George Sutherland

George Sutherland

George Sutherland nació en Stony Stratford, Inglaterra, el 25 de marzo de 1862. Cuando era niño, la familia emigró a los Estados Unidos. Se establecieron en Utah y luego se educaron en la Academia Brigham Young y en la Universidad de Michigan.

Sutherland fue admitido en el colegio de abogados en 1883 y ejerció en Provo, Utah. Miembro del Partido Republicano, Sutherland sirvió en la Cámara de Representantes (1901-03) y en el Senado de los Estados Unidos (1905-17).

Después de ser derrotado en 1916, Sutherland se convirtió en asesor legal de Warren Harding. Poco después de que Harding se convirtiera en presidente, nombró a Sutherland para la Corte Suprema. Sutherland era un juez conservador y en 1923 prohibió el salario mínimo.

Franklin D. Roosevelt, el candidato del Partido Demócrata, fue elegido presidente en 1932. Durante los años siguientes, Sutherland y los demás jueces que eran partidarios del Partido Republicano fallaron en contra de la Administración de Recuperación Nacional (NRA), la Ley de Ajuste Agrícola ( AAA) y otras diez leyes del New Deal.

El 2 de febrero de 1937, Franklin D. Roosevelt pronunció un discurso en el que atacó a la Corte Suprema por sus acciones sobre la legislación del New Deal. Señaló que siete de los nueve jueces (Sutherland, Charles Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, Benjamin Cardozo y Pierce Butler) habían sido nombrados por presidentes republicanos. Roosevelt acababa de ganar la reelección por 10,000,000 de votos y estaba resentido por el hecho de que los jueces pudieran vetar leyes que claramente tenían el apoyo de la gran mayoría del público.

Roosevelt sugirió que la edad era un problema importante ya que seis de los jueces tenían más de 70 (Sutherland, Charles Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, James McReynolds, Louis Brandeis y Pierce Butler). Roosevelt anunció que le iba a pedir al Congreso que aprobara un proyecto de ley que le permitiera al presidente expandir la Corte Suprema agregando un nuevo juez, hasta un máximo de seis, por cada juez actual mayor de 70 años.

Charles Hughes se dio cuenta de que el Proyecto de Ley de Reorganización de la Corte de Roosevelt daría como resultado que la Corte Suprema quedara bajo el control del Partido Demócrata. Su primer paso fue hacer arreglos para que una carta escrita por él fuera publicada por Burton Wheeler, presidente del Comité Judicial. En la carta, Hughes refutó convincentemente todas las afirmaciones hechas por Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Sin embargo, entre bastidores, Charles Hughes estaba ocupado haciendo tratos para asegurarse de que el proyecto de ley de Roosevelt fuera rechazado en el Congreso. El 29 de marzo, Owen Roberts anunció que había cambiado de opinión acerca de votar en contra de la legislación sobre salario mínimo. Hughes también revirtió su opinión sobre la Ley de Seguridad Social y la Ley Nacional de Relaciones Laborales (NLRA, por sus siglas en inglés) y por 5 a 4 votos ahora fueron declaradas constitucionales.

Entonces Willis Van Devanter, probablemente el más conservador de los magistrados, anunció su intención de dimitir. Fue reemplazado por Hugo Black, miembro del Partido Demócrata y un firme partidario del New Deal. En julio de 1937, el Congreso derrotó el Proyecto de Ley de Reorganización de la Corte por 70-20. Sin embargo, Roosevelt tuvo la satisfacción de saber que tenía una Corte Suprema que ahora tenía menos probabilidades de bloquear su legislación.

George Sutherland renunció a la Corte Suprema en 1938 a la edad de 76 años. Murió en Stockbridge, Massachusetts, el 18 de julio de 1942.


SUTHERLAND, GEORGE

George Sutherland se desempeñó como juez asociado de la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos de 1922 a 1938. Un jurista conservador, Sutherland se opuso a los esfuerzos del Congreso y las legislaturas estatales para regular las condiciones comerciales y laborales. Durante la década de 1930 formó parte de un bloque conservador que gobernó inconstitucionalmente la mayor parte del presidente franklin d. el nuevo programa de acuerdos de Roosevelt.

Sutherland nació el 25 de marzo de 1862 en Buckinghamshire, Inglaterra. Cuando Sutherland era un niño pequeño, sus padres emigraron a los Estados Unidos y se establecieron en Provo, Utah. Sutherland se graduó de la Universidad Brigham Young en 1881 y asistió a la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Michigan en 1882 y 1883. Fue admitido en el colegio de abogados de Michigan en 1883 pero regresó ese mismo año a Utah, donde estableció una práctica de derecho en Salt Lake City.

Sutherland se interesó por la política y sirvió en la legislatura territorial. En 1896, después de que Utah se convirtió en estado, Sutherland fue elegido para el primer Senado de Utah como miembro del partido republicano. En 1901 fue elegido miembro de la Cámara de Representantes de EE. UU. Y en 1905 se convirtió en senador de EE. UU. Por Utah.

"[El] epitafio más triste que puede grabarse en la memoria [de] una libertad desaparecida es que se perdió porque sus poseedores no pudieron extender una mano salvadora mientras aún había tiempo".
—George Sutherland

A pesar de la reputación de Sutherland como conservador político en el Congreso, apoyó los programas de reforma del presidente Theodore Roosevelt. También apoyó la legislación de compensación laboral para trabajadores ferroviarios y la decimonovena enmienda a la Constitución de los Estados Unidos, que

previsto para el sufragio femenino. Sin embargo, creía que los derechos individuales eran primordiales y que el gobierno no debería inmiscuirse en la mayoría de las actividades económicas.

Después de ser derrotado en las elecciones al Senado de 1916, Sutherland se involucró en la política republicana nacional y se desempeñó como asesor del presidente Warren G. harding, que fue elegido en 1920. El nombre de Sutherland había sido mencionado durante varios años como posible designado por la Corte Suprema, y ​​en septiembre de 1922 Harding nombró a Sutherland para la Corte.

Sutherland se unió a una Corte Suprema dominada por conservadores. Como la mayoría conservadora, Sutherland creía en la doctrina del debido proceso sustantivo, que sostenía que las Cláusulas del debido proceso de las Enmiendas Quinta y Decimocuarta de la Constitución de los Estados Unidos podían invocarse para imponer límites al contenido de las regulaciones gubernamentales y otras actividades por las cuales el gobierno afecta "la vida, la libertad y la propiedad". Desde la década de 1880, la Corte Suprema había invocado el debido proceso sustantivo para derogar una variedad de leyes estatales y federales que regulaban las condiciones de trabajo, los salarios y las actividades comerciales.

Sutherland también se adhirió al concepto de libertad de contrato, que sostenía que el gobierno no debería interferir con el derecho de las personas a contratar a sus empleadores en relación con los salarios, las horas y las condiciones de trabajo. Sutherland escribió la opinión mayoritaria en Adkins contra el Hospital de Niños, 261 U.S. 525, 43 S. Ct. 394, 67 L. Ed. 785 (1923), en la que el Tribunal derogó una ley federal de salario mínimo para las trabajadoras en el Distrito de Columbia. Sutherland concluyó que el empleador y el empleado tenían el derecho constitucional de negociar los términos que quisieran con respecto a los salarios. Sutherland rechazó la idea de que el Congreso tuviera la autoridad para corregir las disparidades sociales y económicas que dañan a la sociedad en general.

Con el colapso de la bolsa de valores de 1929 y la Gran Depresión de la década de 1930, la mayoría conservadora de la Corte se vio sometida a un intenso escrutinio público y político. La elección de Franklin D. Roosevelt en 1932 marcó un cambio en la filosofía con respecto al papel del gobierno federal. El New Deal de Roosevelt se basó en la planificación económica nacional y la creación de agencias administrativas para regular los negocios y el trabajo. Esto era un anatema para Sutherland y sus hermanos conservadores.

De 1933 a 1937, la Corte anuló numerosas medidas del New Deal. Sutherland, junto con los jueces james c. mcreynolds, willis van devanter y pierce butler, formaron el núcleo de la oposición a los esfuerzos federales para revitalizar la economía y crear una red de seguridad social. Los llamados Cuatro Jinetes ayudaron a declarar inconstitucional la ley de recuperación industrial nacional de 1933 en Schechter Poultry Corporation c. Estados Unidos, 295 U.S. 495, 55 S. Ct. 837, 79 L. Ed. 1570 (1935), y la Ley de Ajuste Agrícola de 1933 en Estados Unidos contra Butler, 297 U.S. 1, 56 S. Ct. 312, 80 L. Ed. 477 (1936).

