Batalla de Novara, 8 de abril de 1500

Batalla de Novara, 8 de abril de 1500


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Batalla de Novara, 8 de abril de 1500

La batalla de Novara (8 de abril de 1500) fue una victoria francesa fácil que puso fin a un intento de Ludovico Sforza de expulsarlos del Ducado de Milán (Segunda Guerra Italiana / Guerra Italiana de Luis XII).

En 1494, Ludovico, entonces regente del joven duque de Milán, se había puesto del lado de Carlos VIII de Francia al comienzo de su invasión de Nápoles (Primera Guerra Italiana / Guerra Italiana de Carlos VIII), pero en 1495 cambió de bando, uniéndose a un alianza anti-francesa que obligó a Charles a dejar Nápoles y luchar para volver a casa. El futuro Luis XII estuvo muy involucrado en la lucha contra las fuerzas milanesas en el norte de Italia.

En 1498 Carlos murió y Luis subió al trono. Desde el comienzo de su reinado afirmó ser rey de Nápoles y duque de Milán, y pasó el primer año preparándose para una invasión. La invasión se produjo en agosto de 1499 y, a principios de septiembre, Ludovico se vio obligado a huir de Milán al exilio en el Tirol. En octubre-noviembre, Louis visitó Milán. Cuando Luis se fue, Gian Giacomo Trivulzio fue puesto a cargo en Milán.

Ludovico pudo levantar un ejército de alrededor de 20.000 hombres en el Tirol, con un poderoso contingente suizo y 1.500 hombres de armas de Borgoña. En enero, este ejército lanzó un ataque contra Milán. Los franceses fueron superados en número, y el 3 de febrero de 1500 Trivulzio abandonó Milán y se retiró al oeste a Novara y Mortara.

Ludovico regresó a Milán el 5 de febrero y recibió una entusiasta bienvenida. Los franceses todavía tenían el castillo de Milán, por lo que se vio obligado a dividir su ejército. Parte de ella se dejó asediar el castillo, mientras que el resto se trasladó al sur a Pavía, luego al oeste a Vigecano, que tomaron de los franceses. El siguiente objetivo fue Novara, que cayó después de un asedio de dos semanas (asedio de Novara, del 5 al 21 de marzo de 1500).

Los franceses no habían estado inactivos durante este período. El 23 de marzo, Louis de la Tremouille llegó a Mortara con 500 hombres en armas y algo de artillería. Reemplazó al impopular Trivulzio, mejorando la moral del ejército francés.

Al mismo tiempo, las condiciones en el ejército de Ludovico empeoraban. La paga se estaba agotando y la lealtad de sus tropas suizas estaba en duda: Louis había firmado un tratado oficial con los cantones suizos antes de la guerra y era posible que sus tropas suizas se negaran a luchar contra sus compatriotas.

El 8 de abril, los franceses atacaron Ludovico en Novara y su ejército se disolvió. Ludovico intentó escapar entre los suizos en retirada, pero fue capturado el 10 de abril y pasó los diez años restantes de su vida en cautiverio francés. Los franceses volvieron a entrar en Milán, comenzando un período de control francés intermitente del ducado que duró hasta la década de 1530. Louis se preparó entonces para la segunda parte de su aventura italiana, una invasión conjunta franco-española de Nápoles.


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Consulte www.seswc.co.uk para obtener más información.

Archivo

La batalla de Novara, 1513

17 de noviembre de 2016, 3 Comentarios

Las guerras italianas, Lucio y amp Shotte, 28mm

Esta semana, & # 8220German Michael & # 8221 protagonizó otro de sus juegos renacentistas. fue anunciado como una & # 8220big fat battle & # 8221 definitiva, con 64 bloques de lucios. Desafortunadamente, nadie se lo dijo al suizo, que apareció con uno de 32 hombres de tamaño regular. Aún así, se veía bien, especialmente las grandes unidades francesas y Landsknecht de Michael & # 8217. Sin embargo, como juego, dejaba mucho que desear. Algunos clientes habituales (ya sabes quién eres) no aparecieron, ya que estaban trabajando o guardando su polvo de wargaming para el fin de semana. Aún así, teníamos tres jugadores por lado y una mesa bonita, dominada por una aldea amurallada. En el extremo izquierdo, Donald comandaba los bloques de picas de Basilea y Berna, apoyados por algunas unidades más pequeñas y un par de cañones. Frente a él estaba Michael & # 8217s Bande Nere Landskneckts y algunos piqueros franceses de Gascuña, además de los cañones y escaramuzadores habituales. Un gran bosque & # 8211 y el pueblo & # 8211 dividieron efectivamente el campo de batalla en dos. A la derecha estaba la Guardia Suiza, comandada por Jack, apoyada por pistolas y ballesteros, mientras que a su derecha venía mi caballería & # 8211 una mezcla de italianos y estradiotas. Frente a nosotros estaba el comando de Ken, dos unidades de gendarmes franceses de élite y cinco unidades de ballesteros y argoulets montados. Entonces & # 8211 dos lados del campo de batalla y dos batallas. Como nadie tenía el tipo de tropas capaces de ocupar la aldea, extrañamente permaneció vacía durante todo el juego.En la batalla real de Novara, los franceses (con alguna ayuda veneciana) al mando de Louis de la Tremoille estaban sitiando la pequeña ciudad de Novara, al oeste de Milán. Los suizos (con algo de ayuda milanesa) los atacaron, agrediendo a los franceses desde diferentes direcciones para mantenerlos desprevenidos. los franceses se retiraron a su campamento, donde finalmente fueron derrotados. Fue una batalla bastante sangrienta, incluso para los estándares de la época, e incluyó la ejecución masiva de Landsknechts atrapados luchando por los franceses. Nuestra batalla no iba a ser exactamente como la real, pero contendría algo de sabor, mediante el uso de grandes bloques de lucios. Ese plan, por supuesto, se vino abajo gracias a la falta de suizos.Nuestro lado del campo de batalla & # 8211 el lado de la caballería & # 8211 o la derecha suiza y la izquierda francesa & # 8211 siempre iba a ser un espectáculo secundario. La verdadera pelea sería decidida por los pares emparejados de bloques de lucios suizos y franceses en el lado opuesto de la mesa. Así que pasamos la mayor parte de la noche peleando. Ken avanzó y cortó una de mis unidades de stradiots, que fue lo suficientemente imprudente como para perseguir a sus ballesteros montados y aterrizar aislado. Luego, los dos bandos maniobraron, dispararon sus armas y repelieron alguna que otra carga, pero no pasó nada importante hasta la última media hora del juego. Entonces mis hombres de armas milaneses entraron en acción contra los gendarmes franceses. Una unidad falló en su cuerpo a cuerpo y tuvo que realizar una prueba de ruptura. Saqué un & # 82203 & # 8221 en 2D6, lo que significó una derrota. Si bien Ken dijo que no era necesario, sentí que también necesitaba rodar por la segunda unidad milanesa que lo apoyaba. Rodé otro & # 82203. & # 8221 Despegue. En ese momento, la batalla de la caballería se apagó. Ken claramente lo ganó, pero al menos mantuvimos a los gendarmes de élite alejados de los bloques de lucios suizos & # 8230En el otro extremo de la mesa, Donald avanzó con su suizo, dirigiéndose directamente hacia sus oponentes franceses y Landsknecht. También avanzaron debidamente, apoyados por una artillería bastante precisa y fuego de escaramuza. Cuando los dos lados chocaron se veía muy espectacular, pero cualquier azada que los suizos simplemente hicieran rodar sobre sus oponentes se hundió gracias a algunas tiradas de dados más pésimas. Lentamente, los Landsknechts comenzaron a empujar a los berneses hacia atrás, mientras que más cerca del centro de la mesa, los piqueros gascones se defendieron asombrosamente de los Baselers. Cuando terminó el juego, los dos grandes bloques de Donald se estaban retirando, y los alegres franceses y alemanes los seguían para mantener la presión sobre ellos. Entonces, a las 10 pm terminamos el juego y lo declaramos una clara victoria francesa. La historia se revirtió & # 8211 hasta la próxima vez. Si bien esta batalla no involucró a mi pequeño y simpático ejército veneciano, apareció algo de caballería veneciana, que se duplicó como milanesa. La próxima vez & # 8211 con suerte & # 8211 las tropas de La Serenissima pueden desempeñar su papel.

