junio de 1998 que prohíbe la educación bilingüe en California.


El auge de las universidades

Como estudiantes de una universidad, formas parte de una gran tradición. Considere las palabras que usa: campus, matrícula, clases, cursos, conferencias, facultad, estudiantes, administración, canciller, decano, profesor, estudiante de segundo año, junior, senior, tarifas, asignaciones, laboratorio, dormitorio, requisitos, requisitos previos, exámenes, textos, calificaciones, convocatoria, graduación, Apertura, procesión, diploma, asociación de antiguos alumnos, donaciones, Etcétera. Estos son el idioma de la universidad y todos se derivan de latín, casi sin cambios desde sus orígenes medievales. La organización de esta universidad, sus actividades y sus tradiciones, son la continuación de una pelea de bar que tuvo lugar en París hace casi 800 años.

REFORMAS EDUCATIVAS CAROLINGIANAS

ESCUELAS CATEDRAL Y MONASTERIO

La aritmética sirvió como base para la geometría del razonamiento cuantitativo para la arquitectura, la topografía y el cálculo de medidas, todo esencial para administrar la propiedad y los ingresos de una iglesia. La astronomía era necesaria para calcular la fecha de Pascua, predecir eclipses y marcar el paso de las estaciones. Durante algún tiempo, lo único que pudieron hacer las escuelas de la catedral y el monasterio fue capacitar a suficientes sacerdotes para proporcionar lo esencial de los líderes locales educados.

En los años 1000, esto comenzó a cambiar a medida que algunas escuelas comenzaron a desarrollar elementos de su quadrivium más allá de los requisitos de la mera formación sacerdotal. Algunos integraron sus planes de estudio adoptando un texto estándar como El consuelo de la filosofía por Boecio, o algún otro compendio de conocimientos, siendo los más famosos los escritos por Cassidorus, Martianus Capella, o Isidoro de sevilla. Los maestros de algunas otras escuelas desarrollaron un enfoque más flexible del concepto de educación y trataron de ampliar el conocimiento y de impartirlo a sus estudiantes.

Uno de estos últimos fue la escuela catedralicia de Reims, donde los españoles entrenados Gerberto de Aurillac desarrolló los aspectos matemáticos del quadrivium introduciendo Notación numérica arábiga, el uso de la ábaco para el cálculo numérico, y el astrolabio para observación astronómica. Bajo el liderazgo de uno de los estudiantes de Gerbert, la cercana escuela del monasterio de Fleury continuó este desarrollo. Otras escuelas se desarrollaron en diferentes direcciones, con Orleans especializada en estudios clásicos y Chartres en la teoría matemática de la música. Otro centro de aprendizaje especializado fue el pequeño monasterio normando de Bec, que, bajo la dirección de Lanfranc, y Anselmo, se hizo conocido en todo el norte de Europa por la enseñanza del derecho.

GREGORIO VII Y EL GRAN AVIVAMIENTO DEL APRENDIZAJE

PARÍS

En la margen izquierda del Sena, había varios monasterios, cada uno con su propia escuela: Ste. Genevieve, St. Germain des Pres, y San Víctor. Aunque cada una de estas escuelas tenía un maestro, él no era el único maestro allí, como había sido el caso en muchas de las primeras escuelas de la catedral y el monasterio. Los maestros calificados podían solicitar al canciller o un abad la membresía en sus instituciones y, una vez concedida esa membresía, formaban parte de la facultad de la escuela de esa institución. Algunos instructores residían en el propio monasterio y otros fuera, proporcionando la base para una distinción que persiste en el profesor y profesor adjunto. Los profesores contrataron asistentes (profesores asistentes), que algún día podrían convertirse en profesores, mientras que los estudiantes particularmente capaces podrían ser contratados para enseñar materias básicas en la escuela primaria como instructores. Los profesores solían ofrecer una curso, o serie, de conferencias en el que leerían de un texto, un trabajo generalmente aceptado como importante de conocer, para que los estudiantes pudieran copiar las palabras, y luego el profesor ofrecería explicaciones del texto, mientras que los estudiantes notas en los amplios márgenes que habían dejado para tal fin (nota marginal). Como acotación al margen, era habitual que las notas referentes a otras obras relevantes al pasaje se pusieran al pie, de pie, de página, práctica que ha sobrevivido como la moderna. nota. Una vez finalizado el curso de las clases magistrales, el alumno habría terminado de copiar el texto y sus notas de los comentarios del profesor en su libro de texto. Cuando el estudiante se sintiera listo, podría presentarse ante el canciller para ser examinado. Si se aprueba, se le dio un diploma, documento oficial que le permitía predicar o enseñar en la diócesis de París.

Los estudiantes podían asistir a los cursos que quisieran de cualquiera de los profesores en cualquiera de estas escuelas, ya que lo único que realmente contaba era si podían convencer al rector de que eran competentes. De modo que tendían a buscar habitaciones en el distrito de la ciudad entre estos centros y a elegir qué conferencias deseaban escuchar sobre qué libros. Los instructores comenzaron a alquilar salas en el distrito en el que impartir sus conferencias, y esta parte de París se convirtió en un centro de aprendizaje, siendo conocido como el barrio Latino, ya que el idioma común de las distintas personas que vivían y estudiaban allí era el latín. La escuela de la catedral de Notre Dame fue la base de operaciones de los maestros más respetados y conocidos, y al principio eclipsó a las escuelas del Barrio Latino, pero eso comenzó a cambiar. El canciller de Notre Dame consideró el hecho de que todos los maestros (y también todos los estudiantes) estaban en "órdenes sagradas", es decir, eran clérigos, aunque ni sacerdotes ni monjes. Como representante del obispo, el canciller sintió que todo el clero de París le debía obediencia y trató de decirles a los instructores no solo qué enseñar, sino cómo debían enseñarlo.