Roosevelt respondió proponiendo un plan de empaque de la corte que habría agregado un juez adicional a la Corte por cada miembro mayor de setenta años. Este plan estaba dirigido a los Cuatro Jinetes y, si se implementaba, habría cancelado sus votos. Aunque el plan de Roosevelt fue rechazado por el Congreso, el debate nacional sobre el papel del gobierno federal y la obstinación de la Corte Suprema llevó a miembros más moderados de la Corte a cambiar sus posiciones y votar a favor de las propuestas del New Deal. Con la marea cambiando, Sutherland se retiró en 1938.

A pesar de sus opiniones conservadoras sobre el gobierno y las empresas, Sutherland defendió los derechos de libertad y de propiedad. En powell contra alabama, 287 U.S. 45, 53 S. Ct. 55, 77 L. Ed. 158 (1932), Sutherland anuló las condenas de los "muchachos de Scottsboro", un grupo de jóvenes afroamericanos condenados a muerte por un presunto asalto sexual a dos mujeres blancas. Sutherland dictaminó que la sexta enmienda garantiza un asesoramiento legal adecuado en los procesos penales estatales.

Sutherland murió el 18 de julio de 1942 en Stock-bridge, Massachusetts.


George Sutherland - Historia

por DANIEL J. J. SUTHERLAND

Arraigada en la tradición y envuelta en los velos del tiempo, la historia del Clan Sutherland está llena de enigmas. Se cree que el árbol genealógico del Clan puede tener su origen tanto en Flandes como en Escocia con su sociedad tribal de pictos y celtas. Gran parte de la historia, especialmente del período temprano, se ha perdido, pero a partir de las fuentes escritas que se conservan, la genealogía del Clan se remonta desde Moray en el siglo XII hasta un nuevo patrón de asentamiento y expansión, primero en Sutherland y Caithness, más tarde en Escocia y en otra parte.

En el árbol del Clan los Condes de Sutherland, los Lairds de Forse y los Lairds de Duffus y Skelbo juntos representan el tallo y las ramas principales. Este ensayo pretende dar cuenta de la ascendencia de estas tres familias: indicar algunas de las ramas más jóvenes y situar la historia del Clan en su entorno geográfico para el período anterior a los grandes cambios del siglo XIX. Jefes, caciques y miembros del clan, la 'clanna' o hijos de un antepasado común, sobreviven en los registros de ese período, un lapso de siete siglos con más de veinte generaciones. En la historia de las Tierras Altas participaron en los asuntos de su Clan y sus tierras, mucho antes de los grandes cambios que siguieron a los conflictos de Culloden, la Bastilla y Waterloo y que extinguieron la antigua forma de vida en las Tierras Altas. Muchos miembros del Clan estuvieron involucrados en eventos históricos tan lejanos como Bannockburn y Halidon Hill, el servicio de armas a los Países Bajos y Rusia y la plantación de nuevas colonias desde Nueva Escocia hasta las Indias Occidentales. No se pretende entrar en estos aspectos de la historia. Forman parte del trasfondo de la genealogía del Clan. La información para este ensayo se toma de fuentes impresas que se enumeran en () y se enumeran a continuación. Muy citado en estas fuentes es un trabajo especialmente interesante del siglo XVII. Es 'Una historia genealógica del condado de Sutherland desde su origen hasta el año 1630. con una continuación hasta el año 1651 ', escrito por Sir Robert Gordon de Gordonstoun, hijo de Alexander, undécimo conde de Sutherland, y por Gilbert Gordon de Sailagh, impreso en 1813. Estas fuentes tienen mucho interés para los estudiantes de la historia del Clan Sutherland .

1. LA FAMILIA DE SUTHERLAND, EARLS OF SUTHERLAND

La genealogía del Clan y la dinastía del condado comenzó con Freskin. Su origen es incierto. Sus descendientes se describen como "de Sutherland", más tarde "Sutherland". El hijo mayor triunfó como cabeza de familia y, finalmente, como jefe del clan y conde (nórdico antiguo: jefe conde, noble). Ya en el siglo XV, probablemente mucho antes, la familia vivía en el castillo de Dunrobin, que se cree que es una de las casas más antiguas de Gran Bretaña habitada continuamente por una familia. El nombre proviene del gaélico Dun Robin, la colina o fuerte de Robin.

1. Freskin, primer antepasado registrado de los condes de Sutherland, que puede ser de origen flamenco, tuvo del rey David I (1124-1153) Strabrock en West Lothian y Duffus en Moray. Freskin es nombrado en una carta a su hijo William por el rey William the Lion (1165-1214) entre 1166 y 1171.

2. William, hijo de Freskin. presenció un estatuto en 1160 tenía un estatuto de las tierras de su padre entre 1166 y 1171 y pudo haber sido William Fresekyn, "Sheriff de Invernaryn" nombrado en 1204. William tuvo tres hijos:

B. William, hijo de William hijo de Freskin, nombrado con su hermano Hugh como testigo después de 1195, era el señor de Petty, Bracholy, Boharm y Arteldol, y se cree que es antepasado de las Morays de Bothwell.

C. Andrew, nombrado antes de 1203 como hijo de William, hijo de Freskin, y como Parsons of Duffus, más tarde como hermano de Hugh Freskin y William, pudo haber estado vivo en 1221.

3. Hugh, hijo de William, hijo de Freskin, también llamado Hugh Freskin y Hugh de Moravia en las cartas de 1195 en adelante, era heredero de Duffus y Strabrock. El obispo de Moray le dio, señor de Duffus, una capilla libre en el castillo de Duffus entre 1203 y 1214. En 1211 también tenía Skelbo y otras tierras en Sutherland. Le dio Skelbo, Invershin y Fernebucklyn a Gilbert de Moravia, archidiácono de Moray. Skelbo fue entregado al servicio de un arquero y al servicio del rey. Hugh Freskin murió antes de 1222 y fue enterrado en la iglesia de Duffus dejando tres hijos:

B. Walter, hijo de Hugh Freskin, se casó con Euphemia, hija de Ferquhard, conde de Ross. Murió c. 1263 y fue enterrado en Duffus.

C. Andrew, hijo de Hugh de Moravia, nombrado entre 1203 y 1214 párroco de Duffus y en 1222 obispo de Moray, pudo haber comenzado la construcción de la catedral de Elgin. Murió en 1242.

4. William, hijo y heredero de Hugh Freskin y señor de Sutherland, confirmó la carta de su padre de Skelbo y otras tierras otorgadas al archidiácono Gilbert, entre 1211 y 1222. Se le nombra en 1232 como William de Sutherland y quizás en 1235 o más tarde fue hizo conde de Sutherland. Sir Robert Gordon afirma que ayudó a Gilbert, obispo de Caithness, en la construcción de la catedral de Dornoch. El conde, se dice, murió en 1248 y fue enterrado en la Catedral. Tuvo un hijo William.

5. William, hijo de William y segundo conde de Sutherland. nombrado en cuentas de pago al rey (Alexander m, 1249-1286) en 1263 y 1266, fue testigo en 1269 de una carta del conde de Ross de tierras a la Iglesia de Moray. En Scone en Perthshire asistió en 1283-84 al Parlamento que aceptó a la Infanta Margarita de Noruega como Reina de Escocia. Como nieta del rey Alejandro III, la Doncella de Noruega sucedió en el Reino de Escocia en 1286, pero murió en su camino a Escocia c. 1290. El conde William apoyó el reclamo al trono del rey Robert I ('The Bruce' 1306-1329) y en Berwick en 1296 firmó la lista de homenaje, pero luego se adhirió al rey inglés (Edward I, 'Longshanks', 1272- 1307) y murió c. 1306-7. Tuvo dos hijos:

una. William, hijo de William y tercer conde de Sutherland. menor de edad cuando su padre murió, triunfó en 1306-7. Su pupilo fue entregado a John, hijo menor del conde de Ross. En 1308-9, el joven conde asistió al Parlamento en St Andrews. Sir Robert Gordon afirma que el conde luchó en Bannockburn (Stirling), la batalla de 1314 que dio a Bruce el gobierno de Escocia. El conde firmó en 1320 la carta de los nobles al Papa Juan XXII conocida como la Declaración de Arbroath afirmando la total independencia de Escocia de la Corona inglesa. Murió antes de 1331.