3 respuestas & # 8220La batalla de Novara, 1513 & # 8221

Quizás fueron 2 batallas, porque tu bando lo dejó para que así fuera. Su suizo podría haberse adentrado en los setos o aventurarse en el pueblo detrás del muro. Nadie en un momento dado pensó en concentrar sus fuerzas para atacar nuestros puntos débiles. & # 8230 Y no & # 8217t se le ocurra la excusa del comando, ¡esta batalla tuvo más comandos que nunca!


Europa 1849: Batalla de Novara

El sentimiento revolucionario todavía era fuerte en los estados italianos, lo que llevó al Papa a huir de Roma en noviembre y llevó a que se declararan repúblicas en Roma y Toscana en febrero. Sin embargo, la marea estaba cambiando. En marzo, Cerdeña renunció a su tregua con Austria, pero fue rápidamente derrotada en la batalla de Novara y obligada a llegar a un acuerdo, mientras que al mismo tiempo Nápoles comenzó su reconquista del reino separatista de Sicilia.

Eventos principales

5 de enero de 1849 Los austriacos capturan Buda-Pest & # 9650

Después de la victoria sobre los rebeldes húngaros en la batalla de Mor, las fuerzas del Imperio austríaco capturaron la capital húngara abandonada de Buda y la vecina Pest. en wikipedia

9 de febrero de 1849 República romana (siglo XIX) & # 9650

La Asamblea Constituyente de Roma, en lo que habían sido los Estados Pontificios, proclamó la República Romana. en wikipedia

18 de febrero de 1849 República de la Toscana & # 9650

El 18 de febrero de 1849, la República de la Toscana fue proclamada en Florencia, con Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi nombrado dictador. El mismo día, el duque Leopoldo II huyó a Gaeta. en wikipedia

4–7 de marzo de 1849 Constitución de marzo de Austria & # 9650

El conde von Warthausen, ministro del Interior del Imperio austríaco, declaró la Constitución de marzo, recuperando el poder de los Habsburgo después de las concesiones de 1848, reduciendo los derechos de la población no alemana del Imperio y revocando las leyes de abril en Hungría. en wikipedia

12 de marzo de 1849 Cerdeña rompe la tregua con Austria & # 9650

Carlos Alberto, rey de Cerdeña, renunció al armisticio con el Imperio austríaco y reavivó la Primera Guerra de Independencia italiana. en wikipedia

19 de marzo de 1849 Nápoles reanuda la guerra en Sicilia & # 9650

El Reino de las Dos Sicilias (Nápoles) puso fin a su armisticio con el Reino separatista de Sicilia, enviando a su ejército desde Messina. en wikipedia

22-23 de marzo de 1849 Batalla de Novara & # 9650

Las fuerzas del Imperio austríaco, lideradas por el mariscal de campo Joseph Radetzky von Radetz, derrotaron a las fuerzas sardas en Novara, Piamonte, en el Reino de Cerdeña. en wikipedia


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1849: el mariscal de campo, el conde Radetzky, gana la batalla de Novara

Es decir, derrotó al ejército del Reino de Cerdeña en la Batalla de Novara, que intentaba expandir su área de influencia a las partes de Italia bajo control austriaco.

El mariscal de campo austríaco que ganó la batalla fue el conocido mariscal de campo, el conde Joseph Radetzky. La famosa Marcha de Radetzky, compuesta por Johann Strauss Sr., lleva el nombre precisamente del mencionado Conde Radetzky.

La ciudad de Novara, cerca de la cual tuvo lugar la batalla, se encuentra entre Milán y Turín. Turín fue la capital del Reino de Cerdeña, mientras que Milán fue la capital de Lombardía, que estaba bajo control austríaco en ese momento (el emperador Francisco José I era también el rey de Lombardía y Venecia).

Georg Decker: Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky alrededor de 1850

Más de 100.000 soldados participaron en la batalla de Novara. Las fuerzas austriacas lograron una victoria decisiva, que puso fin temporalmente a los intentos italianos de liberar Lombardía del dominio austriaco. En ese sentido, las tropas austriacas eran representantes del sistema conservador, al igual que cuando aplastaron una revolución en Hungría, que tuvo lugar aproximadamente al mismo tiempo.

Julius Jacob von Haynau se convirtió en uno de los generales austríacos más infames tanto en Italia como en Hungría. Utilizó una crueldad extrema para sofocar el levantamiento italiano en Brescia, que le valió el apodo de "Hiena de Brescia". En Hungría organizó el cruel ahorcamiento de diez generales rebeldes, conocidos como los Mártires de Arad. Es interesante notar que el general von Haynau era bisnieto del rey británico Jorge II a través de una línea ilegítima. Por supuesto, esto también lo convirtió en un pariente de la reina británica Victoria, quien gobernó en el momento de la Batalla de Novara.


Batalla de Novara, 8 de abril de 1500 - Historia

La fragata austriaca Novara atracó en el puerto de Sydney, noviembre de 1858. Fotografía original, publicada en L. Lind (1988). Imagen probablemente tomada por el fotógrafo local y compañero austriaco Wilhelm Hetzer.

Construcción en Venecia 1843-51

Expedición científica alrededor del mundo 1857-9

Muerte de Fernando Maximiliano 1867

". el buque más magnífico" - así escribió la australiana de 16 años Mary Caroline "Minnie" Mann en su diario el 16 de noviembre de 1858 en referencia a la fragata imperial austriaca Novara, luego en el puerto de Sydney. El sentimiento más parecido surgió de una visita guiada al barco que le dio a Minnie el capitán del barco, el barón Frederick von Pck. En el momento Novara participó en una expedición científica alrededor del mundo que iba a durar desde abril de 1857 hasta agosto de 1859. Una breve escala en Sydney entre noviembre y diciembre de 1858 brindó una oportunidad para las reparaciones del barco, el descanso y la recreación por parte del tripulación y socializar con las jóvenes de la colonia.

La señorita Mann, a pesar de su juventud, estaba bien calificada para hacer una evaluación o no de la magnificencia de la Novara. Vivía en la playa del puerto y era hija de Gother Kerr Mann, ingeniero en jefe del astillero de la isla Cockatoo en Sydney. Antes de su recorrido personal por la fragata austriaca esa mañana de noviembre, había adquirido un gran conocimiento sobre los detalles estructurales y de otro tipo de los buques de guerra contemporáneos, teniendo el privilegio de verlos de cerca mientras se sometían a reparaciones en el recientemente inaugurado (1857) FitzRoy. Muelle en el puerto de Sydney. También había participado en visitas guiadas a las fragatas inglesas que operaban en la estación de Australia. El austriaco Novara se vio obligado a hacer uso de las instalaciones del astillero mientras se encontraba en Sydney debido a los daños sufridos en un tifón en el mar de China Meridional encontrado entre el 18 y el 19 de agosto en ruta a Australia desde Shanghai. Cuando la fragata entró en Port Jackson, las bombas estaban trabajando duro y se dijo que el barco tenía una lista decidida.

Frontispicio de la edición alemana (Scherzer, 1861-3) del relato en tres volúmenes del viaje alrededor del mundo del Novara entre 1857-59, que muestra el barco a toda vela. Las diversas localidades visitadas durante la expedición se enumeran dentro de los ornamentados alrededores.

Desde su residencia 'Greenwich House', ubicada en la costa norte del puerto de Sydney con vista a la isla Cockatoo, "Minnie" Mann pudo observar muchos de los grandes buques de pasajeros y mercantes y barcos de guerra que visitaron el primer ministro de la colonia. puerto durante la década de 1850. El tráfico marítimo había aumentado notablemente durante la década anterior debido al descubrimiento de oro en Nueva Gales del Sur y Victoria en 1851. Las avalanchas de oro resultantes llevaron a Sídney a miles de cazadores de fortunas de todos los rincones del mundo, y mientras Novara no buscaba fortuna en 1858, pero ella y su tripulación estaban, sin embargo, en busca de esos bienes igualmente valiosos: conocimiento, experiencia y reputación.

Esta fragata austríaca también fue sin duda una de las mejores de su clase que pasó por Sydney Heads y fue amarrada frente a la isla Cockatoo desde que se fundó la colonia penal inglesa de 'Botany Bay' en 1788. Durante noviembre de 1858, el Novara, aunque algo magullado y maltrecho, se destacaba entre la flota irregular de buques de guerra británicos, barcos de inmigrantes y de carga, y pequeñas barcazas y vapores comerciales costeros que entonces frecuentaban las numerosas calas y muelles en el más pintoresco de todos los puertos. Ella era la encarnación marítima de la monarquía de los Habsburgo, gobernantes del vasto imperio austrohúngaro que, en ese momento, se extendía desde la costa oriental del mar Adriático y Venecia e Italia en el oeste, al sur a través de Bosnia-Herzegovena hacia el Báltico y Turquía, al norte de los Estados alemanes y al este hasta Rumania y Rusia.

