¿Cuándo entendió la gente de dónde vienen los niños?

¿Cuándo entendió la gente de dónde vienen los niños?

¿Cuál es la fuente más antigua que la gente sabía con certeza qué es lo que hace que una mujer esté embarazada?

Por tal fuente entiendo que la autora sabía lo que un hombre y una mujer hacían 9 meses antes de dar a luz y que este acto fue el motivo directo de un hijo. Basta que se diga que "durmieron juntos". La pornografía sería aceptada, si se dice la conexión entre el acto y la inseminación. No es aceptable si el niño fuera algún "regalo divino", "bendición de Zeus", etc.

Creo que sería muy antiguo ya que los pastores sabrían cómo hacer que sus rebaños fueran más grandes.

La más antigua que pude encontrar es una Santa Biblia, en Génesis Capítulo 4 versículo 1 y luego 17:

Y Adán conoció a Eva su esposa; y concibió y dio a luz a Caín, y dijo: He adquirido un varón de parte del SEÑOR. (…) Y Caín conoció a su esposa; y ella concibió y dio a luz a Enoc (…)

Si alguien pudiera explicar si "conocía a su esposa" significa "tuvo una relación sexual con ella". Si no, podemos ir más allá (Capítulo 6 versículo 4):

Había gigantes en la tierra en aquellos días; y también después de eso, cuando los hijos de Dios llegaron a las hijas de los hombres y les engendraron hijos, éstos se convirtieron en valientes que desde la antigüedad fueron varones de renombre.

(Capítulo 19 :)

Y Lot subió de Zoar y habitó en el monte, y sus dos hijas con él; porque tuvo miedo de vivir en Zoar, y habitó en una cueva, él y sus dos hijas. Y la mayor dijo a la menor: Nuestro padre es viejo, y no hay hombre en la tierra que venga a nosotros como en toda la tierra: Ven, hagamos beber vino a nuestro padre, y mentiremos. con él, para que conservemos simiente de nuestro padre ". Y dieron a beber vino a su padre aquella noche; y entró la mayor y se acostó con su padre; y él no supo cuando ella se acostó ni cuando se levantó. Y sucedió que al día siguiente, la mayor dijo a la menor: He aquí, yo me acosté anoche con mi padre; démosle a beber vino también esta noche; y entra tú, y duerme con él, para que podamos preservar la semilla de nuestro padre. " Y dieron a beber vino a su padre también aquella noche; y se levantó la menor y se acostó con él; y él no supo cuando ella se acostó ni cuando se levantó. Así quedaron las dos hijas de Lot con un hijo de su padre. Y la mayor dio a luz un hijo, y llamó su nombre Moab; éste es el padre de los moabitas hasta el día de hoy. Y la menor también dio a luz un hijo, y llamó su nombre Benammi; este es el padre de los hijos de Ammón hasta el día de hoy.

La Wikipedia dice que el Libro del Génesis es ca. 6-5 siglo AC:

Esto deja la pregunta de cuándo se crearon estas obras. Los estudiosos de la primera mitad del siglo XX llegaron a la conclusión de que el yahvista se produjo en el período monárquico, específicamente en la corte de Salomón, y la obra sacerdotal a mediados del siglo V a.C. (el autor incluso fue identificado como Esdras ), pero el pensamiento más reciente es que el Yahvista fue escrito justo antes o durante el exilio babilónico del siglo VI, y la edición final sacerdotal se hizo tarde en el período del exilio o poco después.

¿Hay otras fuentes más antiguas que confirmen que la gente sabía de dónde venían los niños?

(todas las citas bíblicas de la KJV)


Los antiguos egipcios eran bastante conscientes de la mecánica general del parto.

La fuente más antigua que pude encontrar es uno de los papiros de Kahun, el papiro ginecológico de Kahun (~ 1850 a. C.). Se ocupa de la salud de la mujer, incluido el embarazo, la fertilidad, los problemas menstruales y la anticoncepción médica. Este último tema, la anticoncepción, es el más revelador de la comprensión egipcia del parto. La anticoncepción, y el control de la natalidad en general, no pueden ser efectivos sin al menos una idea general de la procedencia de los niños.

El papiro fomenta el uso de heces de cocodrilo como anticonceptivo. El método se basa en aplicar el excremento dentro de la vagina y formar una pared que bloquearía los espermatozoides. Además, las heces de cocodrilo son ligeramente alcalinas, como los espermicidas modernos, por lo que el método podría haber ofrecido un segundo nivel de anticoncepción.

El Papiro de Berlín (Reino Medio: ~ 2000 aC a ~ 1700 aC) sugiere un método similar, reemplazando las heces de cocodrilo con ceniza de la quema de semillas de emmer (trigo). Independientemente del material utilizado, el método sobrevivió durante casi 3 milenios. Aparece en el Canon de Medicina de Avicena (~ 1025 d. C.), y Avicena prefiere los excrementos de elefante.

El papiro médico de Ebers (~ 1550 a. C.) muestra un salto en el conocimiento médico desde el papiro de Kahun, discutiendo, entre otras cosas, el aborto y proporcionando una fórmula para un pesario vaginal.

Fuentes:

  • El 'Papiro médico de Kahun' o 'Papiro ginecológico', traducción de Stephen Quirke
  • Anticoncepción: una historia, Robert Jütte
  • Hierbas de Eva: una historia de la anticoncepción y el aborto en Occidente, John M. Riddle

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), autor de la Declaración de Independencia y el tercer presidente de los Estados Unidos, fue una figura destacada en el desarrollo temprano de Estados Unidos. Durante la Guerra Revolucionaria Americana (1775-83), Jefferson sirvió en la legislatura de Virginia y el Congreso Continental y fue gobernador de Virginia. Más tarde se desempeñó como ministro de Estados Unidos en Francia y secretario de estado de Estados Unidos, y fue vicepresidente bajo John Adams (1735-1826). Jefferson, un demócrata-republicano que pensaba que el gobierno nacional debería tener un papel limitado en la vida de los ciudadanos y # x2019, fue elegido presidente en 1800. Durante sus dos mandatos (1801-1809), Estados Unidos compró el territorio de Luisiana y Lewis y Clark exploró la vasta nueva adquisición. Aunque Jefferson promovió la libertad individual, también fue dueño de esclavos. Después de dejar el cargo, se retiró a su plantación de Virginia, Monticello, y ayudó a fundar la Universidad de Virginia.


Contenido

La discapacidad intelectual (DI) se hace evidente durante la infancia e implica deficiencias en las habilidades mentales, las habilidades sociales y las actividades básicas de la vida diaria (AVD) en comparación con los compañeros de la misma edad. [10] A menudo no hay signos físicos de formas leves de DI, aunque puede haber rasgos físicos característicos cuando se asocia con un trastorno genético (p. Ej., Síndrome de Down). [11]

El nivel de deterioro varía en gravedad para cada persona. Algunos de los primeros signos pueden incluir: [11]

  • Retrasos para alcanzar o no alcanzar los hitos en el desarrollo de las habilidades motoras (sentarse, gatear, caminar)
  • Lentitud para aprender a hablar o dificultades continuas con las habilidades del habla y el lenguaje después de comenzar a hablar
  • Dificultad con las habilidades de autoayuda y cuidado personal (por ejemplo, vestirse, lavarse y alimentarse por sí mismos)
  • Pocas habilidades de planificación o resolución de problemas
  • Problemas sociales y de comportamiento [12]
  • Falta de crecimiento intelectual o conducta infantil continuada
  • Problemas para mantenerse al día en la escuela
  • No adaptarse o adaptarse a nuevas situaciones.
  • Dificultad para comprender y seguir las reglas sociales [10]

En la primera infancia, es posible que la DI leve (CI 50–69) no sea obvia o no se identifique hasta que los niños comienzan la escuela. [7] Incluso cuando se reconoce un rendimiento académico deficiente, puede ser necesaria la evaluación de un experto para distinguir la discapacidad intelectual leve de la discapacidad específica en el aprendizaje o los trastornos emocionales / conductuales. Las personas con DI leve son capaces de aprender habilidades de lectura y matemáticas aproximadamente al nivel de un niño típico de nueve a doce años. Pueden aprender habilidades prácticas y de autocuidado, como cocinar o usar el sistema de transporte público local. A medida que las personas con discapacidad intelectual llegan a la edad adulta, muchas aprenden a vivir de forma independiente y a mantener un empleo remunerado. [7] Aproximadamente el 85% de las personas con DI tienen probabilidades de tener DI leve.