6. Kenneth, hijo de William y cuarto conde de Sutherland. sucedió a su hermano William antes de 1331. Los escoceses, tratando de levantar el sitio de Berwick, fueron derrotados con grandes pérdidas por los ingleses, y el conde murió en la batalla de Halidon Hill en 1333. Sir Robert Gordon afirma que el conde Kenneth se casó Mary, hija de Donald, conde de Mar. Tuvo dos hijos y una hija.

B. Nicolás, ANCESTRADOR DE LAS LAIRDS DE DUFFUS

C. Eastachia se casó c. 1330 Gilbert Moray de Culbin

7. William, hijo de Kenneth y quinto conde de Sutherland, sucedió a su padre en 1333. Se cree que el conde luchó en Kilblene y participó en el asedio del castillo de Cupar, Fife. Con el conde de marzo participó en una incursión en Inglaterra. Earl William se casó con Margaret, hermana del rey David II (1329-71). Los esposos tenían en 1345 tierras en Angus, Kincardine y Aberdeen "Sutherland se convirtió en una realeza". También tenían en 1346 el peñasco de Dunnottar en Angus, con licencia para construir una fortaleza. En 1346-47, después de la muerte de la princesa Margarita su condesa, el conde se casó con Joanna Menteith. Aparentemente, el conde con 'muchos hombres en armas' acompañó al rey David II a Inglaterra y ambos fueron capturados en la batalla de Neville's Cross por Durham en 1346, pero en 1351 el conde tenía un salvoconducto para conferir en Newcastle sobre el rescate del rey. Para el regreso del rey a Escocia, el conde dio a su hijo pequeño y heredero como rehén. En 1357, tanto el conde como su hijo se convirtieron en rehenes para el pago del rescate del rey. Permanecieron en Inglaterra durante más de diez años, ocasionalmente visitando Escocia. En 1358-59 obtuvieron del rey la baronía y el castillo de Urquhart por Inverness. Earl William murió probablemente en 1370, quizás asesinado en venganza por su participación en el asesinato en Dingwall de Iye Mackay, Jefe del Clan, y Donald su hijo, ese mismo año. Earl William tuvo tres hijos, de los cuales el mayor con su primera esposa:

una. John, un rehén en Inglaterra, aparentemente aún muy joven murió allí en Lincoln de la plaga en 1361.

C. Kenneth, ANCESTRADOR DE LAS LAIRDS OF FORSE

8. Robert, hijo de William y sexto conde de Sutherland (en o antes de 1389) es nombrado por el cronista Froissart como líder de los escoceses que invadieron el oeste de Inglaterra en 1388. En 1400-1 le dio a su hermano Kenneth un carta de Drummoy y otras tierras. La carta da la referencia más antigua conocida al castillo de Dunrobin. El conde se casó con Margaret Stewart, hija de Alexander, conde de Buchan y se dice que murió en 1442. Tuvo tres hijos:

B. Robert, nombrado por Sir Robert Gordon como hijo del conde Robert.

C. Alexander, también nombrado por Sir Robert.

9. John, hijo de Robert y séptimo conde de Sutherland, acompañó a su tío Alexander Stewart, conde de Mar, a Flandes hacia 1408. El cronista contemporáneo Wyntoun afirma que el Conde de Mar nombró caballeros a algunos de sus escuderos, de los cuales John de Sutherland y quothis fueron recién nombrados señor Aprendiz de Vertew, Heretabil Eri de ese País. En 1427, el conde John fue probablemente uno de los rehenes del rey James I, que estuvo detenido en Inglaterra desde 1406 hasta 1424. El conde fue confinado en el castillo de Pontefract en Yorkshire y desde allí entregó en 1444 una carta de Torboll en Sutherland a su pariente Alexander. Sutherland de Duffus. En 1448 estuvo en Dunrobin y en 1451, junto con su esposa Margaret Baillie, recibió tierras en la parroquia de Loth en Sutherland. Sir Robert Gordon afirma que Earl John murió en 1460 y fue enterrado en la capilla de San Andrés en Golspie en Sutherland. Tenía cuatro o cinco hijos, un hijo natural y una hija:

una. Alexander, hijo de John y maestro de Sutherland nombrado en 1449 murió probablemente en 1456 o antes.

C. Nicolás, nombrado por Earl John en una carta de 1448 como su hijo.

D. Thomas Beg (Pequeño Thomas), nombrado por Sir Robert Gordon como antepasado de Sutherlands en Strathullie, (la playa de Kildonan), un amplio valle atravesado por el río Uilligh (río Helmsdale) con extensiones de tierras planas y bajas (srath) , delimitado por un terreno elevado en la parroquia de Kildonan en Sutherland.

mi. Robert, puede ser el tío del conde nombrado por Sir Robert Gordon como presente en el conflicto de Aldycharrish (Strath Oykell) en 1487.

F. Janet se casó en 1480 con Alexander, hijo de Sir Alexander Dunbar de Westfield, hermano de Sir James Dunbar de Cumnock.

gramo. Thomas Mor (Big Thomas), descrito por Sir Robert Gordon como el hijo natural del conde cuyos dos hijos fueron asesinados por su tío el conde John.

10. John, hijo de John y octavo conde de Sutherland, nombrado en 1455-56, fue declarado loco en 1494 y puesto al cuidado de Sir James Dunbar de Cumnock, quien en 1497-98 acompañó al conde y su hijo al rey James IV. (1488-1513). Sir Robert Gordon afirma que el conde se casó con una hija de Alexander MacDonald. Señor de las islas que casi se ahoga mientras cruzaba en Littleferry el río Unes (el estuario Fleet entre Dornoch y Golspie), fue asesinada por un ladrón. La segunda esposa del conde era aparentemente Fingole, hija de William de Calder, Thane de Cawdor, viuda de John Monro de Fowlis, quien murió en 1491 o antes, se estaba preparando un divorcio entre ella y el conde en 1497-98 y se casó en tercer lugar. Catherine, nombrada condesa de Sutherland en 1509-12. Se dice que el conde murió en 1508. Tenía dos hijos y una hija:

B. Elizabeth, hija de John y condesa de Sutherland, se casó con Adam Gordon de Aboyne en 1500, el año que dio Sir Robert Gordon. Su cónyuge era el hijo de George, conde de Huntly. Isabel sucedió a su hermano John por el & quotinfeftment & quot; de 1515, renunciando al condado a su hijo mayor, Alexander. ANCESTRADOR DE LA FAMILIA DE GORDON, EARLS OF SUTHERLAND. La condesa Elizabeth murió en Aboyne Castle, Deeside en Aberdeen en 1505.

C. Alexander, descrito por Sir Robert Gordon como el hijo natural del Earl John por una hija de Ross de Balnagown, nacido en 1491, se opuso a la sucesión de su hermano, de dieciocho años en 1509. El derecho de sucesión de Alexander estaba reservado si el heredero de su hermanastra Isabel fracasaba. También fue compensado con tierras por valor de cuarenta cecina al año, pero en 1514, asistido por su medio hermano Robert Munro como procurador, se opuso a su hermana como heredera de su hermano el conde John. En 1515 se apoderó y retuvo el castillo de Dunrobin, tras lo cual fue encarcelado en Edimburgo. En 1515 volvió a tomar posesión del castillo, pero se vio obligado a rendirse y en 1519-20 fue asesinado en Kintradwell por Brora. Se casó con una hija de Iye Roy-Mackay de Strathnaver y tuvo descendientes.

11. John, hijo de John y noveno conde de Sutherland, a una edad temprana fue llevado con su padre en presencia del rey James IV en 1493 y tuvo éxito en 1508 como pupilo de la Corona, siendo el condado administrado por Andrew Stewart, obispo de Caithness. En Perth, en 1514, el conde fue declarado legalmente incapaz. En la pregunta sobre su sucesor, el conde declaró que Elizabeth, su hermana, y Adam Gordon, su esposo y sus hijos, eran sus herederos más cercanos. Su muerte un mes después, en 1514, marcó el final de la primera dinastía de los Condes de Sutherland.

IV. LA FAMILIA DE SUTHERLAND, LAIRDS DE DUFFUS Y SKELBO (1)

La familia descendió de Freskin a través de Kenneth, cuarto conde de Sutherland y Mary, hija del conde de Mar, su condesa. Vivían en Duffus por Elgin en Moray y Skelbo por Dornoch en Sutherland, dos castillos de venerable antigüedad, ambos ahora en ruinas.