Las circunstancias que marcaron el Novara como el primer buque de guerra austríaco en visitar Nueva Gales del Sur, y el buque más grande que ha entrado en FitzRoy Dock hasta ese momento, se remonta al territorio italiano ocupado de Venecia en 1843, cuando la monarquía austríaca ordenó un nuevo buque para su pequeña, aunque en constante expansión, armada. Construido durante lo que iba a ser la última fase de la era de los buques de guerra de madera, a fines de la década de 1850 y principios de la de 1860, los buques de guerra acorazados y propulsados ​​a vapor ocuparían su lugar. Novara fue, tras su finalización en 1851, una fragata de vela de tres mástiles de última generación. Rápida y suntuosamente equipada con finas alfombras y muebles para servir a los oficiales y la tripulación de la armada austriaca, también llevaba armamento sustancial para protegerse contra las flotas enemigas. La necesidad de tal potencia de fuego era real, ya que el Novara Luego participó en una de las batallas navales más famosas de todos los tiempos, a saber, la que tuvo lugar entre las flotas austriaca e italiana frente a la isla adriática de Lissa el 20 de julio de 1866 (ver más abajo).

los Novara fue construida con las mejores maderas del Adriático y estaba destinada a acomodar a los diversos príncipes, barones, duques y condes de Habsburgo que navegarían en ella como cadetes, oficiales navales de pleno derecho o pasajeros libres. Durante las décadas de 1850 y 1860 jugó un papel importante como buque insignia de la flota austriaca, llevando la insignia austriaca y las aspiraciones de la monarquía de los Habsburgo a todos los rincones del mundo, mientras que en aguas más cercanas a casa sirvió como buque escuela de vela, artillería barco y fragata de combate cuerpo a cuerpo.

los Novara Era algo extraño para los colonos cuando llegó a Sydney a última hora de la tarde del 5 de noviembre de 1858. Este magnífico barco navegaba bajo una bandera que rara vez se ve en Australia, compuesta de franjas rojas, blancas y rojas horizontales en negrita, que aparecían en su centrar la cresta austriaca de un águila bicéfala. Si bien esta era la bandera oficial del Imperio austríaco, la insignia oficial de la armada austriaca estaba igualmente prohibida en rojo, blanco y rojo, aunque con la corona y el sello ducal en el centro.

Los colonos británicos habrían ignorado en gran medida que el Imperio austríaco poseía una flota naval, y que SMS (Seiner Majest t Schiff) Novara fue uno de los buques insignia de la Kaiserliche und K nigliche Kriegsmarine (Imperial y Royal Navy) de Austria. En ese momento, Austria no era reconocida como potencia marítima de la misma manera que Gran Bretaña o Francia, quienes tenían una larga y orgullosa tradición naval. La monarquía austríaca solo había comenzado a desarrollar una armada en serio a fines del siglo XVIII, sin embargo, en la década de 1850, los Habsburgo poseían la flota más fuerte de la Confederación de Estados de Alemania.

Este período de expansión durante la primera mitad del siglo se debió en gran parte al apoyo entusiasta de dos aristócratas de los Habsburgo. En primer lugar, el joven archiduque Federico que, en 1837, cuando solo tenía 16 años, se unió a la marina y posteriormente puso de moda que otros miembros de la aristocracia hicieran lo mismo.

Como marinero, el Archiduque Federico estuvo involucrado en acciones exitosas en Siria y Palestina durante 1839, y en 1844 fue nombrado Comandante en Jefe de la Armada. Durante este período fue capaz de engendrar un entusiasmo por el desarrollo de la flota entre una burocracia gobernante que durante mucho tiempo había centrado su atención en la formación del ejército austríaco. Este grupo tardó en responder a los pedidos de Frederick de modernización y expansión de la flota. Sin embargo, en 1843 se hizo un pedido a los carpinteros del Arsenal veneciano (un gran complejo de construcción naval) para la construcción de una nueva fragata de combate para dar servicio a la armada austriaca. Fue una pena que el Archiduque Federico no estuviera presente para ver el lanzamiento de ese barco como el Novara en 1851. Murió prematuramente en 1847, cuando solo tenía 26 años, y dejó la marina sin liderazgo ni influencia durante un período en el que la revolución arrasaba Europa. Su eventual reemplazo sería el archiduque Fernando Maximiliano (1832-67), hermano menor del emperador Francisco José I (1830-1916). Aunque una persona de poder e influencia en la aristocrática Austria, Ferdinand Maximillian, en sus intentos de construir la flota durante la década de 1850, también se enfrentó a la oposición de una burocracia con problemas de liquidez y de sectores del Imperio, incluida Hungría, que no vieron la necesidad de un presencia naval sustancial. Con una capital sin salida al mar (Viena) y obligada a depender de los puertos costeros del Adriático que contienen poblaciones o minorías étnicas que se oponen activamente a la `` ocupación '' austriaca, la idea de una marina para el Imperio no fue ampliamente apoyada, a diferencia de lo que sucedió en países como Gran Bretaña. Gran Bretaña o incluso los Estados Unidos de América, donde las consideraciones prácticas de asegurar las rutas comerciales marítimas y mantener una flota naval estaban indisolublemente ligadas al bienestar de la nación. Afortunadamente, o desafortunadamente, el clima político volátil de la época y la participación de Austria en una serie de guerras con sus vecinos cercanos, agregaron peso a los esfuerzos del Archiduque Ferdinand (y más tarde de Maximillian) para construir una flota moderna y lista para la batalla.

Cuando miramos hacia atrás en este período de la historia del siglo XIX desde un punto de vista ventajoso unos 150 años después, ahora vemos a Austria como un estado sin litoral, después de haber perdido sus antiguos puertos marítimos del Adriático de Trieste y Pola. La armada austro-húngara también es solo un recuerdo. Su alguna vez orgullosa flota, que en 1914 fue la sexta más grande del mundo, entró en acción por última vez durante la Primera Guerra Mundial. Tras la derrota de noviembre de 1918, sus barcos fueron distribuidos a los vencedores como reparaciones de guerra o desguazados ignominiosamente. El cuento de la fragata de vela Novara por lo tanto, nos lleva de regreso a un período más grandioso en la historia de la monarquía de los Habsburgo y el Imperio Austro-Húngaro, a una época en que su esplendor, tanto en tierra como en el mar, rivalizaba con el de las otras grandes potencias de la época hasta ahora. casi olvidado.

Construcción de Novara, Venecia 1843-51

La historia de la construcción del Novara Es uno de incidentes e interrupciones, vinculado con la agitación política de la época y el impulso por la unificación italiana. La fragata se colocó por primera vez en el astillero del Arsenal, Venecia, como el Minerva el 20 de septiembre de 1843, con los costados perforados para acomodar 42 cañones. En este punto, el Imperio Austriaco no tenía sus propios astilleros navales, sino que hizo uso de la larga tradición de la construcción naval en Venecia y las habilidades de los constructores navales italianos. Esto iba a cambiar a fines de la década de 1850 cuando se creó una industria local, y posteriormente se lanzaron barcos para la marina austriaca desde astilleros como el Stabilimento Técnico Triestino en Trieste (un astillero privado fundado en 1857) y el cercano astillero naval Pola. Ambas instalaciones estaban ubicadas en la costa oriental del Adriático, algo alejadas de los cada vez más hostiles italianos.

Sección vertical de la fragata austriaca Novara en el momento de su viaje alrededor del mundo, 1857-59. Extraído de Scherzer (1861-3).

El programa de construcción de la Minerva / Novara fue inusualmente largo, provocado por el continuo conflicto del Imperio con Italia y sus diversos estados semiindependientes, sobre todo Cerdeña en el sur y Venecia en el norte. Austria había adquirido el territorio veneciano en 1797 lo perdió brevemente ante Napoleón en la década siguiente y luego lo recuperó nuevamente en 1814. La derrota de Napoleón en Waterloo en 1815 resultó en un largo período de relativa paz, sin embargo en 1848 el fervor revolucionario se extendió nuevamente por toda Europa, impactando sobre tanto Austria como su vecino italiano. El período de construcción de la Novara (1843-51) se correspondía con un creciente sentido del nacionalismo italiano entre los distintos estados y principados que entonces se extendían desde los Alpes al sur hasta Sicilia. Austria, como aristocrático señor y opresor, era un objetivo obvio para los patriotas italianos mientras luchaban por unir la península. Venetia fue un foco de sus esfuerzos y los eventos allí un detonante.

