Billy the Kid primer arresto

Billy the Kid primer arresto


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El 23 de septiembre de 1875, Billy the Kid es arrestado por primera vez después de robar una canasta de ropa sucia. Más tarde escapó de la cárcel y vagó por el oeste de Estados Unidos, y finalmente se ganó la reputación de forajido y asesino y una hoja de antecedentes penales que supuestamente incluía 21 asesinatos.

Se desconocen los detalles exactos del nacimiento de Billy the Kid, aparte de su nombre, William Henry McCarty. Probablemente nació en algún momento entre 1859 y 1861, en Indiana o Nueva York. Cuando era niño, no tenía ninguna relación con su padre y se mudó con su familia, viviendo en Indiana, Kansas, Colorado y Silver City, Nuevo México. Su madre murió en 1874 y Billy the Kid, que tuvo una variedad de nombres a lo largo de su vida, incluidos Kid Antrim y William Bonney, se dedicó al crimen poco después.

MIRA: The Real Billy the Kid en HISTORY Vault

McCarty hizo una temporada como ladrón de caballos en Arizona antes de regresar a Nuevo México, donde se enganchó con una banda de pistoleros y ladrones de ganado involucrados en la notoria Guerra del Condado de Lincoln entre facciones de comerciantes y rancheros rivales en el Condado de Lincoln en 1878. Después, Billy Kid, que tenía una constitución esbelta, prominentes dientes delanteros torcidos y un amor por el canto, se fugó y continuó su vida de forajido, robando ganado y caballos, apostando y matando gente. Sus crímenes le valieron una recompensa por su cabeza y finalmente fue capturado y acusado de matar a un sheriff durante la guerra del condado de Lincoln. Billy the Kid fue condenado a la horca por su crimen; sin embargo, poco tiempo después, logró otra fuga de la cárcel, asesinando a dos diputados en el proceso. La libertad de Billy the Kid fue breve, ya que el sheriff Pat Garrett alcanzó al forajido en Fort Sumner, Nuevo México, el 14 de julio de 1881 y le disparó fatalmente.

Aunque su vida fue corta, la leyenda de Billy the Kid creció después de su muerte. Hoy es un símbolo famoso del Viejo Oeste, junto con hombres como Kit Carson, Jesse James, Wild Bill Hickok, Doc Holliday y Wyatt Earp, y su historia ha sido mitificada y romantizada en numerosas películas, libros, programas de televisión y canciones. . Cada año, los turistas visitan la ciudad de Fort Sumner, ubicada a unas 160 millas al sureste de Albuquerque, para ver el Museo Billy the Kid y la tumba.

LEER MÁS: ¿Cómo murió Billy the Kid?


Los Reguladores se formaron a partir de numerosos propietarios de ranchos pequeños y vaqueros en el área de Lincoln, Nuevo México. Muchos de los que se hicieron más conocidos como "reguladores" tenían una larga historia entre ellos anteriormente. William Bonney, también conocido como Billy the Kid o Henry McCarty, se convertiría en el más conocido, principalmente porque las noticias adjuntaron su nombre a todo lo que hicieron los reguladores. La Guerra del Condado de Lincoln lo llevó al frente, pero varios de los otros Reguladores fueron en realidad la fuerza impulsora detrás de los eventos, y tenían un historial de matanzas entre sí antes de la guerra.

Ab Saunders, Charlie Bowdre, Doc Scurlock, Frank Coe y George Coe habían matado a ladrones juntos anteriormente. El 18 de julio de 1876, ese grupo irrumpió en la cárcel de Lincoln, sacó al ladrón de caballos Jesús Largo y lo ahorcó. Ab Saunders y Frank Coe habían localizado al ladrón de ganado Nicos Meras, disparándole y matándolo ese mismo mes en el Cañón de Baca. Su asociación con McCarty comenzó cuando, en la primavera de 1876, Henry (entonces conocido como Henry Antrim o William Bonney) se mudó al condado de Lincoln y comenzó a trabajar para Doc Scurlock y Charlie Bowdre en su fábrica de queso. Más tarde trabajó, durante un tiempo, para el ranchero Henry Hooker, y luego para Ab Saunders y los Coes en su rancho. Cuando llegó la guerra del condado de Lincoln, esos miembros principales, conocidos como los "revestidos de hierro", tenían más experiencia y estaban más cerca de ser verdaderos "pistoleros" que McCarty.

La guerra del condado de Lincoln comenzó cuando una pandilla de hombres, delegada por el alguacil William J. Brady, asesinó al joven inglés John Henry Tunstall el 18 de febrero de 1878. La pandilla había estado aparentemente persiguiendo a Tunstall para adjuntar, es decir, apoderarse por autoridad legal, algunas acciones. Tunstall y sus hombres conducían desde el rancho de Tunstall en el río Feliz hasta Lincoln, pero la verdadera motivación de la pandilla era clara: eliminar a John Tunstall como una amenaza económica para los empresarios James Dolan y LG. Murphy, que tenía al Sheriff Brady bajo su control. [1]

Los peones del rancho de Tunstall y otros ciudadanos locales formaron un grupo conocido como los Reguladores para vengar su asesinato y contrarrestar lo que consideraban un sistema de justicia criminal territorial corrupto controlado por aliados de Murphy, Dolan y compañía. Los Reguladores obtuvieron su legalidad de la autoridad del Juez de Paz de la ciudad de Lincoln, John B. Wilson. [2] El juez de paz Wilson emitió órdenes de arresto de los asesinos de John Tunstall y nombró al regulador Dick Brewer un agente especial para ejecutar las órdenes. Además, el regulador Robert Widenmann, quien anteriormente obtuvo un nombramiento como alguacil adjunto de los EE. UU., Recibió permiso para formar un grupo civil y arrestar al acusado. [3] [4]

La guerra del condado de Lincoln y los reguladores lanzarían a Billy the Kid a la fama eterna. Es probable que en realidad otros reguladores, por ejemplo Doc Scurlock, estuvieran más cerca de ser realmente "pistoleros" que Billy. Es probable que en algunos casos, a Billy the Kid se le atribuyeran asesinatos que de hecho fueron llevados a cabo por otros reguladores. Para el final de los Reguladores, cualquier asesinato cometido por ellos tenía su nombre agregado, ya sea que él fuera el tirador real o no. Esto eventualmente sería perjudicial para sus intentos de amnistía.

Los Reguladores pasarían por tres líderes diferentes, y todos menos uno serían asesinados. Aunque Billy the Kid alcanzaría la fama como miembro de los Reguladores, nunca los dirigió. Su primer líder fue Richard "Dick" Brewer, asesinado más tarde por Buckshot Roberts y reemplazado por Frank McNab, quien fue asesinado por miembros de los Seven Rivers Warriors. McNab fue reemplazado por el líder final de los Reguladores, Doc Scurlock.

William Bonney, también conocido como Billy the Kid, nunca hizo ningún esfuerzo por darse a conocer o ser el tema principal de los informes de noticias sobre los eventos que tuvieron lugar durante la guerra de campo. Frank Coe comentó años después: "Nunca insistió en sus consejos u opiniones, pero tenía una maravillosa presencia de ánimo". [5]