Este choque entre el canciller y los maestros fue solo el comienzo de una tensión que continúa hasta nuestros días. Así como el canciller de Notre Dame reclamó el poder de exigir la obediencia de los maestros en todas las cosas porque eran miembros de la Iglesia, así también en muchas universidades estatales de hoy, los rectores o presidentes intentan extender su autoridad sobre la facultad porque la facultad son empleados estatales. En el París medieval, este conflicto provocó que muchos maestros (instructores) se trasladaran al Barrio Latino y se unieran a las "facultades" de las escuelas del monasterio allí. El centro intelectual de la ciudad se trasladó a un área más alejada del control directo del canciller, y los maestros comenzaron a considerar al canciller como un enemigo más que como su jefe administrativo.

NUEVOS MOVIMIENTOS EN EL TRIMESTRE LATINO

La forma de enseñar pronto cambió. En lugar de escuchar a su maestro leer e interpretar, los estudiantes querían que se les enseñara a razonar. El debate público pronto reemplazó a la conferencia para atraer la atención del estudiante. En particular, les gusta escuchar a sus maestros debatir entre ellos. Al mismo tiempo que los nobles estaban desarrollando los enfrentamientos armados de hombre a hombre de la torneo, los estudiosos estaban desarrollando el combate lógico del debate público.

Al mismo tiempo, la demanda tanto de la Iglesia como de los príncipes de administradores y abogados capacitados estaba creciendo, y los estudiantes descubrieron que la habilidad en la argumentación era una clave más segura para el éxito que poder determinar la fecha de Pascua o explicar las proporciones matemáticas que eran armónicas. y los que no lo fueron. Un ex alumno con el nombre de Juan de Salisbury, comentó que el estudio de la Artes liberales (el trivium y quadrivium) estaban siendo abandonados en favor de una mera formación profesional.

EL NACIMIENTO DE LA UNIVERSIDAD

En cualquier caso, el niño se arrastró hasta su maestro, y el estudiante y sus amigos bajaron a la taberna y golpearon a todos antes de que se fueran a casa con una gran jarra de vino decente. El camarero pidió al rector que castigara a los estudiantes, y el rector reunió a sus hombres, junto con varios voluntarios, y bloqueó todas las calles que daban al Barrio Latino. Luego fueron a cazar al estudiante alemán, abofeteando a la gente a medida que avanzaban. Varios maestros y estudiantes se sintieron irritados por esto, tomaron las calles y se produjo una batalla campal. El preboste y sus hombres finalmente se retiraron, pero no antes de haber matado a cinco estudiantes, incluido el estudiante alemán que había comenzado todo, y que resultó ser el príncipe-obispo electo de Lieja (en lo que ahora es Bélgica).

El canciller se negó a ayudar al maestro y los estudiantes del Barrio Latino, por lo que cerraron las calles que conducen al Barrio Latino, y los maestros celebraron una reunión esa noche. Decidieron organizarse en un sindicato, o, como se llamaba en el latín de la época, un universitas. Dado que sus estudiantes estaban estudiando para convertirse en maestros, el sindicato incluía a los estudiantes como miembros más o menos jóvenes. Al día siguiente, representantes del sindicato acudieron al rey de Francia y se anunciaron como portavoces de La Universidad de Maestros y Estudiantes de París.

Exigieron una serie de derechos corporativos, privilegios y protección del rey. Cuando el rey preguntó qué harían si él decidía decir que no, respondieron con las famosas palabras: "Entonces sacudiremos el polvo de las calles de París de los dobladillos de nuestros vestidos". De hecho, estaban amenazando con irse y enseñar en otro lugar. El rey Felipe se dio cuenta de que París perdería gran parte de su atractivo y perdería una cantidad considerable de impuestos si los maestros, estudiantes y todas las personas que prestaban servicios al Barrio Latino se marchaban, por lo que acordó proteger a los miembros del Barrio Latino. Universitas. Mucho más sucedió en los años siguientes. Continuaron las luchas con el canciller y el rector, e incluso entre los propios estudiantes y maestros, pero al final la unión de maestros y estudiantes fue reconocida por todos. They gained powers -- the right to establish the curriculum, the requirements, and the standards of accomplishment the right to debate any subject and uphold in debate any subject the right to choose their own members protection from local police the right of each member to keep his license to teach as soon as he had been admitted to full membership and others. These rights were often won in open battles in which people -- masters and students -- died, but they were rights that faculty still guard jealously today.

As an aside to help you to become more knowledgeable than your fellows who don't study medieval history, I'll tell you why graduation is called Commencement (and no, it's not because it's the beginning of your "real life"). In the large halls where students and faculty ate, the faculty used to eat at table on a raised platform at one end of the long line of tables at which the students sat. When the students finished their course of study and graduated, they became fully-fledged members of the University and equals of the faculty. Consequently, at the grand banquet with which they celebrated their graduation, faculty and former students (both the newly-graduated and alumni) ate together as equals. They shared tables, or, in the Latin of the time, they ate at a commensa, a common table for all. This is why, not so long ago, Commencement and Reunion took place at the same time and why the University Dinner was the high point of the graduation events.