La DI moderada (CI 35-49) casi siempre es evidente durante los primeros años de vida. Los retrasos en el habla son signos particularmente comunes de una identificación moderada. Las personas con discapacidad intelectual moderada necesitan un apoyo considerable en la escuela, en el hogar y en la comunidad para poder participar plenamente. Si bien su potencial académico es limitado, pueden aprender habilidades sencillas de salud y seguridad y participar en actividades sencillas. Las personas con ID moderada son capaces de aprender habilidades de lectura y matemáticas aproximadamente al nivel de un niño típico de seis a nueve años. Como adultos, pueden vivir con sus padres, en un hogar grupal de apoyo, o incluso de forma semiindependiente con importantes servicios de apoyo para ayudarlos, por ejemplo, a administrar sus finanzas. Como adultos, pueden trabajar en un taller protegido. [7] Aproximadamente el 10% de las personas con DI tienen probabilidades de tener DI moderada.

Personas con severo (CI 20–34). que representan el 3,5% de las personas con ID o ID profundo (IQ 19 o menos) que representan el 1,5% de las personas con ID necesitan un apoyo y una supervisión más intensivos durante toda su vida. Es posible que aprendan algunas AVD, pero una discapacidad intelectual se considera grave o profunda cuando las personas no pueden cuidar de sí mismas de forma independiente sin la asistencia significativa y continua de un cuidador durante la edad adulta. [7] Las personas con una ID profunda dependen completamente de los demás para todas las AVD y para mantener su salud y seguridad físicas. Es posible que puedan aprender a participar en algunas de estas actividades en un grado limitado. [11]

Comorbilidad

Autismo y discapacidad intelectual

La discapacidad intelectual y el trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) comparten características clínicas que pueden generar confusión durante el diagnóstico. [13] La superposición de estos dos trastornos, aunque es común, puede ser perjudicial para el bienestar de una persona. Aquellos con TEA que presentan síntomas de DI pueden agruparse en un co-diagnóstico en el que están recibiendo tratamiento para un trastorno que no tienen. Del mismo modo, las personas con DI que se confunden con TEA pueden recibir tratamiento por síntomas de un trastorno que no tienen. La diferenciación entre estos dos trastornos permitirá a los médicos administrar o prescribir los tratamientos adecuados. La comorbilidad entre DI y TEA es muy común, aproximadamente el 40% de las personas con DI también tienen TEA y aproximadamente el 70% de las personas con TEA también tienen DI. [14] Tanto el ASD como el ID requieren deficiencias en la comunicación y la conciencia social como criterios definitorios. [13] Tanto el TEA como el DI se clasifican por gravedad: leve, moderada, grave. Además de esos tres niveles, ID tiene una cuarta clasificación conocida como profunda.

Definiendo diferencias

En un estudio realizado en 2016 que encuestó a 2816 casos, se encontró que los principales subconjuntos que ayudan a diferenciar entre aquellos con DI y TEA son ". Comportamiento social no verbal deficiente y falta de reciprocidad social, [.] Intereses restringidos, adherencia estricta a las rutinas, los manierismos motores estereotipados y repetitivos, y la preocupación por las partes de los objetos ". [13] Las personas con TEA tienden a mostrar más deficiencias en el comportamiento social no verbal, como el lenguaje corporal y la comprensión de las señales sociales. En un estudio realizado en 2008 de 336 personas con diferentes niveles de DI, se encontró que aquellos con DI muestran menos casos de comportamientos repetitivos o ritualistas. También reconoció que aquellos con TEA, en comparación con aquellos con DI, eran más propensos a aislarse y hacer menos contacto visual. [15] Cuando se trata de clasificación ID y ASD tienen pautas muy diferentes. ID tiene una evaluación estandarizada llamada Escala de intensidad de apoyos (SIS), que mide la gravedad en un sistema construido alrededor de la cantidad de apoyo que necesitará una persona. Si bien el TEA también clasifica la gravedad según el apoyo necesario, no existe una evaluación estándar, los médicos son libres de diagnosticar la gravedad a su propio criterio. [dieciséis]

Entre los niños, se desconoce la causa de la discapacidad intelectual entre un tercio y la mitad de los casos. [7] Aproximadamente el 5% de los casos se heredan de los padres de una persona. [8] Los defectos genéticos que causan discapacidad intelectual, pero que no se heredan, pueden ser causados ​​por accidentes o mutaciones en el desarrollo genético. Ejemplos de tales accidentes son el desarrollo de un cromosoma 18 adicional (trisomía 18) y el síndrome de Down, que es la causa genética más común. [8] El síndrome velocardiofacial y los trastornos del espectro alcohólico fetal son las dos siguientes causas más comunes. [7] Sin embargo, existen muchas otras causas. Los más comunes son:

    condiciones. A veces, la discapacidad es causada por genes anormales heredados de los padres, errores en la combinación de genes u otras razones. Las afecciones genéticas más prevalentes incluyen síndrome de Down, síndrome de Klinefelter, síndrome de X frágil (común entre los niños), neurofibromatosis, hipotiroidismo congénito, síndrome de Williams, fenilcetonuria (PKU) y síndrome de Prader-Willi. Otras afecciones genéticas incluyen el síndrome de Phelan-McDermid (22q13del), el síndrome de Mowat-Wilson, la ciliopatía genética [17] y la discapacidad intelectual ligada a Siderius tipo X (OMIM: 300263) causada por mutaciones en el PHF8 gen (OMIM: 300560). [18] [19] En los casos más raros, las anomalías con el cromosoma X o Y también pueden causar discapacidad. La tetrasomía X y el síndrome de pentasomía X afectan a una pequeña cantidad de niñas en todo el mundo, mientras que los niños pueden verse afectados por 49, XXXXY o 49, XYYYY. 47, XYY no se asocia con un coeficiente intelectual significativamente reducido, aunque las personas afectadas pueden tener un coeficiente intelectual ligeramente más bajo que los hermanos no afectados en promedio. [20] [21]
  • Problemas durante el embarazo. La discapacidad intelectual puede resultar cuando el feto no se desarrolla adecuadamente. Por ejemplo, puede haber un problema con la forma en que las células del feto se dividen a medida que crece. Una mujer embarazada que bebe alcohol (ver trastorno del espectro alcohólico fetal) o contrae una infección como la rubéola durante el embarazo también puede tener un bebé con una discapacidad intelectual.
  • Problemas al nacer. Si un bebé tiene problemas durante el trabajo de parto y el parto, como no recibir suficiente oxígeno, es posible que tenga una discapacidad del desarrollo debido a un daño cerebral.
  • Exposición a ciertos tipos de enfermedades o toxinas. Enfermedades como la tos ferina, el sarampión o la meningitis pueden causar discapacidad intelectual si la atención médica se retrasa o es inadecuada. La exposición a venenos como el plomo o el mercurio también puede afectar la capacidad mental. , que afecta a aproximadamente 2 mil millones de personas en todo el mundo, es la principal causa prevenible de discapacidad intelectual en áreas del mundo en desarrollo donde la deficiencia de yodo es endémica. La deficiencia de yodo también causa bocio, un agrandamiento de la glándula tiroides. Más común que el cretinismo en toda regla, como se llama la discapacidad intelectual causada por una deficiencia grave de yodo, es el deterioro leve de la inteligencia. Los residentes de ciertas áreas del mundo, debido a la deficiencia natural y la inacción gubernamental, se ven gravemente afectados por la deficiencia de yodo. India tiene 500 millones que padecen deficiencia, 54 millones de bocio y 2 millones de cretinismo. Entre otras naciones afectadas por la deficiencia de yodo, China y Kazajstán han instituido programas generalizados de yodación de la sal. Pero, a partir de 2006, Rusia no lo había hecho. [22] es una causa común de inteligencia reducida en partes del mundo afectadas por la hambruna, como Etiopía y naciones que luchan con períodos prolongados de guerra que interrumpen la producción y distribución agrícola. [23]
  • Ausencia del fascículo arqueado. [24]