  • 18 de febrero de 1878, Tunstall fue asesinado por los pistoleros de Murphy-Dolan William Morton, Frank Baker, Jesse Evans y Tom Hill mientras él y sus peones del rancho, Dick Brewer, Billy the Kid, John Middleton, Henry Newton Brown, Bob Widenmann y Fred Waite, estaban conduciendo nueve caballos desde su rancho en el Río Feliz hasta Lincoln. Al día siguiente, Bonney y Brewer juran declaraciones juradas y las órdenes judiciales son emitidas por el juez de paz John Wilson para la sub-pandilla. Mientras intentaban cumplir las órdenes, Waite, Bonney y el agente Martínez son detenidos por el alguacil William J. Brady. Waite y Bonney se pierden el funeral de Tunstall, Martínez sería despedido. El día 23, Bonney y Waite salen de la cárcel.
  • marzo 1, "Dick" Brewer es nombrado alguacil de la ciudad por el juez de paz John Wilson, Billy es su suplente. Deben traer a los asesinos de Tunstall. Otros son suplentes y se llaman a sí mismos "Los Reguladores".
  • 6 de Marzo, Los reguladores arrestan a Bill Morton y Frank Baker. Tres días después, Morton, Baker y el regulador William McCloskey son asesinados en Agua Negra, y se cree que McCloskey traicionó a los reguladores.
  • 9 de marzoEl gobernador territorial Samuel B. Axtell decretó que John Wilson, el juez de paz, había sido designado ilegalmente por los comisionados del condado de Lincoln. Wilson había delegado a los reguladores y emitido las órdenes de arresto contra los asesinos de Tunstall. El decreto de Axtell significó que las acciones de los reguladores, antes consideradas legales, ahora estaban más allá de la ley. Axtell también pudo revocar el estatus de Widenmann como alguacil adjunto de los Estados Unidos, convirtiendo al Sheriff Brady y sus hombres en los únicos agentes de la ley del condado de Lincoln.
  • 1 de abril, Jim French, Frank MacNab, John Middleton, Fred Waite, Henry Brown, Billy the Kid y posiblemente Bob Widenmann disparan contra el sheriff y sus ayudantes a través de portales improvisados ​​del muro de adobe que estaban detrás. Bonney es herido por Matthews mientras intenta recuperar el rifle que le arrebató Brady. El alguacil Brady y el ayudante Hindman mueren.
  • 4 de abril, Hay un tiroteo en Blazer's Mill con Buckshot Roberts. Buckshot y Brewer mueren, Middleton está gravemente herido, Bonney es rozada por una bala, George Coe tiene el dedo en el gatillo disparado.
  • 18 de abril, The Kid, Middleton, Waite y Brown son acusados ​​del asesinato del Sheriff Brady. Dolan, Evans, Matthews y otros son acusados ​​del asesinato de Tunstall.
  • 29 de abrilFrank McNab es asesinado por miembros de los Seven Rivers Warriors. Ab Saunders está gravemente herido y Frank Coe capturado.
  • 30 de Abril, George Coe dispara y hiere al miembro de Seven Rivers "Dutch Charlie" Kruling en Lincoln. Los miembros de Seven Rivers, Tom Green, Charles Marshall, Jim Patterson y John Galvin, son asesinados ese mismo día y, aunque se culpa a los reguladores, nunca se demostró su participación. Los miembros de la pandilla Seven Rivers en ese momento estaban comenzando a volverse unos contra otros.
  • 15 de MayoLos Reguladores se vengaron al asaltar el área alrededor de Seven Rivers, capturando y matando a Manuel Segovia, el vaquero que había matado a Frank McNab.
  • 15 de julio, los reguladores fueron rodeados en Lincoln en la casa McSween. Frente a ellos estaban los vaqueros de Dolan / Murphy / Seven Rivers.
  • 19 de julio, la casa se incendió. Mientras las llamas se extendían y caía la noche, a Susan McSween se le concedió un paso seguro para salir de la casa mientras los hombres que estaban dentro continuaban combatiendo el fuego. A las 9 en punto, los que quedaban adentro se dispusieron a romper la puerta trasera de la casa en llamas. Jim French salió primero, seguido por Billy the Kid, Tom O'Folliard y José Chávez y Chávez. Los hombres de Dolan vieron a los hombres corriendo y abrieron fuego, matando a Harvey Morris, el socio legal de Alexander McSween. Algunos policías se trasladaron al patio trasero para detener a los que quedaron bajo custodia cuando estalló un tiroteo de orden cerrado. Alex McSween murió, al igual que el vaquero de Seven Rivers, Bob Beckwith. Con McSween muerto, la guerra había terminado.

En última instancia, la guerra del condado de Lincoln logró poco más que fomentar la desconfianza y la animosidad en el área y convertir en fugitivos a los Reguladores sobrevivientes, sobre todo a Billy the Kid. Los primos Kid, Scurlock, Bowdre, Chávez y Chávez, Waite, Saunders, Brewer, Brown, McNab y Coe recibieron la mayor notoriedad como "Reguladores". Gradualmente, sus compañeros pistoleros se dispersaron a sus diversos destinos, y Billy the Kid se quedó con Charlie Bowdre, Tom O'Folliard, Dirty Dave Rudabaugh y algunos otros amigos con quienes robaron ganado y cometieron otros delitos menores mientras negociaba una amnistía. que nunca llegaría, y evadiendo la captura.

  • Ab Saunders murió en 1884, en San Francisco, California, durante una cirugía para corregir los problemas que aún sufría debido a la herida recibida el 29 de abril de 1878.
  • Fred Waite regresó a lo que hoy es Oklahoma, donde, como miembro de la Nación Chickasaw, se estableció como ranchero y finalmente se dedicó a la política.
  • Frank y George Coe se mudaron por un tiempo y finalmente regresaron a Lincoln, donde se convirtieron en ciudadanos muy respetados y ganaderos exitosos.
  • José Chávez y Chávez eventualmente se convirtió en oficial de policía, pero se involucró en un asesinato a sueldo, por el cual pasó un tiempo en prisión. Después de su liberación, vivió una vida aparentemente tranquila hasta morir en 1924.
  • La carrera de Robert A. Widenmann posterior a Nuevo México lo llevó a Gran Bretaña, donde visitó a la familia de Tunstall, y a Haverstraw, Nueva York, donde murió el 13 de abril de 1930 a la edad de 78 años.
  • Doc Scurlock se mudó a Texas, donde se convirtió en un ciudadano respetado tanto en el condado de Potter, Texas como en el condado de Eastland, Texas, y murió a la edad de 79 años.

La mayoría de los más de 40 reguladores eran relativamente desconocidos y su paradero después de que terminó la guerra se pierde en la historia.


Enciclopedia de las Grandes Llanuras

Billy the Kid era un forajido cuya leyenda ha llegado a eclipsar cualquier significado personal o histórico que pudiera haber tenido. No se ha documentado satisfactoriamente cuándo y dónde nació, aunque se ha establecido que su nombre real era Henry McCarty. En 1880 en Fort Sumner, Nuevo México, McCarty (alias Billy Antrim, Henry Antrim, Kid Antrim, Billy Bonney, William H. Bonney y Billy the Kid) le dijo a un encuestador federal que tenía veinticinco años, que ambos sus padres habían nacido en Missouri y que él también había nacido allí. No hay razón para creer que estaba mintiendo. Se puede documentar que en 1866 vivía en el condado de Marion, Indiana, con su madre, Catherine McCarty, y su hermano mayor, Joseph McCarty. Catherine McCarty sufría de tuberculosis, y esto puede haberla llevado a mudarse más al oeste. En 1873, la madre de Billy se casó con William H. Antrim en Santa Fe, Nuevo México. Poco después de la muerte de su madre en 1874, se dedicó a vagar y pasó dos años como jornalero, vaquero y camionero en el este de Arizona.

Solo se pueden documentar cuatro asesinatos contra Kid. El primero ocurrió en 1877 en Camp Grant, Arizona, cuando Billy disparó y mató a Frank "Windy" Cahill después de que una discusión se tornó violenta. The Kid fue declarado culpable de disparar "criminal e injustificable", pero escapó de la custodia y regresó a Nuevo México. Los otros asesinatos de Kid fueron el resultado de su participación en la guerra del condado de Lincoln, una disputa mortal que involucró a los comerciantes locales y los intereses ganaderos. A un lado estaban el abogado escocés Alexander Mc-Sween y John H. Tunstall, un inglés que era dueño de un rancho de ganado en el condado de Lincoln. Por otro lado estaban James Dolan y Lawrence Murphy, comerciantes de la ciudad de Lincoln. En enero de 1878, Kid estaba trabajando para Tunstall. Cuando Tunstall fue asesinado por la facción Murphy-Dolan, Kid y otros aliados de Tunstall-McSween se declararon "Reguladores" y buscaron venganza.

Durante el año siguiente, se libró una sangrienta guerra de represalias entre las dos facciones. A principios de marzo, los reguladores arrestaron y luego asesinaron a los asociados de Dolan, Frank Baker y Billy Morton, según los informes, mientras la pareja intentaba escapar. En ese momento, el gobernador territorial John Axtell declaró a los reguladores como forajidos después de que fueron cazados. El 1 de abril de 1878, cuando el alguacil William Brady y el diputado George Hindman, ambos aliados de Dolan, intentaron tender una emboscada a McSween, los reguladores contraatacaron y mataron a los agentes de la ley. Tres días después, los reguladores lucharon contra "Buckshot" Roberts, un cazarrecompensas fuertemente armado, en Blazer's Mill. Roberts y Dick Brewer, un regulador, murieron en el tiroteo. La batalla decisiva de la guerra del condado de Lincoln se libró durante un tiroteo de cinco días en Lincoln en julio de 1878. El francotirador se prolongó durante cuatro días, con los reguladores atrapados dentro de la casa de McSween. Al quinto día, después de que llegara el ineficaz Ejército de los Estados Unidos, la casa de McSween se incendió y Kid salió corriendo de la casa en llamas. Kid logró escapar, pero McSween y varios otros fueron acribillados a balazos.