Lynn Harry Nelson
Emeritus Professor of
Medieval History
The University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas


Top 10 Oldest Universities in the World: Ancient Colleges

Unfortunately, the U.S. will never boast a medieval university, as this country’s origins, established in 1776 with the Declaration of Independence, were formed when the oldest university in the world already was about nine centuries old. If you’re interested, we do have a list of the oldest universities in the U.S., by accreditation year.

The following list of ten oldest universities in the world shows, through their brief histories, a trend: The university as an autonomous self-governing institution first was developed as religious institutions (madrasahs) that originated in the medieval Islamic world. But, Europe did not fall far behind these Islamic developments, as Italy founded its first university approximately two centuries after the first university developed in Morocco. The last university on this list, the University of Padua in Italy, was founded in 1222 — 270 years before Columbus sailed the Ocean Blue in 1492.

This list is compiled of extant universities, although a few of them closed for brief periods from the effects of war or local disputes. On the whole, the European universities on this list have expanded their campuses and enjoy high rankings in the world today. The list below is compiled in order of the university’s founding.


The invention of spectacles

Several names and places are associated with the supposed 'invention' of spectacles though the truth is they were probably invented anonymously and developed over a period of time. In the Viking Age 'lenses' were ground out of rock crystal in Sweden. These were investigated by Otto Ahlström as part of his studies of Viking jewellery but could be thought of as purely decorative.

It is now generally accepted that spectacles were 'invented' (more likely improvised) no later than the last quarter of the thirteenth century by the Italians (rather than the Dutch or even the Chinese) and that their specific area of origin centred possibly on the Veneto region, rather than Pisa or Florence, though each of those cities still has its historians, amateur and professional, who will argue its case. In recent decades the debate has sometimes been driven more by Italian civic pride than by hard evidence although this has been partly permissible since the corpus of reliable documentary evidence is actually quite small.

If the archaeological evidence were given priority our attention would switch away from Italy altogether, towards the Germanic countries, since only one pair of the earliest rivet-type of spectacles has ever been found in Italy. A fair and non-committal summary has recently been written concluding that &lsquothe most likely scenario is of an evolving technology with many people working&rsquo.

Roger Bacon

One of the first figures to be associated with the invention of spectacles was the thirteenth century English friar Roger Bacon, who was based in Paris and outlined the scientific principles behind the use of corrective lenses in his Opus Majus (c.1266), of which the College possesses an early printed edition prepared from Bacon's manuscripts in 1733.

The idea that monks or friars possessed a secret knowledge of spectacles that they later unleashed on the world found currency with several writers, notably William Molyneux in his Dioptrica Nova (1692). Unfortunately no evidence survives to suggest that Bacon ever applied his theoretical knowledge of 'perspectiva' (optics) despite the fact that, as a Franciscan, he was part of a practically-minded religious order. A recent biographer of Bacon, Brian Clegg, insists that for Bacon the fledgling notion of &lsquoscience&rsquo was entirely concerned with the accumulation of practical knowledge with a specific end in mind. This is evident in his less well-known work of the 1260s or 1270s on burning glasses, De speculis comburentibus. los Opus Majus is, of course, only a summary proposal addressed to Pope Clement IV for a still larger work that Bacon was fated never to complete. Had the main work ever materialised the corpus of original practical experimentation that scholars now agree underpinned the summary might well have resulted in some form of binocular mounted lens. Perhaps the man himself had produced one already, or it may have been amongst the thousands of pounds worth of equipment that Bacon was in the privileged position to purchase in furtherance of his studies? It is dangerous to assume, however, that the 'inventor' of spectacles had any theoretical knowledge of physical optics at all.

Early references to spectacles are notoriously suspect. Sometimes they have only been recorded years after the events described. Other references have been interpreted as meaning what we understand as spectacles, but those interpretations could be mistaken.

In 1282 a priest named Nicholas Bullet is alleged to have used spectacles whilst signing an agreement.

By 1284 De Cristalleris, a chapter of the by-laws of the Venetian guilds prohibits the use of ordinary white glass instead of crystal, in order to keep standards high. Further Venetian State decrees of 1300 and 1301 refer to roidi da ogli as well as reading lenses (Latin: vitreos ab oculis ad legendum). Whilst this may not mean spectacles as we would understand them, the improvements in lens-making technology in the area of Venice was certainly crucial to their development.

Fra Giordano's Sermon

The pictures show the front of the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence and the present pulpit. In this church Giordano da Rivalto, a Dominican friar from Pisa, renowned for his popular preaching, delivered a Lent sermon on 23 February 1305, the wording of which deserves close scrutiny. Celebrating the ingenuity of mankind, he stated (in translation): 'It is not yet twenty years since there was found the art of making spectacles' (Italian: occhiali) This could mean that spectacles were known to him to have been around since 1285 (or maybe 1286, or indeed an even later date, if the twenty-year mark had not yet been reached). He referred to a 'new art' and it is now generally accepted that the Friar's next words can be translated 'I have seen the man who first invented and created it and I have talked to him'. It seems unlikely, however, that there was ever one Damascus moment when the art of making spectacles was suddenly 'found' the remark could refer to the development of one particularly successful method of manufacturing a device that was still in its infancy and may have been calculated to flatter a patron. It is also unclear to what extent Giordano would have been aware of developments outside of the Florentine sphere of influence.