Según la Asociación Estadounidense de Discapacidades Intelectuales y del Desarrollo [25] (Discapacidad intelectual: definición, clasificación y sistemas de apoyo (11a edición) y la Asociación Estadounidense de Psiquiatría [26] Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales (DSM-IV), se deben cumplir tres criterios para un diagnóstico de discapacidad intelectual: limitación significativa en las habilidades mentales generales (funcionamiento intelectual), limitaciones significativas en una o más áreas del comportamiento adaptativo en múltiples entornos (medido por una calificación de comportamiento adaptativo escala, es decir, comunicación, habilidades de autoayuda, habilidades interpersonales y más), y evidencia de que las limitaciones se hicieron evidentes en la infancia o la adolescencia. En general, las personas con discapacidad intelectual tienen un coeficiente intelectual por debajo de 70, pero la discreción clínica puede ser necesaria para las personas que tienen un coeficiente intelectual algo más alto pero un deterioro severo en el funcionamiento adaptativo. [11]

Se diagnostica formalmente mediante una evaluación del coeficiente intelectual y la conducta adaptativa. Una tercera afección que debe aparecer durante el período de desarrollo se utiliza para distinguir la discapacidad intelectual de otras afecciones, como las lesiones cerebrales traumáticas y las demencias (incluida la enfermedad de Alzheimer).

Cociente de inteligencia

La primera prueba de CI en inglés, las escalas de inteligencia de Stanford-Binet, fue adaptada de una batería de pruebas diseñada para la colocación escolar por Alfred Binet en Francia. Lewis Terman adaptó la prueba de Binet y la promovió como una prueba que mide la "inteligencia general". La prueba de Terman fue la primera prueba mental ampliamente utilizada para informar las puntuaciones en forma de "cociente intelectual" ("edad mental" dividida por la edad cronológica, multiplicada por 100). Las pruebas actuales se califican en forma de "desviación del coeficiente intelectual", con un nivel de desempeño por parte de un examinado dos desviaciones estándar por debajo de la puntuación media para el grupo de edad de los examinados definido como un coeficiente intelectual de 70. Hasta la revisión más reciente de los estándares de diagnóstico, un coeficiente intelectual de 70 o menos fue un factor principal para el diagnóstico de discapacidad intelectual, y los puntajes de CI se utilizaron para categorizar los grados de discapacidad intelectual.

Dado que el diagnóstico actual de discapacidad intelectual no se basa únicamente en las puntuaciones de CI, sino que también debe tener en cuenta el funcionamiento adaptativo de una persona, el diagnóstico no se realiza de forma rígida. Abarca puntajes intelectuales, puntajes de funcionamiento adaptativo de una escala de calificación de comportamiento adaptativo basada en descripciones de habilidades conocidas proporcionadas por alguien familiarizado con la persona, y también las observaciones del examinador de evaluación que es capaz de averiguar directamente de la persona lo que él o ella Puede entender, comunicar y cosas por el estilo. La evaluación del coeficiente intelectual debe basarse en una prueba actual. Esto permite un diagnóstico para evitar la trampa del efecto Flynn, que es una consecuencia de los cambios en el rendimiento de la prueba de CI de la población que cambian las normas de la prueba de CI a lo largo del tiempo.

Distinción de otras discapacidades

Clínicamente, la discapacidad intelectual es un subtipo de déficit cognitivo o discapacidades que afectan las capacidades intelectuales, que es un concepto más amplio e incluye déficits intelectuales que son demasiado leves para calificar adecuadamente como discapacidad intelectual, o demasiado específicos (como en la discapacidad específica de aprendizaje), o adquiridos posteriormente. en la vida a través de lesiones cerebrales adquiridas o enfermedades neurodegenerativas como la demencia. Los déficits cognitivos pueden aparecer a cualquier edad. La discapacidad del desarrollo es cualquier discapacidad que se deba a problemas de crecimiento y desarrollo. Este término abarca muchas afecciones médicas congénitas que no tienen componentes mentales o intelectuales, aunque a veces también se usa como eufemismo para la discapacidad intelectual. [27]

Limitaciones en más de un área

El comportamiento adaptativo, o funcionamiento adaptativo, se refiere a las habilidades necesarias para vivir de forma independiente (o al nivel mínimamente aceptable para la edad). Para evaluar el comportamiento adaptativo, los profesionales comparan las habilidades funcionales de un niño con las de otros niños de edad similar. Para medir el comportamiento adaptativo, los profesionales utilizan entrevistas estructuradas, con las que obtienen sistemáticamente información sobre el funcionamiento de las personas en la comunidad de personas que las conocen bien. Hay muchas escalas de comportamiento adaptativo, y la evaluación precisa de la calidad del comportamiento adaptativo de una persona también requiere juicio clínico. Ciertas habilidades son importantes para el comportamiento adaptativo, como:

    , como vestirse, usar el baño y alimentarse, como comprender lo que se dice y ser capaz de responder con compañeros, familiares, cónyuges, adultos y otros.

Otras habilidades específicas pueden ser críticas para la inclusión de un individuo en la comunidad y para desarrollar comportamientos sociales apropiados, como por ejemplo, ser consciente de las diferentes expectativas sociales vinculadas a las principales etapas de la vida (es decir, niñez, edad adulta, vejez). Los resultados de un estudio suizo sugieren que el desempeño de los adultos con DI en el reconocimiento de diferentes etapas de la vida está relacionado con habilidades cognitivas específicas y con el tipo de material utilizado para probar este desempeño. [28]

Según la mayoría de las definiciones, la discapacidad intelectual se considera con mayor precisión un discapacidad preferible a enfermedad. La discapacidad intelectual se puede distinguir de muchas formas de las enfermedades mentales, como la esquizofrenia o la depresión. Actualmente, no existe una "cura" para una discapacidad establecida, aunque con el apoyo y la enseñanza adecuados, la mayoría de las personas pueden aprender a hacer muchas cosas. Las causas, como el hipotiroidismo congénito, si se detectan a tiempo, pueden tratarse para prevenir el desarrollo de una discapacidad intelectual. [29]

Hay miles de agencias en todo el mundo que brindan asistencia a personas con discapacidades del desarrollo. Incluyen agencias estatales, con fines de lucro y sin fines de lucro, administradas por el sector privado. Dentro de una agencia podría haber departamentos que incluyan hogares residenciales con personal completo, programas de rehabilitación diurna que se aproximen a las escuelas, talleres en los que las personas con discapacidades puedan obtener trabajo, programas que ayuden a las personas con discapacidades del desarrollo a obtener trabajos en la comunidad, programas que brinden apoyo a las personas. con discapacidades del desarrollo que tienen sus propios apartamentos, programas que los ayudan a criar a sus hijos y muchos más. También hay muchas agencias y programas para padres de niños con discapacidades del desarrollo.

Más allá de eso, existen programas específicos en los que las personas con discapacidades del desarrollo pueden participar en los que aprenden habilidades básicas para la vida. Estos "objetivos" pueden tardar mucho más en alcanzarse, pero el objetivo final es la independencia. Esto puede ser cualquier cosa, desde independencia en el cepillado de dientes hasta una residencia independiente. Las personas con discapacidades del desarrollo aprenden a lo largo de sus vidas y pueden obtener muchas habilidades nuevas incluso en etapas avanzadas de la vida con la ayuda de sus familias, cuidadores, médicos y las personas que coordinan los esfuerzos de todas estas personas.