1. Nicolás, hijo de Kenneth, cuarto conde de Sutherland, tuvo en 1360 Torboll en Sutherland de su hermano William, quinto conde de Sutherland, para el servicio de un caballero. Su esposa, Mary, hija de Reginald le Cheyne y de Mary, Lady of Duffus, le trajo parte de Duffus en Moray y tierras en Caithness En 1370 Nicholas estuvo involucrado en el asesinato en Dingwall (Ross-shire) de Iye Mackay, Jefe de el Clan y Donald, su hijo. En 1408 es nombrado Señor del Castillo de Duffus. Tuvo dos hijos:

una. Juan, hijo y heredero de Nicolás, ratificó una concesión de tierras de su padre a su hermano Enrique m 1408. De 1424 a 1427 Juan fue uno de los rehenes del rey Jacobo I (1406-24 cautivo en Inglaterra, r. 1424-37 ).

B. Henry (como 2). 2. Enrique, hijo de Nicolás, tuvo Torboll de Robert, sexto conde de Sutherland. Murió antes de 1434. Margaret Mureff (Moray) es nombrada esposa de Enrique de Sutherland en 1438. A su muerte, tenía tierras con casas al este de Wick en Caithness 'abon the sand' sostenidas por Dios y 'Haly Kirk' y de St Fergus, patrón de Wick. Henry tuvo un hijo (como 3).

3. Alejandro sucedió a su padre Enrique en Torboll y tuvo a Duffus en 1434 o antes, cuando entregó veintiún pandillas de tierra en West Lothian a Robert Crichton de Sanquhar. Vendió sus tierras en Forfar. En 1444 recibió la confirmación de sus tierras de Torboll de John, séptimo conde de Sutherland y pudo haber visitado al conde, que entonces era rehén en el castillo de Pontefract. En una orden judicial de la Corona de 1541 se le llama Sir Alexander Sutherland de Duffus. Se casó con Muriel, hija de John Chisholm de Chisholm en 1433-34 y tenía Quarrelwood y otras tierras cerca de Elgin en Moray. Parece haber muerto antes de 1484 y tuvo dos hijos y tres hijas:

B. Angus tuvo a Torboll y se casó con Christina. Tuvieron un problema.

C. Isabella, viva en 1502, se casó con Alexander Dunbar de Westfield.

D. Dorothea, que se dice que es hija de Alexander Sutherland de Duffus, fue nombrada como motivo que contribuyó a la muerte en la batalla de Alli Charrais de Alexander Ross, su esposa en 1486 (Nota: Sir Robert Gordon menciona la batalla como en Aldycharrish en 1487, DJJS).

mi. Muriel dice ser otra hija de Alexander, se casó con Alexander Seton de Meldrum y Andrew Fraser de Stanywood, con quien tenía un estatuto de la Corona de Stanywood en 1501.

4. William es nombrado 'de Berydall' (Berriedale en Caithness) en 1451 y como hijo y heredero aparente de Alexander Sutherland y de Muriel su esposa. Murió poco después de 1474. Tuvo dos hijos y una hija:

una. Alexander, probablemente el que tenía parte de Strabrock en 1475, murió antes de 1479 como nieto de 'Ald Alexander of Sutherland' y dejó una hija Christina que fue nombrada en 1494 como hija de Alexander Sutherland de Strabrock y sucedió a Duffus y tierras en Caithness. Ella se casó c. 1489 William Oliphant y más tarde Sir Thomas Lundin de Pratis. Una disputa entre Chnstina y su tío William Sutherland se resolvió mediante una apelación al Papa, c. 1507.

C. Isabel se casó en 1474 con Hew Rose, más joven de Kilravock.

5. William, asumido segundo de William, nombrado en 1484 tenía Quarrelwood y Duffus, y en 1507, una carta de la Corona de Duffus. Impugnó la legitimidad de su sobrina Christina. Murió en o antes de 1514, quizás en la batalla de Flodden (Berwiek), la derrota de los escoceses bajo el rey James IV (1488-1513) en 1513. William aparentemente se casó con Lady Greeship de Janet Innes. 'y tuvo un hijo (como 6).

6. William, hijo de William, tuvo a Duffus. probablemente también tuvo Quarrelwood en o antes de 1513-14. y por la infestación de 1519-26 tenía las tierras de Birchmond (Brichtmony en Nairn) de su padre. en 1524 Ring James V (1513-42) le dio Kinsteary (Nairn). En 1525 tuvo Torboll y Pronsy. Los movimientos de tierra del castillo de Pronsy en la parroquia de Dornoch son los restos de una antigua fortaleza. Estas tierras habían estado en manos de Hugh Sutherland, hijo de Angus (como 3b), de Elizabeth, condesa de Sutherland y Adam Gordon como señores supremos. Se casó con Janet, hija de Alexander Innes de Innes y murió en 1529. Tuvo dos hijos y una hija:

B. Alejandro fue rector de Duffus en 1512, capellán de la capilla del castillo de Duffus en 1524 y decano (jefe del capítulo de una catedral) de Caithness. (Fue Gilbert de Moray, obispo de Caithness y santo patrón de Dornoch quien fundó la catedral de Dornoch en la diócesis de Caithness, incluido el condado de Sutherland, DJJS>. Alexander fundó aniversarios (la celebración de la misa en memoria de alguien en el día de su muerte) para sus padres, su hermano William y otros.En 1549 fue curador de su sobrino nieto Alexander Sutherland de Duffus y todavía estaba vivo en 1551.

C. Isabel se casó con John, tercer conde de Caithness.

7. William sucedió en 1527-29 como hijo mayor a su padre William Sutherland de Duffus y Quarrelwood en Elgin y Nairn, las tierras de Brichtmony, Kinstearie y Auldearn. En 1529 compró a John Kynnard de ese Ilk ciertas tierras, incluido Skelbo en el señorío del conde de Sutherland, pagando 2300 merks escoceses y dando una fianza de manrent (los hombres a los que un señor podía recurrir en la guerra) como inquilino y vasallo de el conde. En 1530, el rey Jacobo V le otorgó ciertos derechos en Stratnaver que anteriormente tenía Hugh Mackay de Farr. Como dijo Sir Robert Gordon, William Sutherland de Duffus fue asesinado por instigación del obispo de Caithness por el Clan Gunn en Thurso en 1530. Tuvo un hijo (como 8).

8. William, hijo de William Sutherland de Duffus, desafió al obispo a responder por la muerte de su padre. Cuando el obispo ignoró su desafío. el joven laird clasificó a los sirvientes del obispo, tras lo cual él y su tío, el decano de Caithness, fueron encarcelados y el Consejo Privado los obligó a hacer las paces con el obispo. En 1535 William heredó otras tierras de Terboll, y en 1540 entregó Kinsteary y Brichtmony a John Campbell de Calder. En 1542 un jurado lo declaró heredero legítimo de la herencia de su padre en tierras y rentas en Inverness-shire. También en 1542 resolvió una violenta disputa con Donald Mackay de Farr por las tierras otorgadas a su padre en 1530, actuando el conde Moray como árbitro. William murió en 1543. Su esposa Elizabeth se casó en segundo lugar con James Murray de Culbardie. Tuvo cuatro hijos:

B. Guillermo de Evelix (parroquia de Dornoch), testigo en 1562, participó en la toma del castillo de Berriedale (Caith- ness) en 1566 y en el asalto a Dornoch de 1570, donde se dice que esparció las cenizas del obispo Gilbert Moray ('San Gilberto') y murió poco después. (El Castillo es ahora una ruina muy reducida).

C. Nicolás, también testigo en 1562, nombrado en las cartas de 1562 y 1566, estuvo en Berriedale en 1566.

D. Walter es (quizás por error) nombrado hermano de Alejandro en 1562).

9. Alejandro sucedió a su padre William Sutherland de Duffus antes de 1544. Aún menor de edad en 1554, fue contactado con la dispensa del conde de Sutherland como señor en las tierras y el castillo de Skelbo, también en Invershin y otras tierras. Tuvo sasine de Duffus en 1555. En 1562 el conde de Sutherland hizo a Skelbo. Invershin, Pronsy, Torboll y todas las demás tierras en Sutherland serán retenidas por Alexander Sutherland de Duffus para 'custodia y relevo' y otros servicios en la Baronía de Skelbo. En 1560 asistió al Parlamento que ratificó la primera Confesión de fe. En 1563, el Conde había perdido el Conde y Alejandro retuvo a Skelbo de la Corona. En 1559, el laird de Duffus y el conde de Caithness llegaron a un acuerdo para el matrimonio de sus respectivos hijos mayores. Se involucró en las disputas del Conde y probablemente consintió en la incautación por parte de sus hermanos del Castillo Berriedale de Lord Oliphant. Alejandro también participó con los hombres del Conde en el asalto a Dornoch en 1567 y 1570. Se casó (contrato de 1552-53) con Janet, hija de James Grant de Freuchie. Se casó en segundo lugar con James Dempster de Auchterless (contrato de 1577). Alejandro tuvo tres hijos y una hija:

una. Alexander, nacido c. 1554 se menciona en el contrato de su matrimonio previsto con Elizabeth Sinclair.