Después de unos cincuenta años como territorio ocupado, el 17 de marzo de 1848 Venecia se levantó contra el dominio austríaco, al igual que Milán, al oeste, a finales de mes. Los venecianos expulsaron a los austríacos y, en un intento por la independencia italiana, establecieron una república. Tres corbetas austriacas, muchos buques de guerra más pequeños, junto con los astilleros de construcción naval asociados, el arsenal y los almacenes, cayeron en manos de los rebeldes. La interrupción resultante de la Novara El programa de construcción fue uno de los que se llevaron a cabo entre 1843-50.

Parcialmente completado, el Minerva fue renombrado Italia por los revolucionarios venecianos, reforzando su actitud rebelde hacia los austriacos y en desafío directo a las órdenes que prohibían el uso de la palabra. Hasta esta fractura, la armada austriaca tenía un fuerte carácter italiano, sin embargo, tras los acontecimientos de 1848 se hizo más multicultural, con los austriacos obligados a atraer marineros de otras partes del Imperio, especialmente las provincias costeras del Adriático oriental como Montenegro y Dalmacia.

A principios de 1848, el impulso estaba definitivamente en manos de los rebeldes. Durante abril y mayo el ejército austríaco sufrió una serie de derrotas a manos de los italianos en Goito y Pastrengo. No fue hasta julio-agosto que el Imperio pudo movilizar sus fuerzas bajo el mando del mariscal de campo Joseph Radetzky y recuperar Milán y partes de Venecia de manos de los sardos. Se firmó un armisticio (tregua) el 9 de agosto de 1848 y los sardos fueron expulsados ​​de Venecia el 11, aunque la ciudad siguió manteniendo su independencia de Austria. El armisticio finalizó el 12 de marzo de 1849 y el 23 el ejército de Radetzky venció al rey Carlos Alberto de Piamonte (Monarquía de Cerdeña) en la batalla de Novara, en el noroeste de Italia. A pesar de esto, Venetia siguió resistiendo. El asedio de Venecia comenzó el 20 de julio, aunque solo duró hasta el 28, cuando la antigua ciudad se sometió a Austria, debido en gran parte al hambre local, el brote de enfermedades y el bombardeo naval austriaco. La Paz de Milán se firmó poco después el 2 de agosto de 1849, poniendo así fin a la guerra entre Cerdeña y Austria.

Después de la reconquista de Venecia por parte de los austríacos, el mariscal de campo Radetzky visitó el astillero allí y los oficiales le solicitaron que tuviera el casi terminado. Italia rebautizado en honor a su victoria sobre el rey Carlos Alberto. El barco fue posteriormente bautizado Novara y el trabajo se reanudó en serio bajo la supervisión de Austria. Su casco estaba finalmente listo para dejar la grada en noviembre del año siguiente (1850).

Los eventos en casa también iban a tener un efecto en la futura carrera de la fragata aún por completar. 1848, "el año de la revolución", fue una época convulsa para Austria y sus vecinos europeos. Las revoluciones en Viena durante ese año vieron el derrocamiento del emperador Fernando I, seguido de la instalación temporal de un gobierno responsable, la abolición de la servidumbre y la introducción de una constitución austriaca. A pesar de esta promesa inicial de cambio, la revolución duró poco. El final de 1848 vio un regreso a las viejas costumbres, con la abdicación de Fernando I en favor de su sobrino de 18 años, Franz Joseph I.Después de la instalación como Emperador, un cargo que ocupó hasta su muerte en 1916, Franz Joseph inmediatamente nombró al El contraalmirante danés Hans Birch von Dahlerup al puesto de comandante en jefe de la armada austríaca. Con el apoyo del Emperador, von Dahlerup pasó los siguientes dos años y medio reorganizando la flota a lo largo de las líneas de la armada británica, colocándola en una buena posición para los años venideros. Puso la flota en acción como parte del bloqueo de Venetion a principios de 1849 y reinició el programa de construcción que se había estancado durante 1848. Después de su renuncia en 1851, provocada por la falta de apoyo de la aristocracia gobernante y la burocracia política que buscaba reemplazar el danés con un austriaco: von Dahlerup fue reemplazado dos años más tarde por el archiduque Ferdinand Maximillian, quien pasó a servir como comandante en jefe desde 1854 hasta 1862.

Habiendo sobrevivido a la revolución y unos siete años en las existencias, el Novara fue lanzada oficialmente desde la grada veneciana el 4 de noviembre de 1850. En ese momento, estaba clasificada como una fragata de vela de tres mástiles, 42 cañones, longitud 165 pies, peso / desplazamiento 2107 toneladas austriacas (2630 toneladas inglesas), y capaz de acomodar un complemento de 403. El área superficial de las velas principales ascendía a 18,291 pies cuadrados. Las dimensiones precisas de la embarcación cambiarían durante su vida, especialmente después de una importante reconstrucción en 1861-2 para facilitar la instalación de una máquina de vapor. Sin embargo, en el momento del reacondicionamiento del buque en 1857 en preparación para una expedición científica alrededor del mundo, en la que no se realizaron cambios importantes en las dimensiones originales, se la describió de la siguiente manera:

El puerto base del Novara nominalmente era Trieste, aunque sería atendida por el Arsenal veneciano y más tarde por los astilleros de Pola. Una característica notable del barco era la góndola veneciana que servía como uno de sus barcos auxiliares, y quizás se incluyó como un tributo a sus constructores. La góndola viajó con el Novara durante su viaje alrededor del mundo entre 1857-9. Una joven australiana, "Minnie" Mann, iba a registrar en su diario durante noviembre de 1858 la emoción de cruzar el puerto de Sydney a bordo de esta exótica góndola, tripulada por marineros de la fragata. Esta fue sin duda la primera embarcación veneciana de este tipo que visitó Port Jackson desde que fue colonizada por primera vez en 1788.

Sala 'Novara', Castillo de Miramar, Trieste. Construido para el archiduque Ferdinand Maximillian como un recordatorio de sus años como cadete naval a bordo de la fragata austriaca.

Aunque el Novara había abandonado la grada en noviembre de 1850, el acondicionamiento no se completó hasta junio de 1851. Realizando sus primeros cruceros shakedown en el Mediterráneo, demostró ser un barco veloz, y en 1857 fue reconocido como el más rápido de la flota. Durante su primer año de servicio, el Archiduque Ferdinand Maximillian de 19 años vio tiempo a bordo como una oficial naval incipiente. He was to develop such a fondness for the vessel during this period that when he built his residence Miramar Castle on a bluff overlooking the Adriatic Sea near Trieste, he included within it a study room which resembled his quarters on board ship in precise detail. Daylight entered the room through a round scuttle in the ceiling, like that on the Novara's own deck. The room also featured richly carved wooden beams, centrally located to imitate the cramped and crowded condition of the rooms on board the Novara which, during the course of a normal cruise, would be called on to accommodate anywhere from 400-500 sailors.

Upon her initial period of service, the Novara acted as a sail-training vessel and ship of the line. European powers such as Britain and France used their naval cruisers as station ships to protect colonial possessions (e.g. the British frigates HMS Herald y HMS Iris were both serving at the Sydney station during 1858 at the time of the Novara visit). The Habsburgs had no such colonial aspirations and, as a result, the duties of the Austrian fleet were relatively limited to sail training, patrol duties upon the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas, fighting, or putting up in port in order to save expense and extend the naval budget. Due to a large amount of indifference on the part of the Habsburg bureaucracy, this latter activity occupied many vessels of the fleet for an inordinate period of time, resulting in an unacceptable state of preparedness when called on to defend the Empire in battle. Archduke Maximillian fought to overcome this, and was somewhat successful in his efforts. For example, a report in the London Veces of 2 September 1852 noted that some 2400 workmen were then employed in the Venice Arsenal 'building new ships' for the Austrian navy, or 'rendering old ones fit for war service.'

The opportunity to show off her naval prowess came early in 1853 when a conflict broke out between Austria and Turkey over the latter's despatch of troops into Montenegro. los Novara and a squadron of Austrian naval vessels was despatched to the Montenegran coast to show the flag and ward off further Turkish incursions. No action took place at this time, and the vessels eventually returned to port and extended duties of a less exciting nature.