Junto con lo que quedaba de los reguladores, Kid fue ilegalizado para siempre. En diciembre de 1880, el sheriff recién elegido del condado de Lincoln, Pat Garrett, y otros agentes de la ley capturaron a Kid en Stinking Springs. Había dos acusaciones federales abiertas contra Kid. El primero fue por matar a Buckshot Roberts, el segundo fue por la muerte de un empleado en la reserva Mescalero. La fiscalía decidió que ambos cargos probablemente resultarían en la absolución, por lo que se decidió juzgar a Kid por el asesinato del sheriff Brady. The Kid fue declarado culpable y condenado a la horca, pero escapó el 28 de abril de 1881, después de matar a dos guardias. The Kid fue asesinado a tiros la noche del 14 de julio de 1881, asesinado por Pat Garrett durante una emboscada en el viejo Fort Sumner.

Cientos de libros, películas, programas de radio, programas de televisión e incluso un ballet se han inspirado posteriormente en la leyenda de Billy the Kid. Como leyenda, Kid está abierto a una variedad de interpretaciones, principalmente como un buen hombre que salió mal, como un mal hombre que siguió siendo malo, como un buen hombre que fue perseguido falsamente. Los historiadores también han sido culpables de usar la vida de Kid para probar una u otra tesis sobre su verdadera naturaleza. Nada de esto tiene nada que ver, por supuesto, con el histórico Billy the Kid que probablemente solo mató a cuatro hombres, generalmente en circunstancias que podrían concebirse como autodefensa, y que tuvo la mala suerte de encontrarse en el bando perdedor en un mercado mercantil. guerra.

Agencia Literaria Jon Tuska Golden West

Fulton, Maurice Garland. Historia de la guerra del condado de Lincoln. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1968.

Tuska, Jon. Billy the Kid: su vida y leyenda. Albuquerque: Prensa de la Universidad de Nuevo México, 1997.


El primer asesinato del niño Henry Antrim contra Windy Cahill

17 de agosto de 1877

Es viernes por la noche y el joven Henry Antrim está jugando al póquer en la Cantina de George Atkins, en las afueras de la reserva militar de Fort Grant, Arizona.

Antrim, cuyo verdadero apellido es McCarty, es un joven fugitivo (probablemente 16, quizás 17) que ha estado robando sillas y caballos a los soldados en el fuerte. Antrim y el ex soldado John Mackie se especializan en un método de equipo para agarrar monturas mientras los soldados están preocupados en el cercano Hog Ranch (jerga del ejército para un burdel).

Esa noche, Antrim se pone de lado con el herrero del fuerte Frank "Windy" Cahill, quien llama al joven delgado un "proxeneta". Antrim llama al gran irlandés un "hijo de puta".

Los dos comienzan a pelear. El hombre mayor tira al niño al suelo varias veces, finalmente inmoviliza los brazos de Antrim con las rodillas y le da una bofetada en la cara.

A pesar de estar clavado al suelo, el niño logra recuperar su pistola de la cintura de sus pantalones. Los transeúntes informan de un "rugido ensordecedor" cuando el niño dispara a quemarropa en el vientre del herrero. Cahill se desploma hacia un lado.

El niño se retuerce y sale corriendo, donde agarra el caballo más rápido, Cashaw, que pertenece a John Murphy. El asesino de hombres recién acuñado, que más tarde ganaría notoriedad como Billy the Kid, empuja el monte hacia el este, hacia Nuevo México.

Palabras moribundas

Las últimas palabras del herrero están impresas en el Estrella semanal de Arizona el 23 de agosto: “Yo, Frank Cahill, convencido de que estoy a punto de morir, hago lo siguiente como mi declaración final. Mi nombre es Frank P. Cahill. Nací en el condado y la ciudad de Galway, Irlanda ayer, 17 de agosto de 1877, tuve algunos problemas con Henry Antrem. [sic], también conocido como Kid, durante el cual me disparó. Lo había llamado proxeneta y él me llamó hijo de puta y luego nos agarramos. No lo golpeé, creo que lo vi ir por su pistola y traté de agarrarla, pero no pudo y disparó. En el estómago tengo una hermana llamada Margaret Flannigan que vive en East Cambridge, Massachusetts, y otra llamada Kate Conden, que vive en San Francisco ".

Consecuencias: probabilidades y fines de amplificación

El disparo de Frank Cahill fue llevado al cercano Fort Grant, donde el cirujano asistente Fred Crayton Ainsworth hizo lo que pudo para salvarlo. Al día siguiente, el cirujano pudo ver que Windy no sobreviviría a su herida. El notario público Miles Wood (que antes había arrestado a Henry Antrim y lo había llevado a Fort Grant antes de escapar) fue convocado al fuerte. Tomó la declaración en el lecho de muerte de Cahill (a la izquierda). Cahill murió en agonía y fue enterrado en el cementerio de correos el domingo 19 de agosto.

Miles Wood, además de notario público, también fue juez de paz. Organizó una investigación forense, convocando como jurados a seis lugareños: Milton McDowell, George Teague, T. McCleary, B.E. Norton, James L. Hunt y D.H. Smith. Rápidamente llegaron a un veredicto de que el tiroteo de Cahill había sido "criminal e injustificable, y que Henry Antrim alias kid es culpable de eso".

Kid Antrim huyó de regreso al área de Silver City, Nuevo México, donde se unió a una banda itinerante de forajidos liderada por el notorio John Kinney. El grupo viajó hacia el este, aterrizando en Mesilla. Después de un posible período en la cárcel cerca de allí, los Boys viajaron a Lincoln, donde el joven Henry se involucró en la guerra del condado de Lincoln. En algún momento cambió su nombre por un alias, William Bonney. En el último año de su vida, 1880-1881, se hizo conocido como Billy the Kid.

Recomendado: El oeste de Billy the Kid por Frederick Nolan, publicado por University of Oklahoma Press. Antrim es el nombre de mi padrastro por Jerry Weddle, publicado por la Sociedad Histórica de Arizona.

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Billy el niño

En la noche del 14 de julio de 1881, Sheriff Pat Garrett baleado fuera de la ley Billy el niño en Fort Sumner. Garrett había atrapado recientemente a Kid, quien fue sentenciado a la horca por matar a otro Sheriff, pero Billy logró escapar. Garrett se involucró nuevamente cuando escuchó un aviso de que Kid se estaba escondiendo en el Fuerte.

Puedes leer todo sobre la última noche de Billy desde el punto de vista del hombre que le disparó. Un año después de apretar el gatillo, Pat Garrett escribió y publicó un relato de lo que sucedió esa noche, y puede encontrar ese relato aquí.

Billy the Kid quería un perdón póstumo por el asesinato por el que iba a ser ahorcado. Bill Richardson, el gobernador de Nuevo México, se negó a cumplir con ese perdón.

¿Billy the Kid merece el perdón que le prometieron?
10 de agosto de 2010

Para todos los aficionados al Salvaje Oeste, ¡aquí hay una publicación que seguramente será interesante!

Billy the Kid ha sido durante mucho tiempo uno de los muchos nombres asociados con el Salvaje Oeste, junto con Bob Dalton Gang, Butch Cassidy y Sundance Kid, Cole Younger, Jesse James y más. Lo que tal vez no sepa es que Kid, fallecido hace mucho tiempo, puede pedir el perdón del actual gobernador de Nuevo México, Bill Richardson. Entonces, ¿por qué el notorio Billy the Kid está dispuesto a este perdón, preguntas? Bueno, déjame explicarte comenzando con una pequeña lección de historia.