C. James, nacido en 1561, fue colocado 'en adopción con Angus Hectorsone' a quien el padre de James, Alexander, le dio 'fyve meris (mares) with ane stallione' y por quien se agregaron 'cuatro meris' en beneficio del niño. En 1590, James fue cautelar de su madre Janet Grant. En su matrimonio con Violet, hija de Thomas Fraser de Strichen, tuvo Kinsteary en Moray de su hermano William Sutherland. James era un antepasado de los Sutherlands de Kinstearie.

D. Elizabeth se casó (contrato de 1590) con Archibald Douglas de Pittendreich.

10. William, son and heir to Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, was infeft in Duffus and Greschip in 1579. He also had Quarrelwood and other lands. Although he had been appointed to keep order in the North, he is said to have reset (harbour) 'broken men' (outlaws) on his lands in 1587. In 1588 Duffus, Quarrelwood, Greschip and other lands were made into the barony of Duffus. In 1606 the laird of Duffus and the burgh of Dornoch agreed the boundaries between the lands of Skelbo and Pronsy and the burgh, a subject of prolonged disputers He married first in 1579. Margaret, daughter of George Sinclair, Earl of Caithness and secondly, before 1604, Margaret. daughter of William Macintosh of Dunachton. He died in 1616 and had three sons and two daughters:

B. James bought Kinminitie in Banff from James Grant of Freuehie and Blanch in the parish of Rogart in Sutherland together with other lands from John Murray of Aberscors in 1624. He was tutor to his nephew Alexander Sutherland of Duffus. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Seaton of Mionylangain, Longford. He died in 1679-80 and was ancestor to the Sutherlands of Kinminitie

C. John, ancestor to the Sutherlands of Clyne. (parish of Clyne, Sutherland).

D. Margaret married (contract of 1610) Colonel Robert Monro of Fowlis. She died young.

mi. Janet married George Ogilvy, first Lord Banff.

11. William, son and heir to his father William Sutherland of Duffus inherited the barony of Skelbo in 1616. He was involved in several disputes with Sir Robert Gordon, with the Earl of Sutherland in or before 1617 over tithes and with John Gordon of Embo, a feud breaking out in 1625. In 1612 he married Jean or Janet, daughter of John Grant of Freuchie. He died in 1626 and had three sons and one daughter:

B. William, heir to his brother John in the lands of Kinminitie and other lands in Banff, infeft in 1662: named in the testament of his brother Lord Duffus in 1674 had Inverhassie in 1694.

C. John, named in 1649 as brother to the laird of Duffus and Commissioner of Supply for Elgin. He married (contract of 1656) Isabella, daughter of David Ross of Bainagown who married secondly (contract of 1659) James Innes Lichnet. John died in or before 1658.

D. Anne married Patrick Grant. As lieutenant-colonel took part in the battle of Worcester in England in 1651. She was still alive in 1663.

12. Alexander succeeded his father William when five years old In 1627 she was named heir to Duffus. His uncle, James Sutherland of Kinminitie, became his tutor. In 1641 Alexandar accompanied the Earl of Sutherland on his visit to England attending that same year the Parliament at Edinburgh and the arrival of King Charles I (1625-49). He was knighted before 1643 and served as a Commissioner for Sutherland in 1646. In 1647 he petitioned and received from Parliament, for loss in adhering to the Covenant, 3000 merks Scots of which one third for his uncle James Sutherland. He travelled in France and Holland returning from the continent with King Charles II (1649-85) to Scotland in 1650. He was fined for his opposition to Cromwell and the taking of Perth with 600 men. Alexander married first Jean, daughter of Colin Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth secondly Jean, daughter of Sir Robert Innes of Innes thirdly Margaret, daughter of James Stewart, Ear] of Moray and fourthly Margaret, daughter of William, Lord Forbes. Lord Duffus died in 1674. He had three sons and three daughters:

C. Robin, named in his father's letter of 1666.

D. Marie, (named as Robin her brother).

mi. Margaret, named in her father's will.

F. Henrietta, named in her father's will, married George, Earl of Linlithgow.

13. James, second Lord Duffus, succeeded his father Alexander in 1674. He attended the Scots Parliament in 1678, 1681 and 1685, and became a Privy Councillor in 1686. Much indebted he sold or mortgaged his estate to his son James. In 1688, apparently in exasperation, Duffus drew his sword and killed William Ross of Kindeace, who had been pressing him for payment. Duffus fled to England but later appears to have been pardoned. In 1639 he supported the Prince of Orange and in 1690 took oath of allegiance to him as King William III (1689-1702). In 1695 his privilege of fairs and markets at Duffus was enacted in the Scots Parliament and in 1701 he supported the Darien Company, the dream of a Scots merchant colony in Central America (1698-1700), perhaps the worst economic disaster in Scottish history. He married (contract of 1674) Margaret daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth. He died in 1705 and had five sons and seven daughters:

B. James, advocate, in 1704 acquired his father's estate with a loan from Archibald Dunbar of Thunderton. Unable to pay, he parted with the estate to his creditor. After he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Dunbar of Hempriggs. Assuming the surname Dunbar, he was made a baronet. He died before 1739 and had issue.

C. William of Roscommon married (contract of 1702) Helen, daughter of William Duff of Dipple. As a Jacobite he left Scotland after the rebellion of 1716.

F. Elizabeth had dancing lessons in Edinburgh in 1704 and married (contract of 1709) Sir John Gordon of Embo.

I. Mary married James Sinclair of Mey.

j. Katharine married John Cuthbert, town clerk of Inverness.

k. Isabel was buried at Greyfriars, Edinburgh, in 1694.

1. Esther married John Ross. They were infeft in Easter Balvraid, parish of Dornoch, Sutherland, in 1711.

14. Kenneth, third Lord Duffus, succeeded his father James in 1705. As a captain in the Queen's Navy (Queen Anne.1702-14), he, in 1711 with his frigate of forty-six guns, engaged eight French privateers, and wounded by five bullets was captured. Although he voted for the Union of the English and Scottish Parliaments (1707), he joined the Jacobites in 1715, leading that year more than four hundred of the rebels into Tain and there proclaimed the Chevalier St. George, 'The Old Pretender' as King James VIII. The Lairds of Culloden and Kilravock refusing to surrender, the rebels marched South to join the Earl of Mar at Perth. After the Jacobite defeat of 171S the estate of Duffus was forfeited and Lord Duffus, by way of Caithness, escaped to Sweden. Preparing to return to Britain he was seized in Hamburg and imprisoned in the Tower of London but freed without trial in 1717. Later he entered the Russian Navy. He married (contract dated 1708) Charlotta Chnstina, daughter of Eric Sioblade, Governor of Gottenberg in Sweden. He died in or before 1734 and had one son and two daughters:

B. Charlotta named in 1778 as one ef her mother's executors.

C. Anna married Baron and Count Marshall Gustaff Adolf Palbitzki of Sweden. She also was named in 1778 as one of her mother's executors.

15. Eric, baptized in 1710, succeeded his father Kenneth as titular Lord Duffus. In 1734 he petitioned King George II (1727-60) but his claim to the Lordship of Duffus was reflected by the House of Lords. It is said that Eric was an ensign in Colonel Disney's regiment in 1731. Residing at Ackergill Castle by Wick in Caithness and on a friendly footing with the Earl of Sutherland, he supported King George in the Jacobite rising of 1745-46. He married his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Dunbar of Hempriggs. He died probably at Skelbo, perhaps at Skibo, in 1763 and had two sons and three daughters:

una. James born in 1747, named as heir to his father in 1770 was captain in the 26th Regiment when he eloped with Mary, daughter of James Hayt Earl of Erroll, wife of General John Scott of Balcomie, who divorced her in 1771. The title of Lord Duffus was restored to James by Act of Parliament in 1826. He died unmarried at Marylebone in 1827. His death marked the end of the Sutherlands of Duffus.

C. Elizabeth married first Captain Alexander Sinclair, son of Sir William Sinclair of Keiss secondly Charies Sinclair of Olrig and thirdly, in 1772, the Reverend James Rudd, rector in Yorkshire.

mi. Anne, third daughter born 1750, married at Embo in 1766 George Mackay of Skibo, advocate in 1737, 'captain in one of London's independent companies' in 1745. (1)

(Words marked- may require explanation)

Archdeacon: chief of the attendants upon a bishop.