Hay cuatro amplias áreas de intervención que permiten la participación activa de los cuidadores, los miembros de la comunidad, los médicos y, por supuesto, las personas con discapacidad intelectual. Estos incluyen tratamientos psicosociales, tratamientos conductuales, tratamientos cognitivo conductuales y estrategias orientadas a la familia. [30] Los tratamientos psicosociales están destinados principalmente a los niños antes y durante los años preescolares, ya que este es el momento óptimo para la intervención. [31] Esta intervención temprana debe incluir el estímulo a la exploración, la tutoría en habilidades básicas, la celebración de los avances del desarrollo, el ensayo guiado y la extensión de las habilidades recién adquiridas, la protección contra las demostraciones dañinas de desaprobación, las burlas o el castigo, y la exposición a una experiencia rica y receptiva. entorno de lenguaje. [32] Un gran ejemplo de una intervención exitosa es el Proyecto Carolina Abecedarian que se llevó a cabo con más de 100 niños de familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo desde la infancia hasta los años preescolares. Los resultados indicaron que a los 2 años, los niños que recibieron la intervención obtuvieron puntajes más altos en las pruebas que los niños del grupo de control, y permanecieron aproximadamente 5 puntos más altos 10 años después del final del programa. Al llegar a la edad adulta temprana, los niños del grupo de intervención tenían mejores logros educativos, oportunidades de empleo y menos problemas de conducta que sus contrapartes del grupo de control. [33]

Los componentes centrales de los tratamientos conductuales incluyen la adquisición de habilidades sociales y del lenguaje. Por lo general, se ofrece capacitación individualizada en la que un terapeuta usa un procedimiento de modelado en combinación con refuerzos positivos para ayudar al niño a pronunciar las sílabas hasta que se completan las palabras. A veces, con imágenes y ayudas visuales, los terapeutas tienen como objetivo mejorar la capacidad del habla para que el niño pueda comunicar eficazmente oraciones cortas sobre tareas diarias importantes (por ejemplo, el uso del baño, la comida, etc.). [34] [35] De manera similar, los niños mayores se benefician de este tipo de capacitación a medida que aprenden a mejorar sus habilidades sociales, como compartir, turnarse, seguir instrucciones y sonreír. [36] Al mismo tiempo, un movimiento conocido como inclusión social intenta aumentar las interacciones valiosas entre los niños con discapacidad intelectual y sus compañeros sin discapacidad. [37] Los tratamientos cognitivo-conductuales, una combinación de los dos tipos de tratamiento anteriores, implican una técnica de aprendizaje estratégico-metaestratégico [ aclaración necesaria ] que les enseña a los niños matemáticas, lenguaje y otras habilidades básicas relacionadas con la memoria y el aprendizaje. El primer objetivo de la capacitación es enseñar al niño a ser un pensador estratégico mediante la creación de conexiones y planes cognitivos. Luego, el terapeuta le enseña al niño a ser metaestratégico enseñándole a discriminar entre diferentes tareas y determinar qué plan o estrategia se adapta a cada tarea. [38] Finalmente, las estrategias orientadas a la familia profundizan en empoderar a la familia con el conjunto de habilidades que necesitan para apoyar y alentar a su hijo o hijos con discapacidad intelectual. En general, esto incluye enseñar habilidades de asertividad o técnicas de manejo del comportamiento, así como también cómo pedir ayuda a los vecinos, la familia extendida o el personal de la guardería. [39] A medida que el niño crece, se les enseña a los padres cómo abordar temas como la vivienda / cuidado residencial, el empleo y las relaciones. El objetivo final de cada intervención o técnica es dar al niño autonomía y un sentido de independencia utilizando las habilidades adquiridas que tiene. En una revisión Cochrane de 2019 sobre intervenciones de lectura inicial para niños y adolescentes con discapacidad intelectual, se observaron mejoras de pequeñas a moderadas en la conciencia fonológica, lectura de palabras, decodificación, habilidades del lenguaje expresivo y receptivo y fluidez en la lectura cuando estos elementos formaban parte de la intervención de enseñanza. [40]

Aunque no existe un medicamento específico para la discapacidad intelectual, muchas personas con discapacidades del desarrollo tienen más complicaciones médicas y se les pueden recetar varios medicamentos. Por ejemplo, a los niños autistas con retraso en el desarrollo se les pueden recetar antipsicóticos o estabilizadores del estado de ánimo para ayudar con su comportamiento. El uso de medicamentos psicotrópicos como las benzodiazepinas en personas con discapacidad intelectual requiere vigilancia y vigilancia, ya que los efectos secundarios ocurren con frecuencia y, a menudo, se diagnostican erróneamente como problemas psiquiátricos y de comportamiento. [41]

La discapacidad intelectual afecta aproximadamente al 2-3% de la población general. 75 a 90% de las personas afectadas tienen una discapacidad intelectual leve. La ID no sindrómica o idiopática representa 30 a 50% de los casos. Aproximadamente una cuarta parte de los casos son causados ​​por un trastorno genético. [7] Los casos de causa desconocida afectan a aproximadamente 95 millones de personas a partir de 2013 [actualización]. [9] Es más común en hombres y en países de ingresos bajos a medianos. [29]

La discapacidad intelectual se ha documentado bajo una variedad de nombres a lo largo de la historia. A lo largo de gran parte de la historia de la humanidad, la sociedad fue cruel con las personas con cualquier tipo de discapacidad, y las personas con discapacidad intelectual se consideraban comúnmente una carga para sus familias.

Los filósofos griegos y romanos, que valoraban la capacidad de razonamiento, menospreciaban a las personas con discapacidad intelectual por considerarlas apenas humanas. [42] La visión fisiológica más antigua de la discapacidad intelectual se encuentra en los escritos de Hipócrates a finales del siglo V a. C., quien creía que era causada por un desequilibrio en los cuatro humores del cerebro.

El califa Al-Walid (r. 705–715) construyó una de las primeras residencias para personas con discapacidades intelectuales y construyó el primer hospital que acogió a personas con discapacidades intelectuales como parte de sus servicios. Además, Al-Walid asignó un cuidador a cada individuo con discapacidad intelectual. [43]

Hasta la Ilustración en Europa, el cuidado y el asilo eran proporcionados por las familias y la iglesia (en los monasterios y otras comunidades religiosas), centrándose en la provisión de necesidades físicas básicas como comida, refugio y ropa. Los estereotipos negativos eran prominentes en las actitudes sociales de la época.

En el siglo XIII, Inglaterra declaró que las personas con discapacidad intelectual eran incapaces de tomar decisiones o gestionar sus asuntos. [42] Se crearon tutelas para hacerse cargo de sus asuntos financieros.

En el siglo XVII, Thomas Willis proporcionó la primera descripción de la discapacidad intelectual como una enfermedad. [42] Creía que era causado por problemas estructurales en el cerebro. Según Willis, los problemas anatómicos podrían ser una condición innata o adquiridos más tarde en la vida.

En los siglos XVIII y XIX, la vivienda y el cuidado se alejaron de las familias y se encaminaron hacia un modelo de asilo. Las personas fueron colocadas por sus familias o apartadas de ellas (generalmente en la infancia) y alojadas en grandes instituciones profesionales, muchas de las cuales eran autosuficientes gracias al trabajo de los residentes. Algunas de estas instituciones proporcionaron un nivel de educación muy básico (como la diferenciación entre colores y el reconocimiento básico de palabras y aritmética), pero la mayoría continuó enfocándose únicamente en la provisión de las necesidades básicas de comida, ropa y vivienda. Las condiciones en esas instituciones variaban ampliamente, pero el apoyo brindado generalmente no era individualizado, y el comportamiento aberrante y los bajos niveles de productividad económica se consideraban una carga para la sociedad. Las personas de mayor riqueza a menudo podían permitirse un mayor grado de atención, como atención domiciliaria o asilos privados. [44] Los tranquilizantes intensos y los métodos de apoyo en cadena de montaje eran la norma, y ​​prevalecía el modelo médico de discapacidad. Los servicios se proporcionaron en función de la relativa facilidad para el proveedor, no en función de las necesidades del individuo. Una encuesta realizada en 1891 en Ciudad del Cabo, Sudáfrica, muestra la distribución entre diferentes instalaciones. De 2046 personas encuestadas, 1,281 se encontraban en viviendas privadas, 120 en cárceles y 645 en asilos, y los hombres representaban casi dos tercios del número encuestado. En situaciones de escasez de alojamiento, se dio preferencia a los hombres blancos y negros (cuya locura amenazaba a la sociedad blanca al interrumpir las relaciones laborales y el tabú del contacto sexual con las mujeres blancas). [44]

A finales del siglo XIX, en respuesta a la propuesta de Charles Darwin En el origen de las especiesFrancis Galton propuso la cría selectiva de seres humanos para reducir la discapacidad intelectual. [42] A principios del siglo XX, el movimiento eugenésico se hizo popular en todo el mundo. Esto condujo a la esterilización forzada y la prohibición del matrimonio en la mayor parte del mundo desarrollado y más tarde Adolf Hitler lo utilizó como justificación para el asesinato en masa de personas con discapacidad intelectual durante el Holocausto. Más tarde, la eugenesia fue abandonada como una perversa violación de los derechos humanos, y la práctica de la esterilización forzada y la prohibición del matrimonio fue interrumpida por la mayor parte del mundo desarrollado a mediados del siglo XX.