Billy the Kid, nacido como William Henry McCarty, pero también conocido como William H. Bonney, es originario de Nueva York. Cuando aún era joven, su familia se mudó a Nuevo México. Desafortunadamente, cuando el Niño tenía quince años, su madre había fallecido de tuberculosis. Fue en este punto que muchas fuentes dicen que Kid comenzó su vida delictiva, comenzando por robar y progresando hasta asesinar. Otras fuentes afirman que sin la guía de los padres, Kid simplemente tuvo un mal comienzo en la vida. Se unió a los grupos equivocados y terminó huyendo de la ley. Un paso en falso en la vida de Kid fue su afiliación a la guerra del condado de Lincoln. Como resultado de una de las muchas emboscadas que ocurrieron, el alguacil del condado de Lincoln, William Brady, y uno de sus ayudantes fueron encontrados muertos, después de haber sido baleados por Kid. Billy se convirtió en un fugitivo.

En algún momento después de estos asesinatos, Lew Wallace se convirtió en gobernador de Nuevo México. Ahora, las historias de lo que sucedió a continuación parecen chocar, por lo que basta con decir que Kid terminó bajo custodia. Hizo un trato con el gobernador de que si testificaba contra personas involucradas en la guerra del condado de Lincoln, recibiría un perdón total por su participación en la muerte del alguacil Brady y otras fechorías. Kid testificó como prometió, pero nunca se le concedió el perdón. Entonces, Kid escapó de la custodia y eludió la ley durante los siguientes dos años.

Durante la época de Kid como forajido, Pat Garrett fue elegido Sheriff y enviado tras él. Una vez más, Billy the Kid terminó bajo custodia. Esta vez, sin embargo, fue condenado a la horca por la muerte del sheriff Brady. Mientras estaba en prisión, Kid escapó de nuevo, esta vez matando a dos guardias en el proceso. Una vez más, el alguacil Garrett fue enviado tras Kid. Sin embargo, la próxima vez que Kid se encontrara con el sheriff, sería la última vez.

El 14 de julio de 1881, el sheriff Garrett, al amparo de las sombras, mató a tiros a Billy the Kid en una residencia de Fort Sumner. Algunos creen que Kid vivió como "Brushy Bill" Roberts, pero otros creen que Kid fue enterrado al día siguiente en el cementerio de Fort Sumner. En algún momento, debido al debate, hubo un movimiento para que los supuestos cuerpos de Kid y su madre fueran exhumados para pruebas de ADN. Un juez aparentemente falló en contra de los esfuerzos, pero eso no ha detenido el interés actual del gobernador Richardson en el caso. Continúa investigando si Kid merece legítimamente un perdón póstumo como lo prometió el gobernador Wallace. Como puede imaginar, hay mucha controversia que surge de esta investigación: ¿de qué lado se unirá? Haga clic aquí para firmar una petición de perdón de Billy the Kid, o haga clic aquí para firmar una petición que se opone a ese perdón.

Los trucos son para niños
30 de diciembre de 2010

Al gobernador de Nuevo México, Bill Richardson, le quedan pocas horas para decidir si perdonar o no a “Billy the Kid” por el asesinato de un alguacil. El caso se remonta a 1881 ... entonces, ¿por qué la fecha límite de la víspera de Año Nuevo puede preguntar? Es el último día del mandato de Richardson.

Para aquellos de ustedes que se rascan la cabeza y se preguntan quién es Billy the Kid, él es el forajido occidental también conocido como William Bonney. Murió por el arma del Sheriff Pat Garrett a los 21 años. A pesar de su corta edad, se dice que Kid mató entre 9 y 21 hombres. El subjefe de gabinete de Richardson, Eric Witt, quiere aclarar que no están ofreciendo un perdón general por todos los crímenes de Kid, sino más bien un perdón por el caso individual de matar a un alguacil.

Richardson es un conocido aficionado a Billy the Kid y está considerando el indulto debido a una supuesta promesa del gobernador Lew Wallace. Afirma: "Piense en toda la buena publicidad que Nuevo México está recibiendo en todo el mundo sobre esto ... Es divertido". La cuestión determinante gira en torno a la creencia de que Wallace prometió este perdón a cambio del conocimiento de Kid en un caso de asesinato que involucra a tres hombres. Aquellos que se oponen al indulto argumentan que no hay pruebas de que el gobernador Wallace alguna vez ofreciera uno, simplemente engañó a Kid para que ofreciera información. El descendiente de Lew Wallace, William Wallace, sostiene que perdonar a Billy the Kid "declararía que Lew Wallace fue un mentiroso deshonroso".

Algunos de los que están a favor del indulto de Kid han presentado una petición, incluida la abogada defensora Randi McGinn, que se ha ofrecido a manejar el caso de forma gratuita. Ella escribe: "Una promesa es una promesa y debe cumplirse". McGinn también dice que Wallace le aseguró a Kid que tenía la autoridad para eximirlo de enjuiciamiento en caso de que cooperara y compartiera su conocimiento, pero que Wallace nunca cumplió su parte del trato.

El nieto del alguacil Pat Garrett, J.P. Garrett, argumenta que Richardson debería haber asignado a un historiador imparcial para ayudar en el caso, y cree que la participación de McGinn puede ser un conflicto de intereses. Richardson nombró a Charles Daniels para la Corte Suprema del estado, con quien McGinn está casado. William Wallace está de acuerdo, también citando que McGinn tiene “escasas calificaciones”. A pesar de estas acusaciones, McGinn afirma que su único vínculo con la administración es que se ofreció a manejar el caso de forma gratuita debido al interés de toda la vida de Richardson en Billy the Kid.

Richardson le dijo a Associated Press el miércoles: "No sé dónde terminaré. Puede que no lo perdone. Pero entonces podría ”. Supongo que todos tendremos que esperar ansiosos el resultado del destino judicial de este forajido fallecido.

Perdón no concedido
3 de enero de 2011

El gobernador de Nuevo México, Bill Richardson, se negó a indultar al forajido occidental Billy the Kid durante sus últimas horas en el cargo. El indulto fue en nombre del asesinato del alguacil William Brady en 1878. ¿Qué motivó esta decisión de último momento? En el programa "Good Morning America" ​​de ABC el viernes, Richardson explicó que las pruebas del caso simplemente no justificaban un perdón. Afirmó que se decidió en contra del indulto, "debido a la falta de conclusión y la ambigüedad histórica de por qué el gobernador Wallace incumplió su promesa".


¿El hijo bastardo de Billy? La verdadera historia detrás de Paulita Maxwell y su relación con el forajido.

En el álbum de Paulita se incluye una foto no identificada que podría ser de su único hijo, Telesfor José (izquierda). Algunos historiadores sospechan que en realidad se trata de una foto de William “Julian” Maxwell, el hijo ilegítimo de Lucien Maxwell y una mujer indígena americana. Robert G. McCubbin, un autenticador de fotografías del Viejo Oeste y editor emérito de True West, está de acuerdo con esto último.
- Todas las fotos son cortesía de Judi Flanner Arbogast, bisnieta de José y Paulita Maxwell, del álbum de recortes personal de Paulita, a menos que se indique lo contrario. Maxwell con el libro cortesía de la Sociedad Histórica de Colorado -

El romance intenso, ardiente, apasionado e ilícito entre Henry "Billy the Kid" McCarty, de 20 años, y Paulita Maxwell, de 16, ha sido aceptado en todo el mundo como un hecho. Que el notorio forajido haya convertido a Paulita en una conquista sexual lo convierte en una historia emocionante. Sin embargo, Paulita nunca fue un interés amoroso, y mucho menos una amante, de Kid. Ni una pizca de evidencia respalda esta historia.

La tradición popular afirma que Paulita y el Niño tuvieron un romance antes de la captura del Niño el 23 de diciembre de 1880, y después de su fuga de la cárcel el 28 de abril de 1881. El Niño murió el 14 de julio de 1881. Para que naciera su supuesto hijo amado. legítima, la influyente madre de Paulita, Luz, y su hermano mayor, Peter, acorralaron a Paulita en una boda a ultranza, en enero de 1882, con un crédula pastor local, José Félix Jaramillo.

En realidad, el matrimonio Maxwell-Jaramillo involucró a una pareja amorosa y una ceremonia católica en Fort Sumner, Territorio de Nuevo México, planeada durante varios meses. Los familiares de ambas familias viajaron más de 175 millas para asistir.

Los Maxwell y la familia Jaramillo se conocían desde hacía más de una década y quizás antes de que Lucien Bonaparte Maxwell incluso trasladara a la familia y a decenas de amigos y trabajadores a Fort Sumner en 1871.