Chalder: 16 bolls or 64 firlots of corn (1 boll: 6 imperial bushels 1 bushel: 2218.19 cubic inches). Charter: document or evidence for certain privileges or rights granted, originally by the sovereign to a subject.

Crag of Dunnottar: Gaelic, creag, rock (of difficult access): locality with ruins of ancient stronghold on the coast of Angus.

Esquire: old French, esquier, shield bearer in chivalry, a young man of gentle birth.

Fier: the owner of the fee-simple of a property (as opposed to a life-renter). Fee-simple: an estate in land belonging to the owner and his heirs for ever in absolute possession.

Forfeited: from forfeit, to lose in consequence of a breach of law.

Homage roll: (in feudal law) record or list of acknowledgement of allegiance by tenants or vassals declaring themselves men of the king or the lord of whom they hold and bind themselves in service.

Ilk: same, identical of that ilk, of the same place, territorial designation or name.

Infeftment: from enfeoffment, the action of putting a tenant legally in possession of a holding, or to surrender a holding.

Lord apperand: lord from old English hlaford, (hlaf, loaf and weard, ward or keepers master, ruler. Apperand: heir apparent, manifest heir, successor.

Master: heir apparent to a Scottish peerage (noble title).

Moravia: Latin for Moray or Morayshlre.

Merk: money of the value of a mark weight of pure silver or, in history, 2/3 of the L Sterling. In Scotland, a coin worth 13 shillings and four pence Snots: 13 l/2 pence English (1480) .

Oxgang: the eighth part of the ploughland, 10 to 18 or more acres. Ploughland: the unit of assessment of land after the Norman Conquest (1066) based upon the area capable of being tilled by one plough team of eight oxen in the year.

Parson: holder of a parochial benefice in full possession of its rights and dues, (clergyman).

Petty, Bracholy, Boharm and Arkldol:

Privy Council: the counsellors of the sovereign.

Regality: sovereign rule, territorial jurisdiction of a royal nature granted by the king area subject to a lord of regality.

Sasine: the act of giving possession of feudal property.

Sheriff: the representative of the sovereign, responsible for certain administrative functions and the execution of the law in a shire.

Teinds: from teind. tenth part or tithe of yearly produce from land, payable for the support of the clergy by the laity.

Thane: person ranking with the son of an earl, holding lands of the king.

Toune: from Gaelic, dun, fortified place, hence enclosed ground. 'In Scotland a single house may be called a town' (Sir Walter Scott in 'Waverley').

Vassal: In the feudal system, one holding lands from a superior on conditions of homage and allegiance. (See homage).

Ward and Relief: Ward, the control and use of the lands of a deceased tenant by knight service and the guardianship of the infant heir which belonged to the superior until the heir attained majority. Relief: a payment made by the heir of a feudal tenant on taking up possession of the vacant estate.

Writer to the Signet: a clerk in the Secretary of State's office who prepared writs to pass the royal signet later a law- agent practicing before the Court of Session and preparing Crown writs, charters, etc. Signet: a Small seal.

1. Paul, Sir James Balfour, Lord Lyon King of Arms, 'The Scots Peerage founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that Kingdom', Vol. VIII, Edinburgh, 1904-14.

2. Fraser, Sir William, 'The Sutherland Book', 3 Vols., Edinburgh, 1894.

3. Henderson, John, 'Caithness Family History', Edinburgh, 1884.

4. Grant, F. J. 'Register of Marriage, Edinburgh 1751-1800'. Edinburgh, 1922.

5. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and other sources.


George Sutherland, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, U.S. Senator and Congressman, and Women’s Rights Advocate

George Sutherland, the only Supreme Court Justice to come from Utah, supported women’s rights, particularly the right of women to vote and to engage as full members in American society. Sutherland was born in Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, England, March 25, 1862, to Frances Slater and Alexander George Sutherland. The extended Sutherland family joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and George and his parents traveled to Utah by ship, train, and wagon when he was only eighteen months old. Once in Utah, they settled in Springville, where George described his childhood as very simple and very hard. Because of his father’s problems with alcoholism, his parents left the church, and George was never baptized as a church member.

George quit school at age 12 and worked full-time to save money to attend Brigham Young Academy (BYA), a precursor to Brigham Young University. At age 16 he started at BYA, attended for two years, and then attended University of Michigan Law School for one year.

George Sutherland. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

Returning to Utah, George married Rosamond Lee in 1883. They eventually became parents to three children. He practiced law with his father in Provo for three years, and then formed his own firm with Samuel Thurman in Salt Lake City. He entered politics, and in 1895 served on a commission drafting the Utah Constitution that provided for women’s suffrage, a cause which George would champion throughout his career.

In 1896, when Utah was admitted as a state to the Union, George, a Republican, was elected to the Senate in the first state legislature. In 1900, he was elected to Utah’s only U.S. Congressional seat, and in 1905, the Utah State Legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate, the method at the time for selecting U.S. senators.

Over the next decade, George became a leading figure in the national suffrage movement. Both he and his wife gave speeches and held meetings supporting the right to vote. The Sutherlands became friends with Alice Paul, the leader of the more radical Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, later the National Women’s Party, and helped her with events staged to garner support for the movement. In August 1915, women held a meeting in Salt Lake City to welcome Paul and her automobile train traveling from the Women’s Voter Convention in San Francisco to Washington, D.C. that gathered more than 500,00 signatures in support of a women’s suffrage amendment. At the meeting, Annie Wells Cannon, daughter of leading Utah suffragist Emmeline B. Wells, thanked George for his support, and he gave a few supporting remarks. When the train arrived in Washington, D.C. several months later, George and Wyoming Congressman Franklin Wheeler Mendell greeted it. On December 6, Representative Mendell introduced the Susan B. Anthony Amendment into the U.S. House, and the next day George introduced it into the U.S. Senate.

Senator George Sutherland, Winifred Mallon, Reverend Olympia Brown, Alva Belmont at the Utah State Capitol welcoming the suffrage envoys from the San Francisco Exposition that were carrying petitions to Washington D.C. in October 1915. Courtesy of the National Women’s Party.

On December 13, Paul sponsored a mass meeting that took place at the Belasco Theatre in Washington D.C. with George as a main speaker. He based his arguments on the practical experience of the twelve states, including Utah, that had already granted the vote to women:

To my mind the right of women to vote is as obvious as my own right. . . When we have proven the case for universal manhood suffrage we have made clear the case for womanhood suffrage as well. Women on average are as intelligent as men, as patriotic as men, as anxious for good government as men, and to deprive them of the right to participate in the government is to make an arbitrary division . . . .

Flyer advertising Senator George Sutherland of Utah as a speaker for a mass meeting of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage in Belasco, Massachusetts. Courtesy of Library of Congress.

He closed by affirming that “women’s fundamental nature” would not change once they were given the right to vote indeed, “it [voting] will deepen her sense of responsibility, give her a more intelligent appreciation of her country’s needs and broaden her opportunity to ‘do her bit’ for the common good.”

The amendment failed in 1916. George, too, suffered defeat after two terms in Congress, a defeat he felt came about because of his support for the amendment. He returned to legal practice and became President of the American Bar Association in 1918. He served as a campaign and later presidential advisor to Warren G. Harding. After the 19th Amendment was ratified in 1920, Alice Paul moved on to crafting the Equal Rights Amendment and consulted with George. Both agreed that the law should treat women and men equally no matter their alleged differences.

Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

President Harding appointed George an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1922, and he served until 1938. An opponent of Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation, the conservative George became known as one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. His most important opinion was the majority opinion rendered in the case of Powell v Alabama, which helped lead to the constitutional right to counsel in all criminal cases and a recognition of the illegality of systematically excluding African Americans from juries.

George died July 18, 1942, while on vacation in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

Ann Engar is a professor/lecturer in the Honors College and LEAP Program at the University of Utah, specializing in intellectual history, pedagogy, and law. She has authored numerous short biographies, including for the online NASW project, and serves on the Holladay Historical Commission.


HistoryLink.org

Spokane historian Jerome Peltier interviewed pioneer George Washington Sutherland (1854-1949) in the 1940s and in 1989 prepared this account for The Pacific Northwesterner. It describes Sutherland’s trip West, his years as a cowboy, and his service as a volunteer in the Nez Perce War. This essay was originally published in the Spring 1989 issue of The Pacific Northwesterner (Vol. 33, No. 1), pp. 8-14, and is here reprinted with permission.