The manuscript sermons of Friar Giordano remain the property of the sisters of St Catherine at San Gaggio and are preserved at the Mediceo-Laurenziana library where, no doubt, they will continue to be the source of controversy.

In 1305 Bernard de Gordon's Lilium medicinae written in Montpellier reported that an eye lotion (collyrium) was so effective that it allowed the elderly to read small letters 'without spectacles' (sine ocularibus), however these words come from the printed version first issued in the late fifteenth century (the College possesses a slightly later edition of 1574) and the original manuscript's oculus berillinus (o sine oculo berillion) may just refer to a single lens or a magnifying glass. Bernard was a French physician, possibly of Scottish descent, who had studied medicine at Salerno, Italy but was now teaching in France. His career is proof that academics could travel widely and potentially encounter new technologies in various lands.

In 1310 Arnold of Villanova's On Preserving Youth and Retarding Old Age echoed Aristotle by saying an old man would see as well as a young man if he had a youthful eye. Some unreliable sixteenth century printed editions included an additional line to the effect that a polished object can concentrate scattered rays of light. From this some historians have concluded that Arnold 'adduced' the invention of spectacles.

Around the turn of the 13th and14th centuries convex 'lenses' of a form which could have been of benefit to presbyopic patients were being produced on the glass-manufacturing island of Murano in the Venetian lagoon. Whether this was, in fact, their purpose is another matter.

Alessandro Della Spina

Over three centuries ago, probably in 1673, it was first reported by the Florentine scholar Carlo Roberto Dati in an essay on The Invention of Eyeglasses that a document existed in the Dominican convent of St Catherine in Pisa. Esta Chronicle told how a friar who had died in 1313 had learned how spectacles (Latin: ocularia) were made from somebody else who was 'the first to invent them' and subsequently been able to make them himself, though only it seems for his personal use, and consequently he had shared the invention with the wider world out of a sense of charity lacking in the original craftsman whose handiwork he had witnessed. This document has now been rediscovered by modern historians. It is important because it implies that della Spina was a conduit by whom the method was spread but that the original 'inventor' had endeavoured to keep the process a secret.

It is impossible to know if Friar Giordano and Friar Allessandro either met or were talking about the same man and whether they did so in Pisa or Florence. It would be wrong for us, unquestioningly, to follow Dati's seeming assumption that the 'inventor' was 'probably' a Pisan. This evidence supports the idea of a late 13th century North Italian development but the native origin of the 'inventor' and his basis for claiming the title are lost to history.

Salvino D'Armati's Fraudulent Epitaph

Since 1684 historians have known of the following epitaph to be found in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Florence: Here lies / Salvino d'Armato of the Armati / of Florence / Inventor of Spectacles / May God forgive him his sins / AD 1317. Philologists have since worked out that the use of the word 'inventor' is anachronistic in Italy at this date whilst genealogists have failed to trace this particular member of the family. The epitaph is now considered to have been a deliberate family fraud of unknown date. The actual plaque in existence today dates only from 1841 and was removed in the 1890s from the outside wall and hidden away low down in a corner of one of the side chapels.

To the right is a photograph of an ancient Greco-Roman bust which was artificially coupled with the epitaph in 1841 and a pencil sketch of the Armati memorial drawn before 1950 and now in the BOA Museum but formerly part of the Hamblin Collection.

The graphic to the left reveals where to spot the Armati memorial plaque (photo dating from September 2017).

From 1316 an Italian manuscript survives in which the price of a pair of spectacles in a case is given as six Bolognese solidi.

In 1329 a Tuscan merchant filed a complaint that spectacles he had bought in Florence had been stolen from him.

Circa 1330, the Lueneburg Casket in Wienhausen was constructed with four decorative convex glass disks, now bearing painted evangelist symbols but which appear to have originated as ground spectacle lenses with a refractive power of 3.5 dioptres. If so, these would be the earliest surviving glass spectacle lenses.

The Treviso Frescoes

The earliest depiction of spectacles in a painted work of art occurs in series of frescoes dated 1352 by Tommaso da Modena in the Chapter House of the Seminario attached to the Basilica San Nicolo in Treviso, north of Venice.

Cardinal Hugo of Provence

Cardinal Hugo of Provence is shown at his writing desk wearing a pair of rivet spectacles that appear to stay in place on the nose without additional support. The Cardinal actually died in the 1260s and could never have worn spectacles!

Cardinal Nicholas of Rouen

Across the room Cardinal Nicholas of Rouen is depicted using a monocular lens in the style of later quizzing glasses. The artist has even tried to represent the physical effort of straining to see the book through the lens.

The men depicted in this series of paintings are Dominicans (like Fra Rivalto), members of a dynamic monastic order founded in 1217 and regarded as 'the carrier of the sciences'.

It is notable that visual aids are portrayed as devices for the use of literate men as well as aesthetes - they had, after all, commissioned this important work of early Renaissance art.