A Round-the-World Scientific Expedition 1857-9

Circumstances were to change for the Novara, however, when in 1856 she was selected for duty in connection with a round-the-world scientific expedition to be sponsored by Ferdinand Maximillian and the great German scientist Alexander von Humboldt. Instead of gathering barnacles in port, the frigate would be dispatched on an extended voyage of discovery to the Far East and the Pacific. This was indeed a noble task for any vessel during periods of war or peace, and one which placed the Novara among that distinguished list of ships of exploration which includes Captain James Cook's Endeavour, HMS Beagle with Captain FitzRoy and Charles Darwin on board, the French Astrolabe, America's USS pavo real, y HMS Challenger, to name but a few.

"Te Deum" Mass on board the Novara, 1857, officiated by Father von Marochini. Engraving after original drawing by Joseph Selleny

The idea of an Austrian flag-waving exercise combined with a scientific expedition came at a time of relative security for the Empire, and a lull in fighting on its borders. This followed on the Italian uprising and internal revolutions of 1848-9, and a series of smaller conflicts during the first half of the 1850s. Cuando el Novara was launched from the Venetian stocks in 1850, Austrian and Bavarian troops were in the process of occupying parts of Hanover, and tensions had developed with neighbouring Prussia, the strongest of the Germanic states. However these conflicts were resolved by 1851 when the Novara was commissioned, and there was relative calm for a number of years. During 1853 tensions began to mount - the Montenegro conflict flaired there was insurrection in Milan the Kosta affair at Smyrna was a severe embarrasment to Austria and its navy, pointing to the simmering Hungarian indpeendence movement and there was an assassination attempt carried out on Franz Joseph during that year.

Early in 1854 the Crimean War broke out. Austria tried to stay out of any direct involvement in this conflict, though it was aligned with Great Britain and France, in defense of Turkey against a Russia advance which sought control of the Baltic Sea and hoped to profit from the breakup of the Ottoman Empire. Hostilities continued in the Crimea until February 1856, at which point the allies claimed victory over the Russian incursion.

Following cessation of the war, the Austrian navy and scientific establishment could now proceed undistracted with its plans for a round-the-world scientific expedition, no longer fearful that her naval vessels would be attacked or confiscated by a hostile fleet. How long this state of affairs would last remained unclear, however a window of opportunity opened in 1856 following the closure of the Crimean War.

When Archduke Ferdinand Maximillian received permission from his brother the Emperor Franz Joseph to mount a round-the-world scientific expedition and sail-training exercise, he immediately contacted Alexander von Humboldt, seeking support and guidance. Replying to the request in December 1856, Humboldt was enthusiastic, as were other European scientists such as English geologist Sir Roderick Murchison. All saw the opportunity to build upon the work of previous non-Austrian expeditions in expanding the realms of scientific knowledge and acquiring specimens of natural history from far off lands. It was agreed that Austria should mount an official expedition to not only widen the skills of her most distinguished scientists and allow them to gather items for study and display in local museums, but also to carry the Habsburg banner to all corners of the globe, thereby proclaiming the Empire's existence as a world power. A further task, as noted by the expedition's historiographer Karl Scherzer, was "the practical instruction of our young and rapidly increasing navy."

Commodore Bernhard von W llerstorf-Urbair was given general commander of the expedition. Archduke Ferdinand Maximillian selected the Novara to carry out this task, not only because of his personal attachment to the ship, but also due to the practicalities of using sail as opposed to steam on such a long voyage. A sailing frigate offered greater disposable storage area on board, in comparison with the steaming equivalent, which required a large amount of area below decks for coal and machinery. Also necessary on this occasion was room for the scientific contingent, their supplies and equipment, and storage space for the many specimens to be acquired during the course of the expedition. This was on top of the extra sailors and marines who would also be on board. As the vessel was travelling to areas of the globe where it was known that the winds blow freely and supplies of coal could not always be easily obtained, sail won out over steam. los Novara was therefore given the honour of transporting a contingent of scientists, naval officers, diplomats, sailors, marines, and even a musical band on a two-year cruise around the world.

In order to prepare for the voyage ahead, the Novara was laid up at the Pola naval yards for a refit early in 1857. The ventilation of the lower decks was improved and the number of cabins increased in proportion to the number of individuals to be accommodated. The gun room was converted into a reading room and provided with a well-selected library and various charts and maps for use by the officers and scientists as they went about their respective tasks of researching, recording, calculating and drawing. The store rooms for the sail and tackle were enlarged so as to take double the normal quantity. A distilling apparatus was installed on the gun deck, and shower-bath facilities were improved so that the health of the crew could be maintained over a long period. Such precautions proved effective, with no major outbreaks of disease occurring on board during the length of the expedition.

The refit was completed on 15 March 1857, at which point the Novara, accompanied by the corvette Carolina, headed north for Trieste, the expedition's official point of departure. Final farwells took place amid much fanfare and cannon fire on 30 April 1857. Both vessels left Trieste not under sail, but in tow, courtesy of the steamer St. Lucia. They were taken south as far as Sicily and the Straits of Messina, before sails were unfurled and the ships headed west into the Mediterranean, past the Straits of Gibraltar and out into the Atlantic Ocean. los Novara was accompanied as far as Rio de Janiero by the Carolina, and thereafter traveled on alone to Africa, India, China, the Philippines and Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand, and various South Pacific islands. Her precise itinerary was as follows:

SMS Novara Itinerary 1857-9

Library and former Gun Room on board the Novara, 1857. Engraving after original drawing by Joseph Selleny.


Famous Birthdays In 1500

Famous People Born In This Year In History

Feb 22 On this day in history birth of cardinal Rodolfo Pio da Carpi, Italian humanist (d. 1564)

Feb 24 Carlos V, King of Spain (1516-56)/Holy Roman Emperor was born in the year 1500.

Mar 03 Reginald Pole, English Cardinal/"heretic" was born in the year 1500.

Apr 12 Joachim Camerarius, [Liebhard Kammerer], German humanist was born in the year 1500.

Apr 23 On this day in history birth of alexander Alesius, [Aless/Alane], System theologist/physician

Apr 23 Alexander Ales, Scottish theologian (d. 1565) was born in the year 1500.

Nov 01 On this day in history birth of benvenuto Cellini, sculptor/goldsmith/author (Perseus)


The First Italian War of Independence

Since the breakup of the Roman Empire, Italy had separated into several different city-states and small kingdoms. In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, control of the northern Italian states of Lombardy and Venezia was returned to the Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs, by whom they had long been dominated. Neighbouring Lombardy was Piedmont, a state ruled by the King of Sardinia. The authorities were keen to crush revolutionary ideas and return to the pre-Napoleonic status quo, but some Italians had been inspired by events in France and wanted more say over their own lives. This desire for better rights for ordinary citizens developed into a movement to make Italy stronger by unifying all its states into one country. This was known in Italian as Risorgimento. At the beginning of 1848, a year of revolutions across Europe, several states in Italy had uprisings by people demanding written constitutions that guaranteed them certain rights and freedoms. Charles Albert, the King of Sardinia, saw an opportunity to increase his power by harnessing Risorgimento and placing himself at the head of a campaign to get control of Lombardy and Venetia from the Austrian Empire.

La guerra

In March 1848, there were citizen uprisings in Milan and Venice that forced the Austrian garrisons out of the cities. King Charles Albert of Sardinia declared war on Austria on 23 March. As his Piedmontese armies marched towards the Austrian-controlled state of Lombardy, they were joined by troops from other Italian states. Over the next few days, the Italians reached and crossed the border into Lombardy. They then slowly advanced towards the Mincio river, which marked the border between Lombardy and Venetia, allowing the Austrians to carry out an orderly retreat to strong positions. By 8 April most of the Austrian troops in northern Italy had withdrawn to the Quadrilateral fortresses at Verona, Peschiera, Mantua and Legnago, where they could regroup and plan counterattacks against the Italians. The Austrians were commanded by 81-year-old Josef Radetsky.

The first military clashes of the war came at various crossings of the Mincio, where from 8-11 April 1848 the Austrian rearguard failed to prevent the Italians from moving into Venetia. Meanwhile, Austrian reinforcements were coming, marching into Venetia from the east. By 27 April the Italians were besieging the Austrian-held fort at Peschiera, and three days later on 30 April, there was a clash at Pastrengo as they successfully forced the Austrians out of several strongholds in the vicinity. Although this success was a boost to Italian morale, they failed to cut off the Austrian supply route to the north, a move which would have been a serious blow to the Austrian war effort. The Italian cause had also taken something of a knock when Pope Pius IX withdrew his support, although many of the troops from the Papal States chose to remain and fight despite this.