A Young Man Goes West

George Washington Sutherland's grand adventure began in 1872 when, as an 18-year-old, he felt the urge to see the wide-open spaces of the American West. He had read letters from William Purington to his father, Captain George Purington, of Bowdoinham, Maine, that described in glowing terms the fertile grasslands of Washington Territory and the opportunities available to anyone daring to leave home and start again in a new land. At the time, George had been working as a farmhand for Purington, who had been a captain in the Union Army during the Civil War. When the captain mentioned that he and his family would soon be leaving to join William at his cattle ranch, George asked if he could go with them.

Unfortunately, George had a serious problem. He had only $15 to his name. Somehow, George convinced the captain to lend him $140, and his father chipped in $25 making a total of $180. The Puringtons were leaving on Friday, so three days before that, George asked his mother for permission to go. After much hesitation, she reluctantly agreed. In the meantime, Captain Purington had gone to Boston and purchased George's train ticket to San Francisco for $122. George was on his way on August 20, 1872, with $58 that had to last him until he reached the Purington ranch somewhere in the southeast part of Washington Territory.

This is the story that George Sutherland related to me as he sat on his bed at Sacred Heart Hospital in Spokane in 1941, when he was 87 years old. He later told me of many other events that happened to him during his long and active life, but exciting as they were, all were but an anticlimax to his trip west.

West by Rail

The Puringtons had first-class tickets and George was traveling second class, so George didn't see them again during the entire trip. For the first time in his life, he was alone without friends or family. The train did not have a diner, so for the entire nine-day trip, George ate from a large basket of food his mother had packed for him. At night, he slept on his stiff uncomfortable seat in the unheated car, covered by a pair of blankets that his mother had insisted he take with him.

He crossed the Mississippi at St. Louis over the Eads steel bridge, an engineering marvel for its time. At Council Bluffs, Iowa, he walked across the bridge over the Missouri River to Omaha, where he boarded a Union Pacific train. He stopped over in Cheyenne, Wyoming, for a day and a half. Wyoming was the first state in the nation to grant women the right to vote and he noted that many women in the town were voting. He continued his trip through Rawlins, Wyoming, and Ogden, Utah, passing bands of antelope as the train chugged along the plains. Once a herd of buffalo thundered down the tracks, almost destroying them. Finally the train crossed the deserts of northern Nevada and reached Sacramento. He arrived in San Francisco on August 29 to be met at the station by a confidence man who tried to swindle him out of his meager funds. George ignored him and hurried to the steamboat office where he bought a third-class passage to Portland, Oregon, for $20.

About 4 p.m. the next day, he left on what he called "the old tub, the Oroflame, a sidewheeler." He continued, "No one would travel on such a boat today. When we got outside the Golden Gate, the boat began to pitch and wallow for four days until we got to Astoria."

At that time, Astoria consisted of a cluster of huts on pilings. The boat tied up there for half-a-day while cargo and mail from the East were unloaded. He finally reached Portland by evening and learned that another boat would be leaving for Wallula the next morning. He hurriedly spent $12 of his rapidly depleting money for a ticket. He couldn't afford to buy meals or a berth, as they cost extra.

His boat left early the next morning and by 10 a.m. had reached the cascades of the Columbia River, where cargo had to be unloaded and carried by cars on a narrow gauge railroad six miles upriver to another steamer, which continued the trip to The Dalles. Following an overnight stay, freight and passengers were again transported by narrow-gauge railroad to another steamer eight miles upriver, which went as far as Umatilla, where it stopped for the night. At that time, Umatilla was a lively town of about 3,000 people. All supplies for eastern Oregon and southern Idaho came through there until the Oregon Steam Navigation Company constructed a rail line to its docks on the Columbia at Wallula. Supplies then went from there to Walla Walla, which became the main distribution point.

The Real West

The day he arrived at Umatilla was windy, and sand was piling up in the streets in drifts three or four-feet deep, according to George. After a night in town, he boarded another steamer, which took him to Wallula where he arrived penniless and hungry. He had spent the last of his money for a berth. He made a deal with a teamster to haul his rifle and baggage to Walla Walla while he walked, arriving there about 6 p.m. after a hot, dusty hike. He went to the St. Louis Hotel and told the proprietor that he wanted a meal and a place to sleep, but had no money. The proprietor said, "Young man, the world is yours. Help yourself." George took him at his word, had a good meal and a good night's sleep.

George recalled, "Every other door was a saloon. There were many teamsters. I watched some of them packing mules, as many as 75 to a train (for the trip to the mines), and the mule trains were strung out for miles. There were many large corrals mainly for the mules."

Walla walla was the supply center for the region. "The mules were hitched in teams of six, eight or 10 to large freight wagons. Horsedrawn stage coaches were coming and going through town. Men worked hard and played hard, and saloons had plenty of patrons. Card games were going on all of the time."

In his wanderings around town, George located a teamster who had heard about the Purington ranch and was passing by it. He agreed to transport George's belongings and guide George there if George was willing to walk all of the way. George borrowed $2.50 from his new-found friend, paid his hotel and food bill with it, and left that afternoon on the last leg of his journey. This would be a jaunt of 80 miles to the area around Penewawa on the north side of the Snake River approximately 25 miles due west of present-day Pullman, Washington.

The man's team consisted of a small mule hitched to an unkempt, scrawny cayuse pony, barely able to pull an unloaded wagon let alone a loaded one. George felt so sorry for the animals that he left his trunk behind, taking only his blankets, his rifle, a pistol, and a saddle bag. He had brought the guns as protection from the "Indians and badmen" that he understood "infested" the West at that time.

The first day's travel brought them to what George called Whetstone Hollow, which offered good grazing for the team. The road was merely an Indian trail showing traces of heavy use. In places, the ruts were two-feet deep, while in other places, the trail could barely be discerned. Drivers often deviated from the track, going where they felt they could make the best time.

The second day, George observed that the hills were dry and parched, although they were covered with nutritious bunch grass. By noon, they reached the Tucannon River where a man named Platter ran a crude rest station. After climbing out of the Tucannon Valley, they started down toward the Snake River on a narrow hilly road, the wagon nearly tipping over several times. Finally the river came into view, glistening in the distance, and Brown's Ferry became visible. While they were hastening down the Snake River breaks, a post rider charged past them, carrying the mail from Kelton, Utah, to points north via Walla Walla, Colfax, Spokan Bridge, Rathdrum, Idaho, and by boat across Lake Pend Oreille to Missoula, Montana.

Two other Snake River crossings existed at that time: Lyon's Ferry near the mouth of the Palouse River and the ferry at Lewiston where the Snake joins the Clearwater River. Dusty sign-boards advertised these ferries declaring that plenty of wood, water, and grass was present along the road.

George described Brown's rest stop as a square box shanty and a shed in which a man could rest himself and his horse. This was the first habitation George encountered since leaving the Tucannon River. After crossing the river, George helped pull the wagon up the hill where the team found good grass and water, as the signs had promised.

By noon of September 17, George arrived at Gooseberry Springs in Whitman County and his teamster friend told him that after they reached Alki Flat, he could easily find the Purington ranch by heading south toward the Snake River. George thanked him, gave him his pistol as a pawn for his $2. 50 debt, and they parted.

Riding the Range

With a feeling of loneliness, the youth started across the rolling hills. No other human being was in sight. It seemed as if there was always a hill ahead of him, but finally, he came to a ravine that led down to the Snake River, where he quenched his thirst. He realized that he had turned south too soon and was lost, but after walking several more miles, he saw a small shack ahead of him. The sun was setting and his pack was heavy, so the hut was a welcome sight. He knocked on the door and a surprised William Purington answered with a warm welcome for the weary traveler.

A man named Holbrook was staying with Purington at the time, and these two men were George's first acquaintances in Whitman County. He rested a few days and after getting a horse, went out with the other hired hands to learn how to be a cowpuncher. The next phase of his life had begun.

"My wages were $25 a month and board, and I wasn't worth that much as I was a green Easterner. I did become quite a cowboy eventually," George said. It was not long before George became fully trained in riding and rounding up cattle. Soon he was able to go on long trips in search of strays.

"There were thousands of cattle down there, and we had a huge range to cover. My employer ran a herd of from 500 to 1,000 head. Our range extended from Lewiston to the Palouse, 90 miles east and west, and from the Snake River to Spokane Falls." There were no fences. Cattle from various ranches mingled freely as they grazed, and were separated by brand at roundup time.

"Spokane Falls was a poor feeding ground, so we did not give it much attention. I think that the first time I was there, there were only two houses in the place. Colfax was the same."