A work of fiction from 1358, by Franco Saccheti (1330-1400), has a Florentine prior saying 'I don't see well without my spectacles' (Italian: occhiali).

Guy de Chauliac

In 1363 the sexagenarian French priest and surgeon, Guy de Chauliac, noted in his Grande Chirurgie that if a certain eye lotion such as fennel is insufficient, 'we must resort to spectacles of glass or beryl'. The Latin text commonly quoted for this is: ocularios vitri aut berillorum but it exists in various versions. The College's early printed copy of this work, produced some time after 1500, reads: [et] si ista non valet ad ocularios vitri aut berillon est recurrendum. This is a more convincing reference to early spectacles than the similar remark by Bernard de Gordon in 1305, but it also implies that, nearly a century after their invention, spectacles were still considered an unsatisfactory solution, at least by the conservative medical profession.

St Paul wearing spectacles

Circa.1375-80 Saint Paul is depicted wearing spectacles, apparently with tinted lenses, in an illuminated manuscript version of the popular French Bible Historiale (at the start of Romans 1). The suggestion is that he needs darkened glasses to cope with the blinding light of revelation. Our illustration (left) is taken from an early twentieth century tourist souvenir, presumably from the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris and inaccurately claims it to be the 'first known representation of eye-glasses', revealing how recently much of our knowledge on this subject has been acquired. It does, however, reinforce the association of spectacles with religious communities in 14th century France.

In summary the invention of spectacles is shrouded in mystery. The intellectual understanding of optics necessary to inform their invention was certainly in place by the later 1260s but we know, in any case, that they were not the first type of visual aid to be used and they are only a refinement of the single lens device. They were certainly being made and written about in Venice by 1300 at the latest and were being spoken of in Pisa (apparently retrospectively) in 1305. There are various possible conclusions that can be drawn from the available evidence but arguments as to the probable origin of spectacles are largely supposition, instinct or biased opinion.


Tombuctú

Oh wow… I always knew Timbuktu (Tombouctou in Mali) because of the story of the great emperor of the kingdom of Mali , Mansa Kankan Musa . I knew it was the center of his empire, but it is only lately that I realized that it was one of the world’s first and oldest thriving university! Students came from all over the world to study at Timbuktu. Imagine that, students from the middle east, and Europe coming to Africa to study! oooohhhh … Goodness Gracious, that sight only would make me proud! Well, to those who say Africa only has an oral tradition, go and check out the 700,000 manuscripts at the great Sankore University in Timbuktu, and tell me what you think! Oh la la…

In one documentary, the speaker mentions that they translated one of the manuscript on Algebra from Arabic to

Sankore University in Timbuktu

French, and sent it to France to be evaluated educationally well, that manuscript revealed that the mathematics it contained was currently studied in 2nd year of university in France, and the speaker then says “ and that was taught at universities in Timbuktu before the 16th century “! Wow… my Goodness!


Fatima al-Fihri: Founder of World’s Very First University

The name Fatima Al-Fihri crowns the annals of history with the distinction of having established the world’s very first university. Yes, it was a Muslim woman who pioneered a model of higher learning coupled with the issuance of degrees of various levels.

Fatima Al-Fihri migrated with her family in the early ninth century from Qayrawan in present-day Tunisia to the city of Fez in Morocco. This was during the rule of Idrees II, an extraordinary ruler and devout Muslim. Fez at that time was a bustling metropolis of the “Muslim West” (known as al-Maghrib), and held the promise in the people’s imaginations of fortune and felicity. Having become one of the most influential Muslim cities, Fez boasted a rich combination of religion and culture, both traditional and cosmopolitan. This was the city, on the left bank of the River Fez, where Fatima’s family settled and she eventually married.

After much toil and struggle in humble beginnings, the family of Fatima was eventually blessed with prosperity. Her father, Mohammad bin Abdullah Al-Fihri, had become a hugely successful businessman. After the deaths of Fatima’s husband, father, and brother in short succession, Fatima and her only other sibling, Mariam, received a sizable inheritance which assured their financial independence. It was in this latter period of their lives that they distinguished themselves. Having received a good education, the sisters in turn hastened to dedicate all of their wealth to benefiting their community. Observing that the local mosques in Fez could not accommodate the growing population of worshipers, many of whom were refugees from Islamic Spain, Mariam built the breathtaking and grand Andalusian Mosque in 245AH/859CE.

And Fatima founded Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University, considered by many historians as the oldest, continually operating, degree-granting university in the world. Historical references note that she directly oversaw and guided the construction process in great detail, certainly a testament to her great dedication as she had no expertise in the field!

Fatima had grand aspirations, and early on began buying property adjacent to the initial land, thereby significantly increasing the size of the mosque. She diligently spent all that was required of time and money to see the project to completion. She was also extremely pious and devout in worship and made a religious vow to fast daily from the first day of construction in Ramadan 245 AH/859 CE until the project was completed some two years later, whereupon she offered prayers of gratitude in the very mosque she had so tirelessly worked to build.

Masjid Al-Qarawiyyin, one of the largest mosques in North Africa, housed the university which was to become a major center of advanced learning in medieval times in the Mediterranean. Al-Qarawiyyin University is credited with producing many distinguished Muslim thinkers including Abul-Abbas, the jurist Muhammad al-Fasi, and Leo Africanus, the famous author and traveler. Other prominent names associated with the institution include the Maliki jurist Ibn al-Arabi (d. 543AH/1148CE), the historian Ibn Khaldun (d. 808AH/1406CE), and the astronomer al-Bitruji (Alpetragius) (d. 1204CE).