The Battle of Santa Lucia on 6 May 1848 saw the Italians attack Austrian-held villages west of Verona. Although there was some success, the failure of attacks in other parts of the line led to the Italians abandoning the gains they had made rather than leave their troops exposed. The Austrians were able to retake the villages without opposition, and the battle marked a turning point in the campaign, where the Italians lost the initiative they had held to that point. Two days later the other Austrian army, under General Laval Nugent, fought Papal troops at the Battle of Cornuda. When expected reinforcements failed to arrive, the Papal army was forced to retreat. Ill health forced Nugent to hand command over to Georg Thurn, who marched the troops to link up with Radetsky’s Austrians at Verona.

The aim of the Austrians was to break the siege of Peschiera, but an attempt to break through the Italian lines at Goito on 30 May failed, and on that very same day, the Austrians at Peschiera surrendered. Charles Albert was hailed by his victorious troops as the ‘King of Italy’. However, this would prove to be the high-water mark of Italian success. On June 11 the Papal troops in the east were forced to withdraw from the war after losing the battle for the city of Vicenza. Their departure weakened the Italian position in Venetia and allowed the Austrians to regain control of Padua, Trento and Palmanova.

After several weeks of inactivity, troops from the Savoy region retook the town of Governolo from the Austrians. Although it was an impressive victory, the Italians were now overextended. The Battle of Custoza, playing out between 22-27 July 1848, saw the two armies confront each other in almost equal numbers. At first, the Italians were able to repel Austrian attacks around Rivoli, but over the next few days, the Austrians gained several crossings over the Mincio river. By 27 July, the Italians were falling back. Charles Albert wanted to negotiate a truce but, finding the Austrian demands excessive decided instead to retreat to Milan. The city was still in the hands of a provisional government after ejecting the Austrian garrison earlier in the year, and Charles Albert hoped to gain control of it for Piedmont and the Sardinian crown.

In Milan, the Italian soldiers found the citizens ready to resist the Austrian army to the death. However, Charles Albert was concerned at the lack of supplies and decided to abandon the city. He left under cover of darkness, protected by armed guards against any Milanese citizens who might take violent objection to his decision.

On 6 August, Charles Albert’s armies had withdrawn into Piedmont, back inside the Sardinian territory. On 9 August an armistice was signed with the Austrians. Although the fighting had officially stopped, Italy had not returned to the pre-1848 status quo. Venice was still in rebel hands and had agreed to be annexed by Sardinia. Garibaldi and Mazzini were still trying to fight for republicanism across Italy, and in February 1849 Tuscany and Rome declared themselves to be republics.

The Chamber of Deputies in the Kingdom of Sardinia voted to break the terms of the armistice and resume hostilities against Austria in early March 1849. Charles Albert officially declared war on 20 March, but the Austrians had not wasted those few weeks and were ready with a surprise invasion of Piedmont. On 23 March 1849, the two armies met at the Battle of Novara. Although the attacking initiative changed hands several times over the course of the day, the end result was a heavy defeat for Piedmont. That night Charles Albert announced that he would be abdicating his throne in favour of his son and heir, Victor Emmanuel II. His first duty as the king was to meet Josef Radetzky to negotiate the terms of the armistice. The Italians were forced to allow the Austrians to keep garrisons in their territory, and to pay reparations. The Peace of Milan officially came into effect on 6 August 1849.

In the months following the Battle of Novara, other Italian states were gradually returned to their pre-1848 rulers. The last holdout was Venice, which finally surrendered to the Austrians on 22 August after being stricken with starvation and disease. Although the spirit of Risorgimento seemed to have been extinguished, the desire for greater freedom and national unification in Italy would continue to grow.

Cronología

In 1848 Italy was divided into several different states and kingdoms under various different rulers. The call was growing for greater freedoms for ordinary Italians, and for a return to a united Italy last seen under the Romans, inspired in part by the French Revolution. In 1848, several Italian cities and states saw uprisings. In Milan and Venice, the ruling Austrians were ejected from the cities. King Charles Albert of Sardinia decided to declare war on Austria as a way of harnessing the revolutionary movement to increase his own power in northern Italy. He began his campaign in March 1848, marching into the Austrian puppet states of Lombardy and Venetia alongside allies from other Italian states. Despite initially driving the Austrians back, the Italian campaign ultimately failed and Charles Albert signed an armistice in August 1848. In the following year, he declared war on Austria again, but the conflict was swiftly ended when the Austrians launched a surprise invasion of Charles Albert’s own territory of Piedmont. The First War of Italian Independence was officially ended by the Peace of Milan on 6 August 1849. Charles Albert abdicated and his son Victor Emmanuel II became King of Sardinia.

Referencias:

[1.] Various, The Times Complete History of the World (Times Books, 2004)


Battle of Novara, 8 April 1500 - History

By William J. McPeak

Bishops in battle? It’s not as unlikely as it sounds. At the Battle of Hastings in 1066, Norman Duke William, soon to be dubbed William the Conqueror, held his heavy cavalry in check until the most advantageous moment to charge the right flank of King Harold’s Saxons. Riding with him was his brother Odo, a capable military man in his own right besides being the bishop of Bayeux. Of the three great divisions of knights heading east for Constantinople in 1096 to inaugurate the First Crusade against the Seljuk Turks, that of the warriors of Provencals was led by Prince Raymond of Toulouse and another leading churchman, Bishop Adhemar de Puy, was the papal commissary. And when Scottish patriot William Wallace was defeated in 1298 at the Battle of Falkirk by King Edward I of England, it was due in part to Anthony Bek, the prince bishop of Durham, who directed the king’s right flank that day.

The thought of a lordly bishop wielding a sword or mace in combat might seem unlikely, but throughout history many clerical leaders have proven themselves to be talented and determined military commanders. The local village priest on the battlefield was actually fairly commonplace before ad 1000. It was natural to find men of the cloth—however homespun—marching with soldiers to bless them before battle or administer last rites after the fighting was over. But some of the fathers were made for more than merely turning the other cheek. They might also have carried a concealed dagger or garrote with which to more speedily administer last rites to the enemy.

Higher churchmen such as bishops often accompanied lords and king as a symbol of their spiritual unity. Some did much more. Bishops were the leaders and administrators of the early Christian church, and most candidates for a bishopric were nobles who had been appointed to the position by the king. Noble families traditionally gained power through exemplary military service. As such, they were vassals to the king and the church. The oldest son, by tradition and law, inherited the family land and title, while the youngest was usually picked to become a cleric. Although not necessarily his first inclination, it was a matter of familial duty and self-interest. Bishops, like other noblemen, held great tracts of land, and their privileges could be boundless. A king might influence the choosing of a bishop sympathetic to him to gain control of rich church lands or acquire more influence with the church for political ends. A bright offspring in clerical robes, therefore, could be a useful means of enhancing family power. If his talents included a strong right arm—so much the better for everyone involved.

The aforementioned Bishop Bek was part of an early political strategy by the English monarchy. The city of Durham, in northern England, traditionally was controlled by a loyal bishop capable of protecting the English border from the always troublesome Scots. Being given royal-like powers to rule the county, he was called the “Prince Bishop.” Nobles, knights, and lower clerics of demonstrated military ability would join the Prince Bishop’s Men, an elite force that was essentially a mercenary band. Armed clashes between the Scottish reivers, or raiders, and the Prince Bishop’s Men, were common.

There was an old saying that bishops did not carry a mace into battle to draw blood, but merely to split hairs by other means. There were blade-wielding bishops as well. European cathedrals, typically the largest church building at the center of a bishop’s territory or diocese, contained a variety of medieval swords used in various ceremonies—and many were the former battle swords of bishops. The French bishops of Caliors proudly followed a martial tradition of displaying their hardware openly in church, regularly placing their swords and helmets on the altar when they said Mass.

Many bishops took their military duties in stride and passed unnoticed in the annals of military history. Actively malicious churchmen were another matter. The tradition of the bad bishop was an old one. Some used their positions and military prowess for troublemaking and intrigue. On such intriguing bishop in 14th-century England was Thomas de Lisle, the bishop of Ely (1345-1361), who used his aggressive nature to form a gang of bravos to terrorize, harass, and otherwise extort money from local merchants and relatives of King Edward III until he finally was exiled.