In a conversation several years later, George described the rangeland in the Snake River country:

"Along the banks of the river, large portions of the hills at the north had slid down the canyons (in the past) due to cloudbursts and the continuous flow of small streams, and had formed bars . which were very fertile. A number of Indians had claimed this land, but then the settlers started coming in, some of whom took squatter's rights on it. This, of course, caused trouble right away. The first place to become involved was four miles above the place that I was working -- Penewawa.

"There were two brothers named Smith who were cattlemen, who were the first to settle on this land and they thought that the Indians were not entitled to such good land and should be back on a reservation, so they took it for themselves. This land is in cultivation today [1945] with fine orchards of peaches, pears and cherries, and is worth many thousands of dollars.

"There were two other bars on the river that received freight from Portland from a steamer that called once a week. One was at Almota, where Henry Spalding, son of the missionary, ran a store and a hotel. The other was at Wawawai. Senator La Follette of Wisconsin and the Holt brothers had a large orchard there and shipped quantities of fruit all over the country. There was trouble here between the Indians and settlers and one Indian was killed by the man I was working for. The trouble was finally settled by Chief [Spokane] Garry, who was a noted Indian at that time.

"During those days, the Indians became rather insulting and would come into cabins if there was no man around and (ask the womenfolk) for something to eat, tobacco, or matches. Of course, the settlers were frightened by them at first, but later became somewhat used to them. The women would stand no nonsense and always kept a rifle or pistol handy. I was afraid of them at first, (but) after awhile picked up enough of their jargon to talk with them and was able to understand [them].

"At the Purington ranch, we planted peach, pear and apple trees. In the Spring of 1873 we planted all kinds of seeds and also sweet potatoes, tobacco, peanuts and cotton. They all grew well. The wind blew a gale at times so we set out a wind break of locust trees.

"The winter of 1874-5 was the worst I ever spent. Cattle died by the thousands, for the snow was deep and the springs were frozen so badly that it was impossible for the cattle to drink. It was frightfully cold. When Winter broke, dead cattle were everywhere. Great pieces of ice came down the Snake River. Some of the flows were 40 feet high."

George tired of the monotony of ranch life and left for the big city in 1875. He went to Portland where he started on a succession of jobs that took him from Walla Walla to Moscow, Idaho, and Newport, Washington. Employment was readily available for anyone willing to work and George tried everything from being a waiter, a barber, a sewing machine salesman, and a druggist. He even took a turn at practicing medicine.

Nez Perce War

In 1877, he was in Colfax when word arrived of the Nez Perce uprising. George provided me with a written account of his experience:

"On June 15, word came that a group of the Nez Perce Indians under the leadership of Chief Joseph had begun hostilities against the white settlers in western Idaho Territory by killing in cold blood several of the settlers. On Sunday, the 17th day of June, I, as well as many others, were at a camp meeting at what was known as Chase's Mill, about 18 miles east of Colfax, when a man by the name of Joe Evans came into camp about 11 o'clock with his horse covered with sweat, and said: 'The Indians are coming down Union Flat, killing and burning everything in sight.' (Actually, no fighting occurred in Union Flat.)

"The meeting broke up without waiting for the benediction, and everyone started for home or for Colfax. When I arrived back in Colfax, I found the streets barricaded and great excitement. An old man by the name of D. S. Bowman was upon the stoop of the only store in town, and he was saying, 'Gentlemen, I have lived in Indian country all of my life, and I can say to all of you people that we should organize a company of volunteers. Then you will be recognized by the government.' We organized a company on the spot. We appointed officers (and) all signed the roster and were sworn in. Then we were all told to go out and get all the firearms we had or could borrow. When we returned, all we could muster was 22 rifles, shotguns, and pistols. My duty, with two others, was to stand guard at the south end of town on the hills where it was supposed that the Indians would come through.

"The next morning, I was ordered to reconnoiter and report. I went first to Three Forks, where Pullman is now situated, but there was no one within five miles. From there I went to Palouse City. There were very few families there, but the men from town and country were building a stockade. I stopped over there to help where I could. The next day, I went on to Moscow. Only a few people were there, but they were building a stockade with a big cellar inside for the women and children. It was built on a sloping side hill, and we could see the Indians passing along the foothills [on] the trail between Spokane and Lewiston. I stayed there for two days and had a chance to send a report to Colfax. Then I went to Lewiston, arriving there the same evening that General Howard arrived by boat from Portland with company of Georgia troops. They had no experience in fighting Indians, but a company was ordered out to go up Craig's Mountain to Grangeville and Mount Idaho and White Bird Canyon. They were sent down in regular formation and the Indians were up on the sides of the canyon, and as I was told by one of the company, they had no chance at all .

"After Joseph and his band eluded General Howard and fled over the Lolo Pass into Montana with the intention of reaching sanctuary in Canada, Sutherland and the members of his company of volunteers were ordered to watch for any stragglers who might circle back. We went to Mount Idaho, Grangeville, White Bird and many other places where we thought we might run into Indians, but we did not see any from that time on. The company was mustered out in August or September of the same year, 1877."

George's account concludes, "All the records [of the company's activities] . were destroyed in the big fire, so we have no record of our company's doings. After our enlistment, we had to furnish all of our equipment, horse, saddle, blankets and eat where we could. After 60 years, I think I am entitled to a badge of some kind as five of my company were receiving pensions (and I was not). I have saved Uncle Sam quite a sum of money by not applying for one. I did not need the money and I did not think that I was doing anything but my duty. We had to protect our homes under any circumstances."

George continued traveling over the Northwest investing in various business enterprises including mining, all with mediocre success. He eventually settled in Newport, Washington. There, he was a member of the City Council, served several terms as Mayor, was County Commissioner of Stevens and Pend Oreille Counties and president of a bank. He died in 1949 after a long and active life in which he realized his ambition of being a pioneer in the American West.

This essay is part of HistoryLink's People's History collection. People's Histories include personal memoirs and reminiscences, letters and other historical documents, interviews and oral histories, reprints from historical and current publications, original essays, commentary and interpretation, and expressions of personal opinion, many of which have been submitted by our visitors. They have not been verified by HistoryLink.org and do not necessarily represent its views.

Fuentes:

Spokane historian Jerome Peltier interviewed pioneer George Washington Sutherland (1854-1949) in the 1940s.


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Arkes, Hadley. The Return of George Sutherland: Restoring a Jurisprudence of Natural Rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Mason, Alpheus Thomas. "The Conservative World of Mr. Justice Sutherland, 1883-1910." American Political Science Review 32 (June 1938): 443-77.

Paschal, Joel Francis. Mr. Justice Sutherland, a Man Against the State. 1951. Reprint. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969.

Sutherland, George. Constitutional Power and World Affairs. 1919. Reprint. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1970.


SUTHERLAND Genealogy

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SUTHERLAND, GEORGE

In 1883 Sutherland had completed one term at the University of Michigan Law School and qualified for the Michigan bar. That summer he returned to Utah and married Rosamund Lee. They had three children--Emma (born 1884), Philip (born 1886), and Edith (born 1888)--whom he supported by practicing law in Utah. In 1894 he helped to organize the Utah State Bar Association.

In 1896 Sutherland, a Republican, joined the first Utah House of Representatives. In 1899 he was admitted to the bar of the United States Supreme Court, and from 1900 to 1903 he served as Utah's only Representative in the U.S. House. He then served in the U.S. Senate from 1905 to 1916. During this period, he supported much progressive legislation, including a Utah law for an eight-hour day in the mining and smelting industries, as well as national statues such as the Pure Food and Drug Act.

Defeated for the Senate nomination in 1916, Sutherland went into private law practice, served as president of the American Bar Association, and became an advisor to Republican presidential hopeful Warren G. Harding in the campaign of 1920. Harding's election and the sudden resignation of a Supreme Court justice in 1922 paved the way for Sutherland's appointment to the bench.

Sutherland's Supreme Court record belied his earlier progressive stance. He penned such majority opinions as the landmark Adkins v. Children's Hospital, which outlawed a minimum wage for women. In the thirties, he opposed most of the New Deal legislation, and became the intellectual leader of the "Four Horsemen"--the four conservative justices consistently voting against President Franklin D. Roosevelt's programs. He retired from the Court in January 1938 and died on 18 July 1942. He retained the respect of his peers throughout his career and is rated by many historians as "near great" for his Supreme Court performance.

Descargo de responsabilidad: la información de este sitio se convirtió de un libro de tapa dura publicado por University of Utah Press en 1994.

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