Non-Muslims were welcome to matriculate. In fact, the University’s outstanding caliber attracted Gerber of Auvergne who later became Pope Sylvester II and went on to introduce Arabic numerals and the concept of zero to medieval Europe. One of the university’s most famous students was a Jewish physician and philosopher, Maimonides.

He was born in Andalusia in 1138 while it was flourishing as an intellectual and cultural hub under Muslim rule. His family moved to Fez, Morocco in 1160 where he was heavily influenced by Islamic thought. A distinguished theologian, he was the first to introduce articles of faith to Judaism he considered it mandatory for every Jew to believe in the absolute unity of God, in His exclusive right to be worshipped, in revelation through prophets, resurrection, and Divine punishment and reward.

By the 14th century, the university housed the Al-Qarawiyyin Library which remains one of the oldest in the world, preserving some of Islam’s most valuable manuscripts. These include volumes from the Muwatta of Imam Malik inscribed on gazelle parchment, the Seerah of Ibn Ishaq, the premier transcript of Ibn Khaldun’s Al-‘Ibar, and a copy of the Qur’an gifted to the institution in 1602 by Sultan Ahmed al-Mansur.

Fatima Al-Fihri’s Legacy

Almost 1200 years have passed since the founding of the University of Al-Qarawiyin in 859, and it continues to this day to graduate students in the various religious and physical sciences. This esteemed institution, which already had 8,000 students by the 14th century, is central to the legacy of Fatima Al-Fihri. Her story is one of timeless dedication to the Islamic tradition of learning and academic study, as well as personal devotion to pleasing Allah SWT by serving as a genuine benefactor to humanity. The world is richer as a result.


History of the University

Texas A&M is the state's first public institution of higher education. With a student body of more than 59,000 and more than 5,200 acres on the College Station campus, Texas A&M is also among the nation's largest universities. Our origins, however, are much humbler: we owe our existence to the Morrill Act, approved by the United States Congress on July 2, 1862. This act provided for donation of public land to the states for the purpose of funding higher education whose "leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and mechanic arts."

The State of Texas agreed to create a college under the terms of the Morrill Act in November 1866, but actual formation didn't come until the establishment of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas by the Texas state legislature on April 17, 1871. A commission created to locate the institution accepted the offer of 2,416 acres of land from the citizens of Brazos County in 1871, and instruction began in 1876. Admission was limited to white males, and, as required by the Morrill Act, all students were required to participate in military training.

Texas A&M underwent many changes in the 1960s under the presidency of Gen. James Earl Rudder. Under his tenure the college diversified, opening its doors to African-Americans and formally admitting women. Participation in the Corps of Cadets was also made voluntary. In 1963, the Texas state legislature officially renamed the school to Texas A&M University, with the "A" and "M" being a symbolic link to the school's past but no longer officially standing for "Agricultural and Mechanical."

Since that time, Texas A&M has flourished to become one of the nation's premier research universities. Along with the University of Texas and Rice, Texas A&M is one of only three Tier 1 universities in the state. In 1971 and 1989, respectively, Texas A&M was designated as a sea-grant and a space-grant institution, making it among the first four universities to hold the triple distinction of land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant designations.

While membership in the Corps of Cadets became voluntary in 1965, the Corps has nonetheless continued to play a key role in the university. The Corps is often referred to as the "Keepers of the Spirit" and "Guardians of Tradition." Texas A&M remains one of only six senior military colleges, and the Corps of Cadets is the largest uniformed body outside the national service academies. As such, it has historically produced more officers than any other institution in the nation other than the academies.

The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum opened in 1997 on west campus, making Texas A&M one of only a few universities to host a presidential library on their campus. President Bush maintained an active role in the university, hosting and participating in special events organized through the library.


Why were the first Universities created? - Historia

U.S. Department of Education
Office for Civil Rights
Washington, D.C. 20202-1100

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) were established to serve the educational needs of black Americans. Prior to the time of their establishment, and for many years afterwards, blacks were generally denied admission to traditionally white institutions. As a result, HBCUs became the principle means for providing postsecondary education to black Americans.

Today, HBCUs must fulfill educational goals far beyond those initially set. President George Bush described the unique mission of black colleges as follows:

"At a time when many schools barred their doors to black Americans, these colleges offered the best, and often the only, opportunity for a higher education."

Today, thank heavens, most of those barriers have been brought down by the law, and yet historically black colleges and universities still represent a vital component of American higher education.

This pamphlet provides an overview of the historic role, accomplishments, and challenges which face HBCUs as they carry out their unique mission. The information will allow the reader to consider HBCUs as a valid choice in meeting the educational needs of minority and nonminority students. Further, the pamphlet summarizes the efforts of the Department of Education aimed at strengthening HBCUs, while assuring that higher education programs do not discriminate on the basis of race.

BACKGROUND OF HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Prior to the Civil War, there was no structured higher education system for black students. Public policy and certain statutory provisions prohibited the education of blacks in various parts of the nation. The Institute for Colored Youth, the first higher education institution for blacks, was founded in Cheyney, Pennsylvania, in 1837. It was followed by two other black institutions--Lincoln University, in Pennsylvania (1854), and Wilberforce University, in Ohio (1856).