As the Protestant Reformation progressed, stories focusing on bad clergy became a key point of attack on the Catholic Church. Bishops with exceptional abilities—or good connections—became archbishops who ruled over whole provinces of bishops and their ecclesiastical lands. In isolated areas without strong civil authorities, an archbishop might wield nearly ultimate power. In the medieval Holy Roman Empire (modern-day Germany), powerful archbishops ruling the ecclesiastical principalities of Mainz, Cologne, and Trier were designated as three of the seven electors of the Emperor. An archbishop could be elected a cardinal, a “Prince of the Church,” a position that made him eligible to elect or be elected pope.


The College of Cardinals at that time comprised archbishops, bishops, priests, and even deacons—but the most important figures were the archbishops. Such a figure was Ippolito d’Este (1479-1520) of the famous and ancient d’Este family of Ferrara, Italy. The son of Ercole I, duke of Ferrara, Ippolito was anything but pious, but as a younger son he was obliged to promote family interests in the religious life. A bishop at the astonishingly early age of eight, he became an archbishop, then moved on to become a cardinal at 15. As ambitious as any man in Italy, Ippolito took his nobility in stride—mistresses, expensive tastes, fine weapons for the hunt and war. He used church lands for family profit. A cardinal’s official outer dress was a dark red (cardinal) robe. Ippolito wore expensive cardinal-colored clothes—sometimes—but cut the figure of a lordly courtier with extreme hats to match. With a fiery temper and will to match his clothing, Ippolito participated in a number of military campaigns, a notable one being as commander of Duke Ferrara’s army against Venice in 1509.

Ippolito’s older brother Alfonso married Lucretia, the sister of another high-ranking man of religion—also a cardinal, but really in name only. Cesare Borgia (1476-1507) would become the embodiment of the ruthless Renaissance Italian mercenary lord. Bad followed bad. Borgia’s father, Rodrigo, had risen through church offices with bribes to become one of the most scandalous of clerics and popes, Pope Alexander VI. This indulgent clerical father intended Cesare for the church as a younger son—a matter of family power sharing. Cesare was an archbishop at 12 and a cardinal by 18. But his greed for power and glory—he was implicated in the murder of his older brother, Giovanni, the duke of Gandi—led Cesare to a different purpose.

The pope needed a muscle man to replace Giovanni. In August 1498, Cardinal Cesare was released from his ecclesiastical duties, freeing him to move against the despots of Romagna (central and eastern Italian territories belonging to the principality known as the Papal States). Cesare was not a particularly good general, although he was so physically strong that he could unbend a horseshoe or decapitate a bull with one stroke of a two-handed sword. He was not a good combat leader, either. But with a mix of good foreign and Italian mercenary captains and troops under the papal banner, he was quite successful. Cesare attempted to gobble up all the city states of Italy in the name of unity and the papacy, taking one after the other: Imola, Rimini, Pesaro, Faenza, Camerino, and Urbino.

As the Borgia name has come to suggest, Cesare’s real talents lay in treachery, bribery, and murder. From the papal fortress of Sant Angelo in Rome, he supposedly murdered four or five enemies a day. With ducal titles to cap his conquests, he was feared throughout Italy. Ironically, Cesare had brought the Papal States into better order for a martial pope to follow. Driven from Italy, he ended his days in the family’s ancestral Spain, dying on the battlefield as a common mercenary.

Popes, too, went into battle. The pope was defined as bishop of Rome. Before ad 425, any bishop was considered a pope (only after 700 did it come to mean the supreme pontiff). By then, the bishop of Rome had gained enough influence to be recognized the leader of the Roman Catholic Church. When Jesus Christ was taken by Roman soldiers in the Garden of Gethsemane, the first act of resistance came from his most enthusiastic apostle, Simon, later to become St. Peter, the first bishop of Rome, who drew his sword and hacked off the ear of one Malchus, servant of the high priest of Jerusalem. Jesus, after restoring Malchus’s ear to its usual place, told Peter to put up his sword because “he who lives by the sword dies by the sword.”

But the popes had a martial tradition of their own, for power meant having to have an army to back it up. Two of the strongest early medieval popes were Gregory the Great and Leo IV. Like royalty, the papacy had its own coat of arms and could grant noble status to its followers. Several cardinals had been papal generals, and because of the desire to control the Papal States and protect against foreign intrusions, a pope with a strong military arm was still needed. Giuliano delle Rovere (1443-1513) had an easy road to high church positions as bishop and archbishop, and by 1471 he was a cardinal by virtue of appointment by his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV. Like any cardinal with his eye on the papacy, Rovere stayed in Rome—that is, when he was not away putting out fires. In 1474, Rovere led an army to restore papal authority in Umbria. He tasked himself with the goal of recovering all the Papal States. The Borgias had begun that effort, but Rovere had no use for the Borgias. He hated their power grabbing—and meant to do something about it. But with his uncle gone and the Borgia-favoring Pope Alexander VI in control in Rome, he could do little but bide his time. Rovere hired his own soldiers to man fortresses he used as he began his struggle to check the Borgias. But he found himself having to flee to France (1493) to induce French King Charles VIII to invade. This would be one cause for the start of French dynastic designs on Italy for the next half century.

Although Rovere saw the dangers of letting in foreign powers, at the time he was more concerned with pulling Alexander from the throne of St. Peter. The French helped—and many welcomed them—until they proved no better than the self-serving mercenary lords already causing endemic warfare in the country. Finally, with the passing of Alexander VI and the sickly Pius III, who reigned less than a month after him, Rovere himself became pope in 1503—Pope Julius II. While most previous popes had family and factions to reward for their rise, the new pope was his own man in more ways than one—he had three daughters. One observer wrote: “We have a pope who will be both loved and feared.” The Venetian envoy was more descriptive: “No one has any influence over him, and he consults few or none,” he wrote. “It is almost impossible to describe how strong and violent and difficult he is to manage. In body and soul he has the nature of a giant. Everything about him is on a magnified scale, both his undertakings and his passions. He inspires fear rather than hatred, for there is nothing in him that is small or meanly selfish.”

Julius wanted to make the papacy and ultimately Italy independent of foreigners and self-seeking Italian nobles. For this, he needed complete possession of the cities of the Papal States before he could push out the French. Although a cultured man, Julius was also a warrior in spirit and disposition. He loved horses, hunting, and the feel of armor. He was not content with brainstorming with his generals and then sending them out on campaign—he had to go himself. He often acted as commander in the field, whether at sieges or on the battlefield. In full armor he directed siege gunfire and, sword in hand, rode down enemy soldiers as they retreated from his heavy cavalry. He was not called pontefice terribile (the terrible pope) for nothing.


In 1504, Julius began to methodically roll up papal enemies by making an alliance of convenience with the French and Germans to secure, among others, the papal towns of Faenza and Rimini in the Romagna from opportunistic Venice, which had grabbed them from the weakened Borgia political machine. In 1506, the pope engineered a brilliant campaign to wrest the strategic papal cities of Perugia and Bologna from Venice. He and his French, Hapsburg, and Spanish allies finally broke the Venetian domination of Italy at the Battle of Agnadello on May 14, 1509. Then it was time to deal with the French.

In 1510, Julius quickly made up with Venice to ally himself with it in order to force the French out of Italy once and for all. Julius was 68 years old, but late in the year, with winter coming on, he marched north to Bologna only to fall sick and almost be captured by the French. Recovering, he moved on to Modena and took it. In the dead of winter, Julius turned to besiege Mirandola. He took it in January 1511. Waiting to gain former allies (England, Spain, and Venice) against France, he fell gravely ill in August. Although not expected to live, he did. Overcoming the French victory at Ravenna (1512), he was able to restore the Papal States with the defeat of the French at Novara and the peace in 1513. The French were back north of the Alps at last—or at least for the foreseeable future.

Although the king of France, Louis XII, had called Julius the Antichrist, he was in reality a great patron of art, cajoling Michelangelo into doing the frescos of the Sistine Chapel and other magnificent works of art. Julius also patronized Raphael’s art and Bramante’s architecture in Rome. To his mind, he had been the proper instrument of God in getting things done. The great Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus, who hated war, did not agree. To him, the warrior pope was not deserving of heaven. In his humorous tract Julius Excluded, Erasmus depicted Julius at the closed gates of heaven, bellowing for entrance while St. Peter looked down unmoved and refused to let him enter.