En 1905, Alfred Binet produjo la primera prueba estandarizada para medir la inteligencia en los niños. [42]

Although ancient Roman law had declared people with intellectual disability to be incapable of the deliberate intent to harm that was necessary for a person to commit a crime, during the 1920s, Western society believed they were morally degenerate. [42]

Ignoring the prevailing attitude, Civitans adopted service to people with developmental disabilities as a major organizational emphasis in 1952. Their earliest efforts included workshops for special education teachers and daycamps for children with disabilities, all at a time when such training and programs were almost nonexistent. [45] The segregation of people with developmental disabilities was not widely questioned by academics or policy-makers until the 1969 publication of Wolf Wolfensberger's seminal work "The Origin and Nature of Our Institutional Models", [46] drawing on some of the ideas proposed by SG Howe 100 years earlier. This book posited that society characterizes people with disabilities as deviant, sub-human and burdens of charity, resulting in the adoption of that "deviant" role. Wolfensberger argued that this dehumanization, and the segregated institutions that result from it, ignored the potential productive contributions that all people can make to society. He pushed for a shift in policy and practice that recognized the human needs of those with intellectual disability and provided the same basic human rights as for the rest of the population.

The publication of this book may be regarded as the first move towards the widespread adoption of the social model of disability in regard to these types of disabilities, and was the impetus for the development of government strategies for desegregation. Successful lawsuits against governments and increasing awareness of human rights and self-advocacy also contributed to this process, resulting in the passing in the U.S. of the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act in 1980.

From the 1960s to the present, most states have moved towards the elimination of segregated institutions. Normalization and deinstitutionalization are dominant. [42] Along with the work of Wolfensberger and others including Gunnar and Rosemary Dybwad, [47] a number of scandalous revelations around the horrific conditions within state institutions created public outrage that led to change to a more community-based method of providing services. [48]

By the mid-1970s, most governments had committed to de-institutionalization and had started preparing for the wholesale movement of people into the general community, in line with the principles of normalization. In most countries, this was essentially complete by the late 1990s, although the debate over whether or not to close institutions persists in some states, including Massachusetts. [49]

In the past, lead poisoning and infectious diseases were significant causes of intellectual disability. Some causes of intellectual disability are decreasing, as medical advances, such as vaccination, increase. Other causes are increasing as a proportion of cases, perhaps due to rising maternal age, which is associated with several syndromic forms of intellectual disability. [ cita necesaria ]

Along with the changes in terminology, and the downward drift in acceptability of the old terms, institutions of all kinds have had to repeatedly change their names. This affects the names of schools, hospitals, societies, government departments, and academic journals. For example, the Midlands Institute of Mental Sub-normality became the British Institute of Mental Handicap and is now the British Institute of Learning Disability. This phenomenon is shared with mental health and motor disabilities, and seen to a lesser degree in sensory disabilities. [ cita necesaria ]

Terminology

The terms used for this condition are subject to a process called the euphemism treadmill. This means that whatever term is chosen for this condition, it eventually becomes perceived as an insult. Los términos mental retardation y mentally retarded were invented in the middle of the 20th century to replace the previous set of terms, which included "imbecile" [50] [51] and "moron" [52] and are now considered offensive. By the end of the 20th century, these terms themselves have come to be widely seen as disparaging, politically incorrect, and in need of replacement. [53] The term intellectual disability is now preferred by most advocates and researchers in most English-speaking countries. [4] [5]

El término "mental retardation" was used in the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-IV (1994) and in the World Health Organization's ICD-10 (codes F70–F79). In the next revision, the ICD-11, this term has been replaced by the term "disorders of intellectual development" (codes 6A00–6A04 6A00.Z for the "unspecified" diagnosis code). [54] [55] The term "intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder)" is used in DSM-5 (2013). [11] As of 2013 [update] , "intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder)" is the term that has come into common use by among educational, psychiatric, and other professionals over the past two decades. [11] Because of its specificity and lack of confusion with other conditions, the term "mental retardation" is still sometimes used in professional medical settings around the world, such as formal scientific research and health insurance paperwork. [56]

The several traditional terms that long predate psychiatry are simple forms of abuse in common usage today they are often encountered in such old documents as books, academic papers, and census forms. For example, the British census of 1901 has a column heading including the terms imbecile y feeble-minded. [ cita necesaria ]

Vaguer expressions like developmentally disabled, [57] special, o challenged have been used instead of the term mentally retarded. El término developmental delay was popular among caretakers and parents of individuals with intellectual disability because delay suggests that a person is slowly reaching his or her full potential, rather than having a lifelong condition. [ cita necesaria ]

Usage has changed over the years and differed from country to country. Por ejemplo, mental retardation in some contexts covers the whole field but previously applied to what is now the mild MR group. Feeble-minded used to mean mild MR in the UK, and once applied in the US to the whole field. "Borderline intellectual functioning" is not currently defined, but the term may be used to apply to people with IQs in the 70s. People with IQs of 70 to 85 used to be eligible for special consideration in the US public education system on grounds of intellectual disability. [ cita necesaria ]

  • Cretin is the oldest and comes from a dialectal French word for Christian. [58] The implication was that people with significant intellectual or developmental disabilities were "still human" (or "still Christian") and deserved to be treated with basic human dignity. Individuals with the condition were considered to be incapable of sinning, thus "Christ-like" in their disposition. This term has not been used in scientific endeavors since the middle of the 20th century and is generally considered a term of abuse. A pesar de que cretin is no longer in use, the term cretinism is still used to refer to the mental and physical disability resulting from untreated congenital hypothyroidism.
  • Amentia has a long history, mostly associated with dementia. The difference between amentia and dementia was originally defined by time of onset. Amentia was the term used to denote an individual who developed deficits in mental functioning early in life, while dementia included individuals who develop mental deficiencies as adults. Theodor Meynert in the 1890s lectures described amentia as a form of sudden-onset confusion (German: Verwirrtheit), often with hallucinations. [59] This term was long in use in psychiatry in this sense. Emil Kraepelin in the 1910s wrote that “acute confusion (amentia)” is a form of febrile delirium. [59] By 1912, amentia was a classification lumping "idiots, imbeciles, and feeble minded" individuals in a category separate from a dementia classification, in which the onset is later in life. In Russian psychiatry the term “amentia” defines a form of clouding of consciousness, which is dominated by confusion, true hallucinations, incoherence of thinking and speech and chaotic movements. [60] In Russia “amentia” (Russian: аменция ) is not associated with intellectual disability and mean only clouding of consciousness.
  • Idiot indicated the greatest degree of intellectual disability, where the mental age is two years or less, and the person cannot guard himself or herself against common physical dangers. The term was gradually replaced by the term profound mental retardation (which has itself since been replaced by other terms).
  • Imbecile indicated an intellectual disability less extreme than idiocy and not necessarily inherited. It is now usually subdivided into two categories, known as severe intellectual disability y moderate intellectual disability.
  • Moron was defined by the American Association for the Study of the Feeble-minded in 1910, following work by Henry H. Goddard, as the term for an adult with a mental age between eight and twelve mild intellectual disability is now the term for this condition. Alternative definitions of these terms based on IQ were also used. This group was known in UK law from 1911 to 1959–60 as feeble-minded.
  • Mongolism y Mongoloid idiot were medical terms used to identify someone with Down syndrome, as the doctor who first described the syndrome, John Langdon Down, believed that children with Down syndrome shared facial similarities with Blumenbach's "Mongolian race". The Mongolian People's Republic requested that the medical community cease the use of the term as a referent to intellectual disability. Their request was granted in the 1960s when the World Health Organization agreed that the term should cease being used within the medical community. [61]
  • In the field of special education, educable (or "educable intellectual disability") refers to ID students with IQs of approximately 50–75 who can progress academically to a late-elementary level. Trainable (or "trainable intellectual disability") refers to students whose IQs fall below 50 but who are still capable of learning personal hygiene and other living skills in a sheltered setting, such as a group home. In many areas, these terms have been replaced by use of "moderate" and "severe" intellectual disability. While the names change, the meaning stays roughly the same in practice.
  • Retarded comes from the Latin retardare, "to make slow, delay, keep back, or hinder," so mental retardation meant the same as mentally delayed. The term was recorded in 1426 as a "fact or action of making slower in movement or time". The first record of retarded in relation to being mentally slow was in 1895. The term mentally retarded was used to replace terms like idiot, moron, y imbecile porque retarded was not then a derogatory term. By the 1960s, however, the term had taken on a partially derogatory meaning as well. El sustantivo retard is particularly seen as pejorative a BBC survey in 2003 ranked it as the most offensive disability-related word, ahead of terms such as spastic (or its abbreviation spaz) and mong. [62] The terms mentally retarded y mental retardation are still fairly common, but currently the Special Olympics, Best Buddies, and over 100 other organizations are striving to eliminate their use by referring to the word retard and its variants as the "r-word", in an effort to equate it to the word negro and the associated euphemism "n-word", in everyday conversation. These efforts resulted in federal legislation, known as Rosa's Law, which replaced the term mentally retarded with the term intellectual disability in federal statutes. [4][63][64]
    El término mental retardation was a diagnostic term denoting the group of disconnected categories of mental functioning such as idiot, imbecile, y moron derived from early IQ tests, which acquired pejorative connotations in popular discourse. It acquired negative and shameful connotations over the last few decades due to the use of the words retarded y retard as insults. This may have contributed to its replacement with euphemisms such as mentally challenged o intellectually disabled. Tiempo developmental disability includes many other disorders, developmental disability y developmental delay (for people under the age of 18) are generally considered more polite terms than mental retardation.