Although these institutions were called universities" or "institutes" fromtheir founding, a major part of their mission in the early years was to provide elementary and secondary schooling for students who had no previous education. It was not until the early 1900s that HBCUs began to offer courses and programs at the postsecondary level.

Following the Civil War, public support for higher education for black students was reflected in the enactment of the Second Morrill Act in 1890. The Act required states with racially segregated public higher education systems to provide a land-grant institution for black students whenever a land-grant institution was established and restricted for white students. After the passage of the Act, public land-grant institutions specifically for blacks were established in each of the southern and border states. As a result, some new public black institutions were founded, and a number of formerly private black schools came under public control eventually 16 black institutions were designated as land-grant colleges. These institutions offered courses in agricultural, mechanical, and industrial subjects, but few offered college-level courses and degrees.

The U.S. Supreme Court's 1896 decision in Plessy v. Ferguson established a "separate but equal" doctrine in public education. In validating racially dual public elementary and secondary school systems, Plessy also encouraged black colleges to focus on teacher training to provide a pool of instructors for segregated schools. At the same time, the expansion of black secondary schools reduced the need for black colleges to provide college preparatory instruction.

By 1953, more-than 32,000 students were enrolled in such well known private black institutions as Fisk University, Hampton Institute, Howard University, Meharry Medical College, Morehouse College, Spelman College, and Tuskegee Institute, as well as a host of smaller black colleges located in southern and border states. In the same year, over 43,000 students were enrolled in public black colleges. HBCUs enrolled 3,200 students in graduate programs. These private and public institutions mutually served the important mission of providing education for teachers, ministers, lawyers, and doctors for the black population in a racially segregated society.

The addition of graduate programs, mostly at public HBCUs, reflected three Supreme Court decisions in which the "separate but equal" principle of Plessy was applied to graduate and professional education. The decisions stipulated: (1) a state must offer schooling for blacks as soon as it provided it for whites (Sinuel v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma, 1948) (2) black students must receive the same treatment as white students (MacLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 1950) and (3) a state must provide facilities of comparable quality for black and white students (Sweatt v. Painter, 1950). Black students increasingly were admitted to traditionally white graduate and professional schools if their program of study was unavailable at HBCUs. In effect, desegregation in higher education began at the post-baccalaureate level.

In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education rejected the "separate but equal" doctrine and held that racially segregated public schools deprive black children of equal protection guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. los Plessy decision, which had governed public education policy for more than a half-century, was overturned. Despite the landmark Supreme Court decision in marrón, most HBCUs remained segregated with poorer facilities and budgets compared with traditionally white institutions. Lack of adequate libraries and scientific and research equipment and capabilities placed a serious handicap on many. Many of the public HBCUs closed or merged with traditionally white institutions. However, most black college students continued to attend HBCUs years after the decision was rendered.

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964

Soon after the Brown decision, Congress passed Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to provide a mechanism for ensuring equal opportunity in federally assisted programs and activities. In enacting Title VI, Congress also reflected its concern with the slow progress in desegregating educational institutions following the Supreme Court's marrón decisión. Title VI protects individuals from discrimination based on race, color, or national origin in programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance. Passage of the law led to the establishment of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in the former Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). OCR placed its primary compliance emphasis in the 1960s and early 1970s on eliminating unconstitutional elementary and secondary school segregation in the southern and border states.

EARLY COMPLIANCE ACTIVITY IN POSTSECONDARY

Nineteen states were operating racially segregated higher education systems at the time Title VI was enacted. In 1969-70, after intensive investigative work, OCR notified a number of the states that they were in violation of Title VI for having failed to dismantle their previously operated racial systems of higher education. OCR sought, without success, statewide higher education desegregation plans. In 1970, private plaintiffs filed suit against HEW for failing to initiate enforcement action against the systems under investigation by OCR. Their suit is known as the Adams caso.

In 1977, as part of the Adams case, a court ordered the federal government to establish new, uniform criteria for statewide desegregation. In response, OCR published criteria specifying the ingredients of acceptable plans to desegregate State systems of public higher education (Criteria). los Criteria recognized the unique role of HBCUs in meeting the educational needs of black students. Accordingly, the Criteria called for the enhancement of HBCUs through improvements in physical plants and equipment, number and quality of faculties, and libraries and other financial support. los Criteria also called for expanding nonminority enrollment at HBCUs by offering on their campuses academic programs that are in high demand or unavailable at the state systems' other campuses. Efforts also were to be made to provide HBCUs with resources that would ultimately ensure they were at least comparable to those at traditionally white institutions having similar missions.

Under the plans accepted by OCR, HBCUs have aimed for desegregated student enrollments and better programs and facilities while retaining or enhancing their historic stature. OCR has monitored the plans to make sure they have been implemented.

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF HBCUs

Under the plans, substantial progress has been made by many states in desegregation of their state systems of higher education. At the same time, HBCUs continue to be a vital resource in the nation's educational system. Among their accomplishments are the following:

HBCUs have played an historical role in enhancing equal educational opportunity for all students.