El novio tenía un rancho de ovejas cerca del de su hermano mayor, Telesfor, en la zona de Los Lunas del condado de Valencia. Más de una semana antes de la boda, Telesfor y su esposa de ocho años, Sofia Maxwell Jaramillo, la hermana mayor de Paulita, partieron para su largo viaje a Fort Sumner, en carro, para unirse a la celebración.

Los Jaramillo eran al menos tan ricos y respetados como los Maxwell y eran inmunes a ser obligados a contraer un matrimonio que no querían. La verdad es que Paulita y José se amaban.

La vista de Paulita Maxwell conocida por la mayoría de los aficionados a la historia es la
de ella sosteniendo un libro. Su álbum de fotos personal revela más fotos de
Paulita desde su juventud hasta su vejez.

La boda tuvo lugar 18 meses. después la muerte de Kid el 15 de julio de 1881.

On January 14, 1883, Paulita, two months shy of her 19th birthday, married José, 21, during a Sunday mass officiated by Father A. Reden.

After mass, a reception followed that included just about everyone in the area. The celebration carried on until the wee hours of the next morning.

The newlyweds spent their wedding night in the Maxwell home in Fort Sumner. On January 16 or 17, the extended Maxwell and Jaramillo families left Fort Sumner with the bride and groom and traveled 125 miles to Las Vegas. Due to the tremendous amount of rain in the area along the Pecos River, the wedding party traveled along muddy roads and river banks overrun with floodwaters and suffered from chilling winds throughout the journey.

The weather delayed the wedding party’s arrival to the Plaza Hotel by five days. On January 25, the party arrived at the city’s newest hotel, opened in spring 1882, which offered spacious rooms, modern conveniences, a restaurant and a bar. A day or so later, the wedding photos were taken at a local studio.

The party left mid-week by train via Santa Fe and Albuquerque, then by wagon to José’s sheep ranch near Los Lunas. Upon arrival, the women helped Paulita establish her new household where she and José would live for the next 20 years or so.

Several newspaper articles, along with the Catholic Church’s marriage record, substantiate the 1883—not 1882—year for Paulita and José’s wedding.

But what of Telesfor José Jaramillo, the alleged love child of Paulita and the Kid?

The child was named in honor of José’s brother, Telesfor, who had died unexpectedly in July 1891. And he was not their first-born child. The first of their three children, Adelina, was born in January 1884. Luz was born in November 1890. Telesfor José was born in Fort Sumner on June 7, 1895—14 years after the Kid’s death. No records or family stories reveal Paulita gave birth prior to Adelina.

Telesfor José spent his first 14 years on the family sheep ranch near Los Lunas, then 14 years living with his mother in Fort Sumner, before he moved back to Los Lunas in 1923, marrying Reina Romero. In 1934, Reina bore him one son, Luciano, who, after spending all his life in the same area, passed away in 2004, having never married and no known children. Telesfor José died of cardiac disease at age 64 on September 9, 1959.

Unfortunately for Paulita, by the mid-1890s, José was abusive toward her. She found a retreat at her brother Peter’s and mother’s homes in Fort Sumner, but these havens ended when Peter died in June 1898 and Luz died in July 1900.

Within a few years after the 1900 Federal Census, Paulita separated from José, rather than stay in that relationship, according to family lore. Given the era and the fact that José and Paulita were Catholic, they never divorced or had their marriage annulled. Neither remarried. She retained some of the real estate, as tax records show she paid taxes on land in Valencia County as late as 1917.

In late spring 1909, Paulita moved her children and household to the new site of Fort Sumner, about four miles from the original settlement, with its railroad depot and a boomtown population of nearly 700 residents. She purchased and managed the new Commercial Hotel across from the depot her cousin, Rebecca Beaubien, owned the Pecos Valley Hotel down the street. The 1910 census has 15-year-old Telesfor José living with Paulita.

Paulita, 56, identified herself as a widow when the census came calling in 1920. We don’t know where José was living then we do know he was in Fort Sumner when he met his maker on March 28, 1937.

Whatever the reason the two had parted, Paulita was retired and financially secure, having sold her hotel to an oil company, which freed her son, Telesfor José, 25, to manage her estate. The census also recorded other family members who were living with Paulita: her first daughter, Adelina Adelina’s husband, Joseph Welborn and their daughter.

Unfortunately, Fort Sumner’s boomtown “bust” in the late 1920s left Paulita near penniless by decade’s end. At the time of her death, she had a mere $100 worth of personal property, in addition to her venture real estate purchases.

In the early and mid-1920s, author Walter Noble Burns and others tracked down and interviewed the old-timers who had roamed the New Mexico countryside at the same time as the Kid. Paulita, in her late 50s, and other Old Fort Sumner residents never mentioned she was ever pregnant with the Kid’s child. Paulita stated that she and the Kid had never had a romantic relationship, although she admitted openly that she, like many others, had been infatuated with him and at one point would have married him if he had loved her.

Even after his interview, while writing his 1926 book, The Saga of Billy the Kid, Burns portrayed Paulita in alignment with all the unfounded rumors of a torrid love affair with the Kid. His publisher, who knew his descriptions could not be confirmed, wisely cut parts and modified others to prevent a probable defamation of character lawsuit. The publisher made the right decision.

Burns and those of his ilk do not appreciate the fact that, up to the time of her marriage, Paulita was tightly chaperoned, almost always by her Navajo household servant, Deluvina Maxwell, and by local adult women when she attended bailes and went into town. Even if Paulita had unlikely gotten away, why would she have romanced the Kid in the summer of 1881, after his murderous escape from the Lincoln County Courthouse jail when he had killed two deputy sheriffs, had the law gunning for him and would be hanged on the gallows if captured?

Despite Paulita’s interviews, some writers and TV documentary producers have stretched an unsubstantiated and denied romantic relationship into a ludicrous scenario in which brother Peter alerts Sheriff Pat Garrett of the Kid’s whereabouts in Fort Sumner and allegedly plots with him to ambush the Kid before he could elope with Paulita. Somewhere along the way, this wild, inaccurate tale became accepted as fact.

Paulita and José raised two daughters: Adelina (left) and Luz (above). Paulita passed down her album to Luz, who gave it to her son Charles Flanner. The treasure is now owned by Judi Flanner Arbogast, daughter to Charles and great-granddaughter to Paulita.

After a two-day fight with pneumonia brought on by influenza, Paulita died at 65 on December 17, 1929, at her home on Sumner Avenue in Fort Sumner. Her body was buried in the Old Fort Sumner military cemetery. In 1937, her estranged husband, José, was buried next to her.

Paulita passed away frustrated because the stories of her true relationship with the Kid and the real family she raised with husband José were never accepted. Hopefully, once and for all, the tale that she was the Kid’s lover and gave birth to the Kid’s love child will cease, and Paulita can at last rest in peace.

Robert J. Stahl is a retired history and social studies education professor from the Teachers College at Arizona State University and an officer for the Scottsdale Corral of Westerners International. He gives thanks to his research assistants Nancy Nance Stahl and Marilyn Stahl Fischer.


Billy the Kid First Arrest - HISTORY

For over eight months in 2001, investigators pursued Clayton Waagner. Authorities apprehended the fugitive after an all-out effort.

But that effort cost an incredible sum in salaries, travel and various services. Senior Inspector Geoff Shank, the Investigative Services Division case coordinator, recalled that costs exceeded $200,000 before Waagner was captured in December.

But closing these cases has never come cheaply. U.S. marshals and their deputies have been chasing down fugitives for 212 years, and even back in the Old West, they ran up fairly hefty tabs while performing their jobs. When factoring in money values of the times, it's no stretch to say that deputies of bygone days faced financial challenges similar to those of their modern day counterparts.

William Bonney, alias Billy the Kid, has a firm place in American history. Legend has it that before he turned 21, he had killed 21 people - the byproduct of being a major player in a turbulent battle between competing cattle empires in southeast New Mexico Territory. Like many legends before and after him, Billy the Kid was hunted by the U.S. Marshals. They spent many long hours in the process. The year was 1881, but just like in present time, these lawmen still had to eat, sleep and buy supplies.