Albert Julius Levine and Louis Marks proposed a set of categories in their 1928 book Testing Intelligence and Achievement. [65] Some of the terminologies in the table came from contemporary terms for classifying individuals with intellectual disabilities.

Levine and Marks 1928 IQ classification [66] [67]
IQ Range ("ratio IQ") IQ Classification
175 and over Precocious
150–174 Very superior
125–149 Superior
115–124 Very bright
105–114 Bright
95–104 Promedio
85–94 Dull
75–84 Límite
50–74 Morons
25–49 Imbeciles
0–24 Idiots

Estados Unidos

  • In North America, intellectual disability is subsumed into the broader term developmental disability, which also includes epilepsy, autism, cerebral palsy, and other disorders that develop during the developmental period (birth to age 18). Because service provision is tied to the designation "developmental disability", it is used by many parents, direct support professionals, and physicians. In the United States, however, in school-based settings, the more specific term mental retardation or, more recently (and preferably), intellectual disability, is still typically used, and is one of 13 categories of disability under which children may be identified for special education services under Public Law 108–446.
  • La frase intellectual disability is increasingly being used as a synonym for people with significantly below-average cognitive ability. These terms are sometimes used as a means of separating general intellectual limitations from specific, limited deficits as well as indicating that it is not an emotional or psychological disability. It is not specific to congenital disorders such as Down syndrome.

The American Association on Mental Retardation changed its name to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) in 2007, and soon thereafter changed the names of its scholarly journals [68] to reflect the term "intellectual disability". In 2010, the AAIDD released its 11th edition of its terminology and classification manual, which also used the term intellectual disability. [69] [70]

United Kingdom

In the UK, mental handicap had become the common medical term, replacing mental subnormality in Scotland and mental deficiency in England and Wales, until Stephen Dorrell, Secretary of State for Health for the United Kingdom from 1995 to 1997, changed the NHS's designation to learning disability. [71] The new term is not yet widely understood, and is often taken to refer to problems affecting schoolwork (the American usage), which are known in the UK as "learning difficulties". British social workers may use "learning difficulty" to refer to both people with intellectual disability and those with conditions such as dyslexia. [72] In education, "learning difficulties" is applied to a wide range of conditions: "specific learning difficulty" may refer to dyslexia, dyscalculia or developmental coordination disorder, while "moderate learning difficulties", "severe learning difficulties" and "profound learning difficulties" refer to more significant impairments. [73] [74]

In England and Wales between 1983 and 2008, the Mental Health Act 1983 defined "mental impairment" and "severe mental impairment" as "a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind which includes significant/severe impairment of intelligence and social functioning and is associated with abnormally aggressive or seriously irresponsible conduct on the part of the person concerned." [75] As behavior was involved, these were not necessarily permanent conditions: they were defined for the purpose of authorizing detention in hospital or guardianship. El término mental impairment was removed from the Act in November 2008, but the grounds for detention remained. However, English statute law uses mental impairment elsewhere in a less well-defined manner—e.g. to allow exemption from taxes—implying that intellectual disability without any behavioral problems is what is meant.

A BBC poll conducted in the United Kingdom came to the conclusion that 'retard' was the most offensive disability-related word. [76] On the reverse side of that, when a contestant on Celebrity Big Brother live used the phrase "walking like a retard", despite complaints from the public and the charity Mencap, the communications regulator Ofcom did not uphold the complaint saying "it was not used in an offensive context [. ] and had been used light-heartedly". It was, however, noted that two previous similar complaints from other shows were upheld. [77]

Australia

In the past, Australia has used British and American terms interchangeably, including "mental retardation" and "mental handicap". Today, "intellectual disability" is the preferred and more commonly used descriptor. [78]

People with intellectual disabilities are often not seen as full citizens of society. Person-centered planning and approaches are seen as methods of addressing the continued labeling and exclusion of socially devalued people, such as people with disabilities, encouraging a focus on the person as someone with capacities and gifts as well as support needs. The self-advocacy movement promotes the right of self-determination and self-direction by people with intellectual disabilities, which means allowing them to make decisions about their own lives.

Until the middle of the 20th century, people with intellectual disabilities were routinely excluded from public education, or educated away from other typically developing children. Compared to peers who were segregated in special schools, students who are mainstreamed or included in regular classrooms report similar levels of stigma and social self-conception, but more ambitious plans for employment. [79] As adults, they may live independently, with family members, or in different types of institutions organized to support people with disabilities. About 8% currently live in an institution or a group home. [80]

In the United States, the average lifetime cost of a person with an intellectual disability amounts to $223,000 per person, in 2003 US dollars, for direct costs such as medical and educational expenses. [80] The indirect costs were estimated at $771,000, due to shorter lifespans and lower than average economic productivity. [80] The total direct and indirect costs, which amount to a little more than a million dollars, are slightly more than the economic costs associated with cerebral palsy, and double that associated with serious vision or hearing impairments. [80] Of the costs, about 14% is due to increased medical expenses (not including what is normally incurred by the typical person), and 10% is due to direct non-medical expenses, such as the excess cost of special education compared to standard schooling. [80] The largest amount, 76%, is indirect costs accounting for reduced productivity and shortened lifespans. [80] Some expenses, such as ongoing costs to family caregivers or the extra costs associated with living in a group home, were excluded from this calculation. [80]

The law treats person with intellectual disabilities differently than those without intellectual disabilities. Their human rights and freedoms, including the right to vote, the right to conduct business, enter into a contract, enter into marriage, right to education, are often limited. The courts have upheld some of these limitations and found discrimination in others. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which sets minimum standards for the rights of persons with disabilities, has been ratified by more than 180 countries. In several U.S. states, and several European Union states, persons with intellectual disabilities are disenfranchised. [81] [82] The European Court of Human Rights ruled in Alajos Kiss v. Hungary that Hungary violated the applicant's rights by a blank disenfranchisement of persons with intellectual disabilities who did not hold legal capacity. [83]

People with intellectual disabilities are usually at a higher risk of living with complex health conditions such as epilepsy and neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and behavioral and psychiatric problems compared to people without disabilities. [84] Adults also have a higher prevalence of poor social determinants of health, behavioral risk factors, depression, diabetes, and poor or fair health status than adults without intellectual disability.