  • More than 80 percent of all black Americans who received degrees in medicine and dentistry were trained at the two traditionally black institutions of medicine and dentistry--Howard University and Meharry Medical College. (Today, these institutions still account for 19.7 percent of degrees awarded in medicine and dentistry to black students.)
  • HBCUs have provided undergraduate training for three fourths of all black persons holding a doctorate degree three fourths of all black officers in the armed forces and four fifths of all black federal judges.
  • HBCUs are leading institutions in awarding baccalaureate degrees to black students in the life sciences, physical sciences mathematics, and engineering.
  • HBCUs continue to rank high in terms of the proportion of graduates who pursue and complete graduate and professional training.

Fifty percent of black faculty in traditionally white research universities received their bachelor's degrees at an HBCU.

HBCU graduates include: Mary McLeod Bethune, educator and founder of Bethune Cookman College Charles Drew, physician and medical researcher W.E.B. DuBois, sociologist, educator, and co-founder of the NMCP Patricia Harris, former Secretary, U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare and Housing and Urban Development Martin Luther King, Jr., recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize Christa McAuliffe, first educator in space Kenneth B. Clark, psychologist Thurgood Marshall, Supreme Court Justice Leontyne Price, world renowned opera soprano Louis Sullivan, Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and many black political leaders.

Today, there are 107 HBCUs with more than 228,000 students enrolled. Fifty-six institutions are under private control, and 51 are public colleges and universities. The public institutions account for more than two-thirds of the students in historically black institutions. Most (87) of the institutions are four-year colleges or universities, and 20 are two-year institutions. In the past, more than 80 percent of all black college graduates have been trained at these HBCUs. Today, HBCUs enroll 20 percent of black undergraduates. However, HBCUs award 40 percent of baccalaureate degrees earned by black college students.

WHITE HOUSE INITIATIVE ON HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

On April 28, 1989, President George Bush issued Executive Order 12677 to strengthen the capacity of HBCUs to provide quality education and to increase their participation in federally sponsored programs. It mandates the taking of positive measures, by federal agencies, to increase the participation of HBCUs, their faculty and students, in federally sponsored programs. It also encourages the private sector to assist HBCUs. The Executive Order is administered by the Department's Office of Postsecondary Education - White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities. This office also coordinates the activities of 27 federal departments and agencies in implementing Executive Order 12677. These agencies were selected for participation in the program because they account for 98 percent of federal funds directed to our colleges and universities.

Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, authorizes funds for enhancing HBCUs. The statute authorizes the "Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities Program" and the "Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions Program." Title III is administered by the Department's Office of Postsecondary Education - Division of Institutional Development.

Selecting a college in which to enroll is a very personal choice. However, HBCUs offer a valuable option for minority and nonminority students alike. Some of the factors that make HBCUs attractive include:

Many HBCUs have lower tuition and fees compared to traditionally white institutions. A number also offer a broad spectrum of financial assistance to qualified students and have extensive experience in identifying sources of financial support for deserving students. Financial assistance may come in the form of scholarships, loans, and grants to cover the cost of tuition, fees, room and board, books, supplies, personal expenses, and transportation.

Cultural and Racial Diversity

HBCUs often serve students from a wide range of cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. Students interested in the humanities, or in such areas as sociology, psychology, economics, government, urban planning, etc., may find their exposure to a broader range of individuals and their cultures particularly valuable.

Nonresident aliens constitute a large portion of the student enrollment at many HBCUs. A number of foreign students and professors at HBCUs participate in student or faculty exchange programs. In general, HBCUs aim to be sensitive to the needs of foreign students and provide students an opportunity to associate with different nationalities and to learn about cultural diversities. Multicultural exposures are expected to become increasingly valuable as the demographics of the American work force change and America competes more aggressively in the world economy.

Today many HBCUs have a racially diverse students enrollment at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Also, the majority of HBCUs continue to have a racially diverse faculty and administration. HBCUs are presently more racially desegregated, with respect to their enrollment and staff, than traditionally white institutions.

Remediation and Retention

HBCUs may offer a more supportive educational setting for students encountering some difficulty in realizing their full academic potential. HBCUs generally offer a broad range of effective remedial programs for students. Many HBCUs have established developmental centers, reading laboratories, and expanded tutorial and counseling services to accommodate the special needs of educationally disadvantaged students. In addition, a strong commitment by many HBCUs to serve all students has resulted in high rates of graduation.

Traditionally, the faculties at many HBCUs place as much, or more, emphasis on teaching and student service oriented activities as on research. This permits more time for personal and high quality student-teacher interactions. In addition, many teachers at HBCUs have experience in working with minority students and students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Research findings indicate that these factors are important for the academic success of many minority students.

As a result of the desegregation plans approved by OCR under Title VI, many state systems of higher education have placed new high demand programs and curricula-such as engineering, pharmacy, and computer science-at HBCUs.

Students considering options in postsecondary education are faced with one of the most difficult and important choices of their lives. Their decisions should lead to informed selections reflecting the broadest possible range of educational opportunities.

The Office for Civil Rights is committed to equality of opportunity in education. OCR conducts complaint investigations and compliance reviews to ensure Title VI requirements are being followed. Also, OCR supports the efforts to comply with Title VI by offering a program of technical assistance to institutions receiving federal funds as well as to beneficiaries of those funds. If you wish additional information about the OCR compliance program, you may write or phone the OCR regional office which serves your state or territory. The addresses and telephone numbers of the regional civil rights offices are listed below.


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