The well-ordered society of 16th-century Western Europe was a far cry from conditions in the eastern borderlands—and none was worse than Hungary. With miles of flat plain ripe for invasion, fortified towns and fortresses were strategically positioned along important river fords. Since the later 15th century, invasion meant progressive incursions by the Ottoman Turks. Traditionally, the eastern border bishops and archbishops raised and supplied their own troops as a necessity against encroaching Turkish forces. The largest fortified cities were in central and eastern Hungary and had long been ecclesiastical holdings of bishops and archbishops. One of the oldest was Kolocza. Having gained the right in the 12th century to crown the Hungarian king, the archbishops of Kolocza warred frequently against Moslem Patarenes in Bosnia. Archbishop Ugrin (1219-1241), the greatest of the Hungarian archbishops, also fought the Tatars before falling at the Battle of Muhi. In a similar mold was another of Kolocza’s ruling archbishops, Paul Tomori (1475-1526), who turned to religion after his wife was killed. It was only out of national necessity that he became archbishop, and he continued to wear light armor under his robes.

No one took a more active role in the business of military preparedness than Tomori. He was designated captain in chief along the southern borders of Hungary, which meant seeing to troop preparedness and scouting Turkish movements. By March 1526, he was receiving reports of a logistical buildup among the Turkish border fortresses, indicating that the Turkish army was preparing to march. The Turks had marched before in 1523, and the Hungarians had been able to deal with them, but not before incurring heavy losses from which they had not yet recovered. Tomori rushed north to Buda (later Budapest) to alert the young King Louis II of Hungary of the danger. Louis was hopelessly mired in bickering with self-serving nobles, and Tomori could only seethe over the decision to delay a meeting of the Diet for a month to discuss the matter. By that time, the young, ambitious Turkish sultan, Suleiman I (1494-1566), was already heading west from Constantinople with his personal troops toward Turkish-held Belgrade. His European and Asiatic vassals would meet him there.

Back in Buda, there was talk and more talk, when mobilizing should have been the first order of business. Finally, the War Council called for every military unit, including contracted mercenaries, to meet 50 miles south of Tolna on July 2. For a battleground they chose unwisely—the uneven plains at Mohacs. With political excuses already pouring in from allied countries—Austria, Bohemia, Poland, and Wallachia all declined to send troops—raising a sufficient force in time looked hopeless. But Tomori was not one to wait passively for defeat. At Kolocza, he fitted out 3,000 horse and foot soldiers from his own diocese and headed south for the southernmost fortress city of Peterwardein on the Drava River. The Turks would make their first assault there. To reinforce it, Tomori moved quickly before a Turkish siege could begin and committed 1,000 infantry troops to bolster the garrison.

It took 15 days for the fortress to fall on July 27—not much time bought. The garrison retreated to the inner citadel after the city walls were breached and held off two massive assaults of Janissaries (the sultan’s shock troops made up of former Christian boy captives). The remaining 500 survivors were massacred. Tomori could do nothing with the 2,000 cavalrymen left to him but shadow the continued westward march of the Turkish victors. He continually sent information to the king, hoping that the regent would be moving south with his troops to intercept the Turks before they crossed the river at the strategic town of Essek.

At Tolna, the young king made that strategic decision to detach a large contingent of troops and send it southward to occupy Essek and oppose a Turkish crossing there. Incredibly, the Hungarian nobles chosen to go to Essek would not do so unless led personally by the king. Enraged, Louis had to forget reinforcing Essek and keep moving south. He arrived at the small town of Mohacs on the Danube in mid-August. There he was reunited with Tomori, now heading a force of 6,000 warriors and waiting on the opposite side of the river. Meanwhile, farther south, Suleiman and his Turkish commanders could scarcely believe that no waiting Hungarian army opposed them at Essek. In four days’ time, they constructed a pontoon bridge, and by August 24, the Turks were moving north to meet the Hungarian army at Mohacs.

Along with George Zapolya, brother of the wily John, voivode of Transylvania (who did not show), Tomori was nominated co-commander of the Hungarian forces at Mohacs. He was strongly critical of those who counseled the king to fall back before the advancing Turkish host. It would be a scandal, he said, to let half the kingdom go without a fight. He felt some confidence, for many of the king’s levies had arrived, including no less than eight other bishops. The archbishop of Gran had come with the king from Buda, while the bishops of Warasdin and Raab had joined up at Tolna. The bishop of Agram brought 700 horsemen the bishop of Fünfkirchen brought 2,000 archers. The clerical count went on—the bishops of Bosnia, Nitria, and Vacz all arrived with their promised troops.

Tomori did his best to boost morale and fire the zeal of the Christian army. He downplayed the size of the Turkish army, noting that its ranks were swollen by irregulars, mercenaries, and camp followers who traditionally were untrustworthy in battle. Tomori felt they could defeat the enemy at Mohacs, although he could see clearly that the odds against them were formidable. There were about 20,000 European forces in hand, mostly Hungarians, but also Bohemians, Croats, and Poles as well as some Germans, Italians, and Spanish mercenaries. Arrayed against them were 70,000 fighting Turks. Francis, bishop of Warasdin, whose brother was the great frontier fighter Peter Perenyi, was prophetically sarcastic when he whispered to King Louis that the pope had better make ready to canonize 20,000 Christian martyrs.

By the morning of August 29, 1526, the showdown had come. Suleiman’s host appeared at the foot of the low hills west of Mohacs. The European forces were drawn up before the town, with the marshes of the Danube to the south. Suleiman used a deep formation, with most of his cavalry stationed in the first two lines. The Turkish cannons—twice as many as the Europeans’—came next, followed by his royal cavalry and his Janissary infantry shouldering arquebuses and drawn up to protect him. Off to the north, the sultan had dispatched well over 4,000 light cavalry irregulars, called Akindjis, whose job it would be to move in quickly to outflank the Europeans if the battle looked in doubt. The Europeans were stretched in long lines of blocks to avoid being flanked. An 80-cannon train stood in front as a means of softening up the Turkish cavalry.

Tomori, as usual, rode in the front line of heavy horse in full armor. He led one of the two largest feudal cavalry formations, interspersed with infantry blocks. Among Tomori’s formation was the Hungarian light cavalry, the Hussars, better armed than their Turkish counterparts and virtually unstoppable in their headlong charges. The second line was actually two lines—the remaining squadrons of the Hungarian horse followed by the king, his personal guard, and the eight bishops with their troops arrayed on the king’s flanks.


In the late afternoon, the fiery Hungarian horsemen attacked prematurely, before the cannons could open on the Turkish cavalry. Initially, they were successful in driving back the enemy front line into its second line. But in the meantime, the Turkish cannoneers and arquebusiers unleashed a furious fire of their own that completely disorganized the Hungarian cavalry. The Hungarian right attacked and caused some disorganization—their arrows dangerously accurate and just missing the sultan—but the Janissaries pushed them back. In came the flanking Akinji cavalry. They turned the Christian host into a panic-stricken mob fleeing toward the illusive safety of the marsh, with the Turks pressing their advantage. One by one, most of the great lords went down. Six of the eight bishops fell. Tomori, trying to turn back fleeing soldiers, was killed as well. By nightfall, the unfortunate King Louis, in heavy armor, retreated south—only to fall into the marsh and drown. (He was later found still in his full armor and astride his horse.) Total European losses numbered more than 10,000.

In an uncharacteristic move, the usually modest Suleiman set up a gory display of his easy victory. He ordered the decapitation of any lordly prisoners, along with those found dead on the battlefield, and had the heads staked around his tent. That night Tomori, six of his brother clerics, and other dead lords stared with unseeing eyes upon Hungarian territory that was now in Turkish hands.

Four decades later, when Suleiman’s ongoing war against the West was decisively turned back on the Mediterranean island of Malta, it was an entire army of Christian clerics—the Knights Hospitallers of the Order of St. John—that accomplished the feat. Since its founding at the time of the First Crusade, the order had functioned as a veritable nation unto itself, beholden to no one but the Lord and the pope—a far cry from the solitary village priests who first set out in the Middle Ages to carry a sword for king and cross.


Ver el vídeo: Celebran aniversario de la batalla de puebla en el 60 batallon de inf. mp4


Comentarios:

  1. Seafraid

    Bravo, tu opinión es útil

  2. Wiellaford

    A veces pasan cosas y cosas peores

  3. Wright

    mirando qué carácter del trabajo



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