A recent discovery in the National Archives shed some light on the expenses incurred during the famous final chase for Billy the Kid, who was eventually killed July 14, 1881, by Lincoln County (New Mexico) Sheriff Pat Garrett. (S hown on Right is William Bonney, 'Billy the Kid')

On Nov. 20, 1882, U.S. Marshal John Sherman Jr. wrote Attorney General Benjamin Harris Brewster a seven-page letter. Sherman was writing from law offices in Washington, D.C., on a matter of payment. Part of the letter reads as follows:

Voucher 1, $375.00, is for the subsistence of my deputies, and posse, and hire of horses with forage for the same. This expense was incurred in the arrest of William Bonny (sic), known as "Billy the Kid, " charged with murder and passing counterfeit money also for the arrest of an accomplice by the name of Rudebaugh. This man Bonny was a most notorious character. Large rewards had been offered for his arrest by the Territorial authorities, and frequent attempts made to capture him. He was finally captured by my deputy, lodged in jail, and afterwards shot by Deputy Garrett in attempting to escape. The whole expense in making this arrest was $1.072.00, all of which has been allowed by accounting officers with the exception of $375.00, which they say is in the nature of an extraordinary expense, and requires your approval before it can be allowed. (Pat Garrett shown on left)

In this case, as with many similar instances, Sherman's request for the additional reimbursement was disallowed because the original payments were already settled. Attorney General Brewster could have appealed to President Chester Arthur for funding. but it was often countermanded by the advice of the U.S. Treasury, which operated under strict guidelines.

While $375 does not seem like much today, it was costly in 1882. And Sherman's case was not that obscure. In the 1860s Dakota Territory, it was not always possible to make a straight line in order to reach an objective - especially with Indians in the way. U.S. Marshal L.H. Litchfield, disappointed that one of his official expense reports to serve process shortchanged him $465.35, wrote to the comptroller of the currency in Washington to justify his bill for travel. Decía:

The necessity for so much travel is apparent . In this case it became my duty to travel 1,200 miles to serve & the same to return the attachment & the same to serve and return the execution making a distance of 4,800 miles traveled. Almost the entire country between here & Fort Abercrombie (where the goods were) in a direct route is inhabited by Indians alone . Consequently, the only feasible route is from here south to Sioux City, Iowa. thence east across the entire length of Iowa to the Mississippi River, thence to St. Cloud, Minnesota, thence west to Dakota, making three right angles. In conclusion I have only to say that the services were performed as economically as possible and the amount ($465.35) is just1y due me.

U.S. Marshal Henry White of West Virginia knew all about money squabbles with Washington. He served from April 1889 until May 1893, and his entire tenure was plagued by the feud between the Hatfields and McCoys.

When Anderson "Devil Anse" Hatfield was arrested for violating revenue laws, Marshal White needed extra guards. He was meticulous in tracking his expenses - such as the charge of 86 miles at 10 cents per mile. White's group contained 10 guards, including three Hatfields. This was a preventative measure, as ambushes were common and bounty hunters were trying to capture Devil Anse. The Hatfields apparently favored the marshals to the McCoys.


6 Buckshot Roberts Defeats Billy the Kid's Entire Gang by Himself

Andrew "Buckshot" Roberts is probably best known for killing Charlie Sheen while taking a dump in Young Guns. The actual story of that day is no less amazing.

You see, Billy the Kid (the famous gunfighter and co-author of Bill and Ted's history report) and his gang the Regulators had a warrant for Roberts' arrest, implicating him in the murder of a rancher named John Tunstall, whom Billy used to work for. Roberts didn't actually have anything to do with Tunstall's death, but he was a shit-kicking Texas outlaw who didn't shy away from gunfights, so when Billy and his gang staged an ambush, Roberts was more than happy to engage in a free exchange of bullets.

That's right -- rather than surrender when he realized he was surrounded by 14 Regulators (that's enough guys to field one and a half heavily armed baseball teams), Roberts instead told them all to go straight to hell.

As the battle commenced, Roberts was hit in the groin almost immediately, which would've taken the fight out of Quick Draw McGraw himself. But Roberts continued firing until his rifle was empty, wounding three Regulators and taking them out of the fight. Billy the Kid tried to take advantage of Roberts' dick wound by rushing him, but Roberts took his empty rifle and clubbed the blazing pigshit out of him.

Roberts retreated into a house to reload, where Regulator Dick Brewer (Charlie Sheen's character in the movie) tried to sneak up on him. Roberts spotted Brewer and blasted his head into skull-and-brains confetti. At that point, Billy the Kid decided it was way too early in the day for any more of this bullshit and ordered his gang to beat feet, leaving Buckshot Roberts alone to bleed to death a day later. Go back and read that sentence again -- one of the most famous gunfighters in history, backed up by his entire gang, wasn't enough to bring the mortally wounded Buckshot Roberts down.

Related: 6 Baffling Robert Pattinson Stories That Raise More Questions Than Answers


Billy the Kid First Arrest - HISTORY

Archivo MP3
William Bonney, known to the world as Billy the Kid, was involved in his first murder today in 1877. As with many famous people from the era of the American Wild West, his legend is much larger than his stature in real life. Although he has been dead for 125 years, Billy the Kid still defines the image of the young, sharp-shooting outlaw.

The man who would one day be called Billy the Kid used several aliases during his short life, including Henry McCarty, Henry Antrim and William Bonney. Since little is known about his youth or his parents, his real name has been lost to the dustbin of the ages. He was short, thin and had blue eyes. Most people who met him described him as friendly, but he could also display a fierce temper at a moment's notice. His abilities with a pistol or rifle were legendary but probably true. He had quick senses, which gave him an almost animal-like ability to sense and escape from danger. His instinct alone saved his life more than once.

Billy's story as a fugitive from justice began in 1875, when he escaped from the Silver City, New Mexico jail while being held on charges of theft. He worked as a ranch hand for the next two years before being hired to drive a team of horses for the Camp Grant Army post. He almost immediately developed a confrontational relationship with Frank Cahill, a civilian blacksmith at the post. On August 17th, 1877, Billy and Cahill exchanged heated words, which resulted in Cahill attacking Billy and throwing him to the ground. Cahill was a large man Billy was 17 years old and thin as a rail. Probably out of fear, he drew his pistol and shot Cahill. The blacksmith died the next day, resulting in Billy's arrest. A local Marshal was sent for, but Billy was able to make an escape before a trial could be held.

That fall, Billy showed up in Lincoln County, New Mexico, working as a cattle guard. The residents of the county were fighting a sort of mini-civil war, a conflagration that would come to be known as the Lincoln County Cattle War. The details of the war could fill several thick volumes suffice it to say that Billy ended up riding with a group known as the Regulators, eventually becoming the gang's leader.

As leader of the Regulators, Billy took part in gun battles that resulted in five deaths, most notably Sheriff William Brady. The group was indicted for murder and went on the run for several months. They were finally tracked to a house in Lincoln, where they held out for five days against a posse of deputies and locals. The house was set on fire, forcing the Regulators to face the posse that encircled them. Billy escaped once again. One of the men killed that day was Alexander McSween, a lawyer who was the leader of one side in the county war. With his death, the Lincoln County Cattle War ended.

In the fall of 1878, a general amnesty was proclaimed for anyone involved in the Lincoln County War who was not already under indictment. Billy was living in Texas at this time and was still under indictment for Sheriff William Brady's murder. However, he came forward and offered to testify against other gun fighters if he was granted amnesty. The state agreed to this concession and Billy turned himself in. After testifying, however, he was returned to jail. As he had proven many times in the past, Billy was not fond of the iron bars of a cell. Before any action could be taken against him, he once again freed himself and headed out of town.

Billy became a cattle rustler and gambler for the next 18 months and was involved in several shootings. The activities of his gang drew attention, and not in a good way. The group was hunted by a posse looking for cattle thieves and Billy once again found himself trapped in a house surrounded by armed men. But the posse accidently shot one of their own men, at which point they broke up and allowed Billy and his crew to escape.

Billy's reputation had grown, so much so that newly-elected sheriff Pat Garrett put a $500 bounty on his head. He and his posse were soon surrounded, captured and hauled off the town of Mesilla to wait for trial. He was convicted of murdering Sheriff Brady after a one day proceeding and was sentenced to hang. While being held in the top room of the local courthouse, Billy killed his two guards and escaped. How he managed to do this remains a mystery, but it is believed that he may have slipped out of his handcuffs and grabbed one of the deputies' weapons.

Billy the Kid met his end on July 14, 1881 at Pete Maxwell's house near Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Sheriff Garrett came to the house to question Maxwell about Billy's whereabouts, not knowing that the 21-year old was only a room away. The exact events of the evening are shaded by time, but one thing is certain: Pat Garrett shot Billy twice, killing him instantly. He was buried the next day in Fort Sumner's cemetery between two of his Regulator companions.