In the United Kingdom people with intellectual disability live on average 16 years less than the general population. Some of the barriers that exist for people with ID accessing quality healthcare include: communication challenges, service eligibility, lack of training for healthcare providers, diagnostic overshadowing, and absence of targeted health promotion services. [85] [86] Key recommendations from the CDC for improving the health status for people with intellectual disabilities include: improve access to health care, improve data collection, strengthen the workforce, include people with ID in public health programs, and prepare for emergencies with people with disabilities in mind. [87]


Ancient Jewish Education of Children and Use of Scripture

How did the Ancient Jews learn the Bible? From an early age the Jews were taught to learn Scripture “by heart.” That is, they memorized Scripture.

The Jewish educational system sought to isolate itself from other cultural influences. An anecdotal story show that the Jewish community and school were not interested in propagating outside cultures, influences or educational methods inside their educational system:

“…In the Talmud there is a story of a progressive young Rabbi who wished to study Greek on the grounds that he had mastered the Law. An older Rabbi reminded him of the worlds of Joshua: ‘This book of the Law shall not depart out of thy mouth but thou shall meditate therein day and night.’ ‘Go then and consider’ he said, ‘which is the hour which is neither of the day or of the night, and in it thou mayest study Greek wisdom.’”

Education a Priority

In the ancient Jewish community, education for children took a high priority. Barclay goes so far as to state, “It would not be wrong to say that for the Jew the child was the most important person in the community.” Examining the words of Josephus, Barclay may be correct. Josephus writes, “Our ground is good, and we work it to the utmost, but our chief ambition is for the education of our children…We take most pains of all with the instruction of children, and esteem the observation of the laws, and the piety corresponding with them, the most important affair of our whole life.”

This dedication to education in the Jewish community made them one of the most literate communities during the time period, “So widespread and far-reaching was this education in New Testament times, that A.C. Bouquet says that it was an ‘age of the widest literacy for eighteen hundred years to come.’”
Memory of Scripture

Because Scripture is the Divine revelation of God, the Jewish community put emphasis on learning the Scripture from an early age, “Philo writes: ‘Since Jews esteem their laws as divine revelations, and are instructed in the knowledge of them from their earliest youth, they bear the image of the Law in their souls…’” The preservation of the divine writing was to be established not only on scrolls, but in the memory of every Israelite. As noted, this remembrance began at youth, “The ideal of instruction is oral teaching, and the worthiest shrine of truths that must not die is the memory and heart of the faithful disciple.”

Scripture Learned at an Early Age

The ancient Jews began the education of their children at the age of five to seven. “There is a late addendum to the fifth book of the Sayings of the Fathers, which sets out the ages of man:

‘At five years old, Scripture at ten years, Mishnah at thirteen, the commandments at fifteen, Talmud…’”

But the Rabbis felt that a child was never too young to begin hearing, learning and being impressed with the words of Scripture, and in fact recognized that this process of learning was most beneficial at an early age, “Rabbi Abujah said: ‘He who learns as a lad, to what is he like? To ink written on fresh paper. And he who learns when he is old, to what is he like? To ink written on paper that has already been used.’”

Religious Learning at Home

Even with their high value upon education in school, the true place of religious learning was to be the home. It was in the home that catechesis was to take place foremost with the father of the house teaching the children the Torah, “As soon as a child can speak (that is, after his third year) he is to be instructed in the Law by his father.” Barclay continues, “”From the fourth year it is the duty of the father to begin to initiate him into the great truths, for land and religion begin when the child can speak distinctly.”

Speaking Scripture

The first thing a Jewish child was taught, after he was old enough to speak, were two important texts from Scripture, “As for actual instruction, as soon as he could speak the child was taught to memorise and to say the two texts: ‘Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord,’ and, ‘Moses commanded us a law, even the inheritance of the congregation of Jacob.’”

In addition, when attending religious festivals, the father was to explain to his children the meaning behind the festivals and instruct them God’s graciousness as shown in history. They synagogue services were also an opportunity to learn, “The characteristic word in connection with the Synagogue in the New Testament is didaskein, to teach.”

Scripture Alone the Textbook

The backbone of all ancient Jewish education was Scripture alone, “It has always to be remembered that Jewish education was entirely religious education. There was no text-book except the Scriptures all primary education was preparation for reading the Law and all higher education was the reading and the study of it.” Barclay continues, “The Jews were ‘the people of the book’ not because each individual one of them possessed the book, but because the book was the container of the law of life, which was inserted into their minds, and graven upon their hearts, by oral teaching.” This exemplifies what has been stated above under the exegesis of Deuteronomy 18:18-21.

Scripture Learned by Toil

Of course the learning ‘by heart’ of Scripture was no easy task, and required dedication and hard work, “The Jew never pretended that this was easy. Such knowledge was only to be won at the cost of toil. A man cannot inherit his father’s knowledge, as he might his fortune…Rabbi Joses the Priest said: ‘Give thyself trouble to learn the Law, for it is not obtained by inheritance.’”


Ancient Cities (6th Century B.C. — 4th Century AD)

Like their tribal ancestors, the Greeks displayed some preference for privacy. And, unlike their primitive ancestors, the Greeks had the means to do something about it. University of Leicester’ Samantha Burke found that the Greeks used their sophisticated understanding of geometry to create housing with the mathematically minimum exposure to public view while maximizing available light.

However, Athenians penchant for solitude was not without its influential critics:

“For where men conceal their ways from one another in darkness rather than light, there no man will ever rightly gain either his due honour or office or the justice that is befitting”

Athenian philosophy proved far more popular than their architecture. In Greece’s far less egalitarian successor, Rome, the landed gentry built their homes with wide open gardens. Turning one’s house into a public museum was an ostentatious display of wealth. Though, the rich seemed self-aware of their unfortunate trade-off:

“Great fortune has this characteristic, that it allows nothing to be concealed, nothing hidden it opens up the homes of princes, and not only that but their bedrooms and intimate retreats, and it opens up and exposes to talk all the arcane secrets”

Pliny the Elder, ‘The Natural History’, circa 77 A.D.

The majority of Romans lived in crowded apartments, with walls thin enough to hear every noise. “Think of Ancient Rome as a giant campground,” writes Angela Alberto in A Day in the life of Ancient Rome.

And, thanks to the Rome’s embrace of public sex, there was less of a motivation to make it taboo—especially considering the benefits.

“Baths, drink and sex corrupt our bodies, but baths, drink and sex make life worth living”


Scientists have had a difficult time identifying the cause of the epidemic

The first cocoliztli epidemic happened in 1545, and it was so devastating that it forced the abandonment of entire villages, including a Mixtec village in Oaxaca, where researchers uncovered skeletons believed to have been victims of the first occurrence of the disease. A second outbreak hit in 1576, right around the time survivors were probably starting to relax and think the pestilence was a thing of the past. De acuerdo a El guardián, the second epidemic killed half of the region's surviving population.

It wasn't until this century that researchers finally started to put two and two together, based on historical accounts of the disease and the high death toll. In 2006, research published in FEMS Microbiology Letters examined census data from 1570 and 1580, and they found a population loss of 51.36 percent, which is pretty astonishing over such a short time period. The research also determined that the epidemic began in the valleys of central Mexico, and although losses were heavy in the indigenous population, the Spanish population was hardly affected at all. This research identified cocoliztli as a probable cause for the final collapse of the Aztec culture, though it was unable to precisely identify the pathogen responsible for the disease.


Why you should know the history of special education

If we were to travel back in time a little over 100 years ago, we would see a sight that would turn our stomachs. A child that had intellectual or physical disabilities would have had no access to school or would have been institutionalized.

The current special education system in the United States is a product of many different events and influences that have occurred throughout the years. Both political and social issues have played a significant role in the evolution of special education. Specifically, the key players have been parent advocates and the civil rights movement.

History of Special Education

In the 1920’s and 1930’s special classrooms began to be created within the schools. Classrooms were created for students who could not keep up with students in the general education class. This system continued through the 󈧶s. As time went on, negative outcomes became apparent.

Students in the special education classrooms were seen as unable to learn any academic skills. At that time, researchers stepped into to study the effectiveness of special education. Their findings revealed that those students who were integrated into the general education classroom were doing better learning more than those students in a separate classroom. (Friend, Bursuck 2015).

As a response, two game changers emerged. Parent advocacy and the civil rights movement changed the way we see our special education system as we see it today. Parents of groups of children with disabilities began to organize and unite. They started to speak out against the traditional practices and demanded that their children had a right to the same educational experiences as other children.

The second influence was the civil rights movement. If separate but equal was unconstitutional for race, it was unconstitutional when it came to ability.

As a result, three laws were created to protect children with disabilities and also to prevent discrimination.

Laws and Regulations

The first law that was created was section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Section 504 was created to prevent discrimination against all individuals with disabilities in programs receiving federal funds.

To take the rehabilitation law one more step, in 1990, George H.W. Bush signed legislation called Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ADA goes beyond the classroom to protect individuals with disabilities in workplaces, buildings, and transportation. Even telecommunications are also required to make accommodations for individuals with disabilities. The ADA is seen today as one of the most significant legislation ever passed for individuals with disabilities (Friend, Bursuck. 2015).

The third law that was created was Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA). As a parent of children with hearing loss, understanding IDEA is extremely important.

“As a parent of children with hearing loss, understanding IDEA is extremely important.”

The law was originally established under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975 but has evolved throughout the years. Today, IDEA has six core principles that are in place as the foundation of the law.

Under this principle, students with a disability are “entitled” to attend public schools and receive educational services to address their specific needs. This includes technology, materials, and even set at no cost to the parent. (Friend, Bursuck. 2015).

LRE is the idea that students with a disability should not be placed in a separate classroom or school. The goal for each child is to have them in a classroom that will limit them the least. In some cases, a separate classroom or setting will be the best fit for a child, but for most children, the general education class setting will be the LRE.

Each child is entitled to their own individualized education plan (IEP). What is fair and equal to one child, will be different than for another child. A team of professionals writes an IEP with the child’s parents.

Nondiscriminatory evaluation refers to the tools that are used for evaluating a student. The tools should not discriminate based on race, culture or disability.

The individualized education plan for each child is seen as a legal document and cannot be changed. A specific set of informal and formal procedures must take place.

Under this principle, students are protected from being told that the school can not meet the needs of their child and should go to another school. The district is responsible for providing the services.

What does this mean for today?

There are a number of vital pieces that we walk away with after learning about the history of special education. The first is to know that change is possible. We have come a long way in the special education system from where it was over 100 years ago, but we still have a long way to go.

“We have come a long way in the special education system from where it was over 100 years ago, but we still have a long way to go.”

More horizons are still out there. Support for individuals with disabilities in private schools and universities are still needed. Equipping teachers to know how to teach both mainstream and special education is more important than ever. The fight is not over.

However, we can learn the vital role that parent advocates play. Parents not only have a voice, but they have legal rights to ensure that their children have a fair and equal education. With knowledge and persistence, parents can make change happen.

All advocates for individuals with disabilities, need to be informed and aware of how any new legislation will impact the access to a fair and equal education. For example, last February, the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative serves wrote that Betsy DeVoss, Education Secretary, had a total of 72 guidance documents that have been rescinded due to being “outdated, unnecessary, or ineffective.” It has been unclear exactly how this will impact special education. But, as we move forward, it is vital to be vigilant about current events. We need to understand current law, including the rights of those with disabilities and the rights parents have and the impact that changes would have on the rights for ourselves and our children.

Today, there are many supports that are legally in place to accommodate students with hearing loss. Specifically, students are entitled to an IEP under the Individuals with Disability Education Act. Including access to technology such as FM systems at no cost to the parents. The law states that we are not looking for the “best” education, but “equal and fair.” Arguing that an FM system, sign language interpreter, or appropriate seating, are examples of accommodations that can be made to make for an equal and fair education. Even children with mild to moderate hearing loss need access to an FM system in the classroom.

Special Educator and advocate, Dr. Jennifer Buss at Lewis University, says the best way that parents can advocate for their children with hearing loss is to see their child as individuals and not compare them to other children.

“…the best way that parents can advocate for their children with hearing loss is to see their child as individuals and not compare them to other children.”

What is best for one child might not be best for your child even in the hearing loss world.

The ranges of hearing loss, type of hearing loss, and personal background will impact each child differently. Inclusion is best for some many, but not all. The way the law is currently set up, each child has their own IEP. Parents have a voice to advocate what they believe is most beneficial for their own child’s education.

Knowing the history of special education in the United States equips parents, teachers, and advocates to be aware of where we have come from.

Our special education system has transformed over the past century, but we still have a long way to go. For parents of children with disabilities, it is vital that they know their legal rights under federal law.

Furthermore, parents cannot underestimate their roles as advocates. Throughout history, they have created incredible and much-needed change in the US education system. Fighting for a child’s right to an equal education might be one of the most powerful roles a parent has.

Do you have any tips for fighting for your child’s education? Please let us know in the comments!


Historians confirm what the Bible says about Jesus.

Not only do we have well-preserved copies of the original manuscripts, we also have testimony from both Jewish and Roman historians.

The gospels report that Jesus of Nazareth performed many miracles, was executed by the Romans, and rose from the dead. Numerous ancient historians back the Bible's account of the life of Jesus and his followers:

Cornelius Tacitus (A.D. 55-120), an historian of first-century Rome, is considered one of the most accurate historians of the ancient world. 8 An excerpt from Tacitus tells us that the Roman emperor Nero "inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class. called Christians. . Christus [Christ], from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus. " 9

Flavius Josephus, a Jewish historian (A.D. 38-100), wrote about Jesus in his Jewish Antiquities. From Josephus, "we learn that Jesus was a wise man who did surprising feats, taught many, won over followers from among Jews and Greeks, was believed to be the Messiah, was accused by the Jewish leaders, was condemned to be crucified by Pilate, and was considered to be resurrected." 10

Suetonius, Pliny the Younger, and Thallus also wrote about Christian worship and persecution that is consistent with New Testament accounts.

Even the Jewish Talmud, certainly not biased toward Jesus, concurs about the major events of his life. From the Talmud, "we learn that Jesus was conceived out of wedlock, gathered disciples, made blasphemous claims about himself, and worked miracles, but these miracles are attributed to sorcery and not to God." 11

This is remarkable information considering that most ancient historians focused on political and military leaders, not on obscure rabbis from distant provinces of the Roman Empire. Yet ancient historians (Jews, Greeks and Romans) confirm the major events that are presented in the New Testament, even though they were not believers themselves.


Nicolas's Crusade

There have also been accounts of a German Children’s Crusade taking place in 1212. This was purportedly led by a child called Nicolas, who said he had 20,000 followers. He was thought to have the same dream as Stephen, and planned to take Jerusalem back from the Muslims.

Nicolas’ crusade also included religious men and unmarried women, so it was not fully considered a Children’s Crusade. Despite that, their dangerous journey across the Alps led to many dying from cold, including the adults. However, those who made it across pushed onto Italy.

Having arrived in Rome, the remaining crusaders met with the pope who praised their bravery. However, he told them that they were too young to be successful in such a venture and sent them back to Germany. Sadly, many of them did not survive the journey back, while a group who boarded a ship in the Italian port of Pisa bound for the Hold Land were never heard from again.

Although both Children’s Crusades were a disaster, historians argue that they do highlight the importance of religion and Jerusalem in particular to everyday people living in the Middle Ages.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Amit-Talai, Vered, and Helena Wulff, eds. 1995. Youth Cultures: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Londres: Routledge.

Austin, Joe, and Michael Willard, eds. 1998. Generations of Youth: Youth Cultures and History in Twentieth-Century America. New York: New York University Press.

Brake, Michael. 1985. Comparative Youth Culture. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Fass, Paula S. 1977. The Damned and the Beautiful: American Youth in the 1920s. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.

Gelder, Ken, and Sarah Thornton, eds. 1997. The Subcultures Reader. Londres: Routledge.

Inness, Sherrie, ed. 1998. Delinquents and Debutantes: Twentieth Century American Girls' Culture. New York: New York University Press.

Kett, Joseph. 1977. Rites of Passage: Adolescence in America 1790 to the Present. Nueva York: Basic Books.

Levi, Giovanni, and Jean-Claude Schmitt, eds. 1997. A History of Young People in the West, Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


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