Much has been made of Billy the Kid's body count. Legend has it that he killed 21 men, one for every year of his life. The truth, however, is much less sensational. Most likely, Billy was involved in 9 murders 5 in which he was with a gang and four when he was alone. One year after he died, Pat Garrett, the sheriff who killed Billy, published a book entitled 'The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid', which was wildly inaccurate and told many of the fanciful tales that survive to this day. The legend was born.


Billy the Kid arrested for first time in 1875

On this day in 1875, Billy the Kid is arrested for the first time after stealing a basket of laundry. He later broke out of jail and roamed the American West, eventually earning a reputation as an outlaw and murderer and a rap sheet that allegedly included 21 murders.

The exact details of Billy the Kid’s birth are unknown, other than his name, William Henry McCarty. He was probably born sometime between 1859 and 1861, in Indiana or New York. As a child, he had no relationship with his father and moved around with his family, living in Indiana, Kansas, Colorado and Silver City, New Mexico. His mother died in 1874 and Billy the Kid—who went by a variety of names throughout his life, including Kid Antrim and William Bonney—turned to crime soon afterward.

McCarty did a stint as a horse thief in Arizona before returning to New Mexico, where he hooked up with a gang of gunslingers and cattle rustlers involved in the notorious Lincoln County War between rival rancher and merchant factions in Lincoln County in 1878. Afterward, Billy the Kid, who had a slender build, prominent crooked front teeth and a love of singing, went on the lam and continued his outlaw’s life, stealing cattle and horses, gambling and killing people. His crimes earned him a bounty on his head and he was eventually captured and indicted for killing a sheriff during the Lincoln County War. Billy the Kid was sentenced to hang for his crime however, a short time later, he managed another jail break, murdering two deputies in the process. Billy the Kid’s freedom was brief, as Sheriff Pat Garrett caught up with the desperado at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on July 14, 1881, and fatally shot him.

Although his life was short, Billy the Kid’s legend grew following his death. Today he is a famous symbol of the Old West, along with such men as Kit Carson, Jesse James, Wild Bill Hickok, Doc Holliday and Wyatt Earp, and his story has been mythologized and romanticized in numerous films, books, TV shows and songs. Each year, tourists visit the town of Fort Sumner, located about 160 miles southeast of Albuquerque, to see the Billy the Kid Museum and gravesite.


Patrick Floyd Jarvis Garrett was born on June 5, 1850, in Chambers County, Alabama. He was the second of five children born to John Lumpkin Garrett and wife Elizabeth Ann Jarvis. Garrett's four siblings were Margaret, Elizabeth, John, and Alfred. [1] Garrett was of English ancestry, his ancestors migrated to America from the English regions of Hertfordshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Lincolnshire and Buckinghamshire. [2] [3] When Pat was three years old his father purchased the John Greer plantation in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana. The Civil War, however, destroyed the Garrett family's finances. Their mother died on March 25, 1867, at the age of 37. Then the following year, on February 5, 1868, his father died at age 45. The children were left with a plantation that was more than $30,000 in debt. The children were taken in by relatives. The 18-year-old Garrett headed west from Louisiana on January 25, 1869. [1] : 9 [4] : 28

Buffalo hunter Edit

Garrett's whereabouts over the next seven years are obscure. By 1876 he was in Texas hunting buffalo. During this period Garrett killed his first man, another buffalo hunter named Joe Briscoe. Garrett surrendered to the authorities at Fort Griffin, Texas, but they declined to prosecute. [1] : 29–31 When the buffalo hunting declined, Garrett left Texas and rode to the New Mexico Territory. [4] : 267n, 293n When Garrett arrived at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, he found work as a cowboy for Pedro Menard "Pete" Maxwell.

Family life Edit

Garrett's first wife was Juanita Martinez, who died 15 days after their marriage. [5] The reference Leon C. Metz made about Juanita being the older sister of Pat's second wife Apolonia is unfounded. Apolonia only had a sister by the name of Celsa Gutierrez. [1] On January 14, 1880, Garrett married Apolinaria Gutierrez. [1] : 40–41 [4] : 94–96 Between 1881 and 1905 Apolinaria Garrett gave birth to eight children: Ida, Dudley, Elizabeth, Annie, Patrick, Pauline, Oscar, and Jarvis.

Pursuit of Billy the Kid Edit

Billy the Kid, born Henry McCarty, and also known as William H. Bonney, was wanted for murder in the aftermath of the Lincoln County War. On November 2, 1880, Garrett was elected sheriff of Lincoln County, New Mexico, having defeated the incumbent, Sheriff George Kimball, by a vote of 320 to 179. [6] Although Garrett's term would not begin until January 1, 1881, Sheriff Kimball appointed him a deputy sheriff for the remainder of Kimball's term. Garrett also obtained a deputy U.S. Marshal's commission, which allowed him to pursue the Kid across county lines. Garrett and his posse stormed the Dedrick ranch at Bosque Grande on November 30, 1880. They expected to find the Kid there, but only succeeded in capturing John Joshua Webb, who had been charged with murder, along with an accused horse thief named George Davis. [7] Garrett turned Webb and Davis over to the sheriff of San Miguel County a few days later, and moved on to the settlement of Puerto de Luna. There a local tough named Mariano Leiva picked a fight with Garrett and was shot in the shoulder. [8]

On December 19, 1880, Billy the Kid, Charlie Bowdre, Tom Pickett, Billy Wilson and Tom O'Folliard rode into Fort Sumner. Lying in wait were deputy Garrett and his posse. Mistaking O'Folliard for the Kid, Garrett's men opened fire and killed O'Folliard. [9] Billy and the others escaped unharmed. Three days later, Garrett's posse cornered Billy and his companions at a spot called Stinking Springs. They killed one man and captured the others. [10] On April 15, 1881, Billy the Kid was sentenced to hang by Judge Warren Bristol, but escaped thirteen days later, killing 2 deputies. [11]

On July 14, 1881, Garrett visited Fort Sumner to question a friend of the Kid's about his whereabouts and learned he was staying with a mutual friend, Pedro Menard "Pete" Maxwell. Around midnight, Garrett went to Maxwell's house. The Kid was asleep in another part of the house, but woke up in the middle of the night and entered Maxwell's bedroom, where Garrett was standing in the shadows. The Kid did not recognize the man standing in the dark. He asked him, repeatedly, "¿Quién es?" ("Who is it?"), and Garrett replied by shooting at him twice. [12] The first shot hit the Kid in the chest just above the heart, while the second missed. Garrett’s account leaves it unclear whether Billy was killed instantly or took some time to die. [13]

His account of Billy the Kid Edit

He coauthored The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid with Ash Upson, [14] and for decades his book was deemed authoritative. [15]

Following Billy the Kid's death, writers quickly went to work producing books and articles that made a folk hero out of Billy the Kid, while making Garrett seem like an assassin. Although filled with many errors of fact, The Authentic Life served afterward as the main source for most books written about the Kid until the 1960s. [16] [17] [18] A failure when originally released, an original copy of the Pat Garrett-Ash Upson book became a rare commodity in 1969 the original 1882 edition of the Garrett-Upson book was described by Ramon F. Adams as being "exceedingly rare." [19] Twentieth-century editions of Garrett's Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid (with alterations to the original title) appeared in 1927, [20] 1946 [21] and 1964. [22]

Texas Ranger Edit

Garrett did not seek re-election as sheriff of Lincoln County in 1882. He moved to Texas, where he ran for office as a state senator and was declined that seat. Garrett became a captain with the Texas Rangers for less than a month, then returned to Roswell, New Mexico. [24]

Irrigation investments and move to Texas Edit

Garrett discovered a large reservoir of artesian water in the Roswell region and went into partnership with two men to organize the "Pecos Valley Irrigation and Investment Company" on July 18, 1885. [25] Garrett kept his irrigation schemes alive for several years, and on January 15, 1887, he purchased a one-third interest in the "Texas Irrigation Ditch Company", but the partners got rid of him. On August 15, 1887, he formed a partnership with William L. Holloman in the "Holloman and Garrett Ditch Company." [26] All of Garrett's forays into the irrigation field, however, resulted in failure. [ cita necesaria ] By 1892, Garrett had moved his large family to Uvalde, Texas, where he became close friends with John Nance Garner (1868–1967), a future vice president of the United States. [27] Garrett might have lived out the remainder of his life in Uvalde, had it not been for a headline-making event back in New Mexico.

Disappearance of Albert Jennings Fountain Edit

On January 31, 1896, Colonel Albert Jennings Fountain and his eight-year-old son Henry disappeared at the edge of the White Sands area of southern New Mexico. Neither of the Fountains was ever seen again. The mystery was never officially solved, even with the efforts of Apache scouts, the Pinkertons, and an all-out push by the Republican Party. [28] In April 1896, Garrett was appointed sheriff of Doña Ana County, and two years later had gathered sufficient evidence to make arrests, asking a judge in Las Cruces for warrants to arrest Oliver M. Lee, William McNew, Bill Carr and James Gililland. Within hours, he had arrested McNew and Carr. [29]

During the early morning hours of July 12, 1898 Garrett and his posse confronted Oliver M. Lee and James Gililland at a spot called "Wildy Well" near Orogrande, New Mexico. Garrett had hoped to capture the fugitives while they were sleeping, but Lee and Gililland expected trouble and took their bedrolls up to the roof of the bunkhouse to avoid being taken by surprise. One of Garrett's deputies named Kearney heard footsteps on the roof, scaled a ladder, and was mortally wounded by the fugitives. A stray shot nicked Garrett. Due to his concern for his dying deputy, Garrett arranged a truce with the fugitives and withdrew while Kearney was lifted into a wagon. Kearney, however, died on the road to Las Cruces, and Lee and Gililland remained at large for another eight months, before they finally surrendered to Sheriff George Curry. [30] They were found not guilty in the Fountain killings, and the indictments for killing the deputy were also dismissed. [31]

Final kill Edit

Garrett killed his last offender in 1899, a fugitive named Norman Newman, who was wanted for murder in Greer County, Oklahoma. Newman was hiding out at the San Augustin Ranch in New Mexico. Sheriff George Blalock of Greer County went to New Mexico and asked Garrett for his assistance. The lawmen and Jose Espalin, one of Garrett's deputies, rode to the ranch, and on October 7, 1899, Newman was killed in a gunfight. [32]

Presidential appointment in El Paso Edit

On December 16, 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt nominated Garrett to the post of collector of customs in El Paso. [33] He also became one of President Roosevelt's three "White House Gunfighters" (Bat Masterson and Ben Daniels being the others). [34] Despite public outcry over his appointment, Garrett was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on January 2, 1902. [35] Garrett's tenure as El Paso's collector of customs was stormy from the start. On May 8, 1903, he got into a public fistfight with an employee named George Gaither. The following morning, both Garrett and Gaither paid five dollar fines for disturbing the peace. [36] Continued complaints about Garrett's alleged incompetence were sent to Washington. [37] Through it all, President Roosevelt stood by Garrett. As a show of his support, Roosevelt invited Garrett to attend a Rough Riders reunion being held in San Antonio during April 1905. Since Garrett had not been a member of that regiment, Roosevelt's invitation was taken as a snub at those critics who wanted Garrett replaced from his post. Garrett brought a guest of his own to the event named Tom Powers. Garrett introduced Powers to the president as "a prominent Texas cattleman." Garrett and Powers posed for two photographs with Roosevelt, first standing with him in a group and later seated with Roosevelt at dinner. [38] Garrett's enemies obtained copies of the photos and sent them to Roosevelt, informing the president that instead of being the "cattleman" that Garrett claimed, Powers was, in fact, the owner of a "notorious dive" in El Paso called the Coney Island Saloon. That was the final straw for Roosevelt, who replaced Garrett with a new collector of customs on January 2, 1906. [39]

Financial problems Edit

Following his dismissal, Garrett returned with his family to New Mexico. Garrett was in deep financial difficulty. His ranch had been heavily mortgaged, and when he was unable to make payments, the county auctioned off all of Garrett's personal possessions to satisfy judgments against him. The total from the auction came to $650. [40] President Roosevelt had appointed Pat's friend George Curry as the territorial governor of New Mexico. Garrett met with Curry, who promised him the position of superintendent of the territorial prison at Santa Fe, once he was inaugurated. Since Curry's inauguration was still months away, the destitute Garrett left his family in New Mexico and returned to El Paso, where he found employment with the real estate firm of H.M. Maple and Company. During this period Garrett moved in with a woman known as "Mrs. Brown", who was described as an El Paso prostitute. [41] When Governor-elect Curry learned of his involvement with Brown, the promised appointment of prison superintendent was withdrawn. [42]

Last conflict and death Edit

Dudley Poe Garrett, Pat's son, had signed a five-year lease for his Bear Canyon Ranch with Jesse Wayne Brazel. [43] Garrett and his son objected when Brazel began bringing in large herds of goats, which were anathema to cattlemen like Garrett. Garrett tried to break the lease when he learned that the money for Brazel's operation had been put up by his neighbor, W. W. "Bill" Cox. He was further angered when he learned that Archie Prentice "Print" Rhode was Brazel's partner in the huge goat herd. [44] When Brazel refused, the matter went to court. At this point James B. Miller met with Garrett to try to solve the problem. Miller met with Brazel, who agreed to cancel his lease with Garrett – provided a buyer could be found for his herd of 1,200 goats. Carl Adamson, who was related to Miller by marriage, agreed to buy the 1,200 goats. Just when the matter seemed resolved, Brazel claimed that he had "miscounted" his goat herd, claiming there were actually 1,800 – rather than his previous estimate of 1,200. Adamson refused to buy that many goats, but agreed to meet with Garrett and Brazel to see if they could reach some sort of agreement.

Garrett and Carl Adamson rode together, heading from Las Cruces, New Mexico in Adamson's wagon. Brazel appeared on horseback along the way. Garrett was shot and killed, but exactly by whom remains the subject of controversy. Brazel and Adamson left the body by the side of the road and returned to Las Cruces, where Brazel surrendered to Deputy Sheriff Felipe Lucero. More than thirty years later, Lucero claimed that Brazel exclaimed, "Lock me up. I've just killed Pat Garrett!" Brazel then pointed to Adamson and said, "He saw the whole thing and knows that I shot in self-defense." [45] Lucero incarcerated Brazel, summoned a coroner's jury, and rode to Garrett's death site. Brazel's trial for Garrett's murder concluded on May 4, 1909. [46] Brazel was represented at his trial by attorney and future Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall. The only eyewitness to Garrett's murder, Adamson, never appeared at the trial, which lasted only one day and ended with an acquittal. [47] [48] [49]

Identity of the murderer Edit

The coroner's report on Garrett's death states that Brazel shot Garrett. [50] Brazel reportedly confessed, but was acquitted at trial. Four other suspects have been proposed: Adamson, Cox, Rhode, and Miller. In a book published in 1970, Glenn Shirley gave his reasons for naming Miller as the killer of Pat Garrett. [51] Leon C. Metz in his 1974 biography of Garrett related the claim of W.T. Moyers that "his investigations led him to believe that [W. W.] Cox himself ambushed and killed Garrett.", [52] but also wrote that "[t]he Garrett family believes that Carl Adamson pulled the trigger." [53] In his 2010 book on Billy the Kid and Pat Garrett, Mark Lee Gardner suggests that Archie Prentice "Print" Rhode killed Garrett. [54]

Death site Edit

The site of Garrett's death is now commemorated by a historical marker south of U.S. Route 70, between Las Cruces, New Mexico and the San Augustin Pass. [55] [56] The historical marker is located about 1.2 miles from where Garrett was murdered. In 1940 his son, Jarvis Garrett, marked the spot with a monument consisting of concrete laid around a stone with a cross carved in it. The cross is believed to be the work of Garrett's mother. Scratched in the concrete is "P. Garrett" and the date of his killing. The marker is located in the desert. [57] The city of Las Cruces plans a development that would destroy the site. An organization called Friends of Pat Garrett has been formed to ensure that the city preserves the site and marker. [58] [59]

Funeral and burial site Edit

Garrett's body was too tall for any finished coffins available, so a special one had to be shipped in from El Paso. His funeral service was held March 5, 1908, and he was laid to rest next to his daughter, Ida, who had died in 1896 at the age of fifteen. Garrett's grave and the graves of his descendants are in the Masonic Cemetery, Las Cruces. [59]

Garrett has been a character in many films and television shows, and has been portrayed by:


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