Diferencia entre los programas de la Marina V-5 y V-12 durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

Diferencia entre los programas de la Marina V-5 y V-12 durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial


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Tenía curiosidad por saber si había una diferencia entre los programas de la Armada V-5 y V-12 durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Encontré mucha información sobre el programa V-12 específicamente, pero no he podido encontrar mucha información sobre el programa de entrenamiento de la marina V-5. ¿Fue V-5 un subconjunto del programa V-12? Sé que Purdue, Notre Dame y muchas otras escuelas tenían programas V-12, pero no he escuchado nada sobre V-5. ¡Cualquier idea sería muy útil!

EDITAR: Finalmente encontré algo:

Navy V-12, Volumen 12 de Henry C. Herge

Parece que el programa V-5 era para cadetes de aviación naval que luego se absorbió en el programa V12 y esos estudiantes recibieron una designación especial de (a) para Aviación.


Mientras estaba en el último año de la escuela secundaria en Oklahoma en marzo de 1943, me alisté en la Marina en el programa Navy V-5. Me llamaron al servicio activo el 1 de julio de 1943. Me enviaron a Central Missouri State Teacher's College en Warrensburg, Missouri. Mi designación se cambió de V-5 a V12A. Supongo que la "A" podría haber significado aviación. Un semestre fue de 4 meses de duración. Estaba programado para asistir a 2 semestres y luego ser transferido a una escuela de pre-vuelo de la Marina. Durante mi segundo semestre, a varios de nosotros se nos hizo un examen y la opción de ir a la escuela de pre-vuelo oa una universidad importante para NROTC. Había otros estudiantes en Warrensburg que tenían la designación de V-12. Debían asistir a 4 semestres y luego asistir a una escuela de guardiamarina de la marina durante 4 meses y luego ser comisionados como alférez en la marina. Mi grupo de 12 se alinearon alfabéticamente en un banco y llamaron uno por uno. Los primeros 11 recibieron pedidos a NROTC en UCLA. Fui el último en llamar y me dijeron que solo había 11 cuotas para UCLA y que iría a Notre Dame NROTC. Estuve en Notre Dame (todavía con una designación V-12) durante 5 semestres de 4 meses cada uno. Tomamos de 18 a 20 horas por semestre y nos graduamos después de 28 meses (8 en V-12 más 20 en NROTC). Fui alférez y me gradué de la universidad a la edad de 20 años. Permanecí en la marina (principalmente en servicio submarino) hasta que me retiré en 1970 como capitán. Espero que esto te ayude a comprender los programas. Capitán Robert Thomas U. S. Navy (Retirado)


Me alisté en el programa USN V-5 en mayo de 1945, dos meses antes del día de VJ. Asistí a Minot, ND State Teachers College durante un semestre y luego me transfirieron a Iowa State College en Ames, Iowa durante un trimestre, luego a Lawrence, KS durante un semestre cuando nos dijeron que encontráramos una escuela por mi cuenta para completar el pre -Requisitos universitarios de vuelo. Como mis padres vivían en el campus de UND (Universidad de Dakota del Norte), completé mis requisitos universitarios previos al vuelo allí y esperé el entrenamiento previo al vuelo en Ottumwa, Iowa. En ese momento estaba tomando cursos de pre-medicina y planeaba una educación en la escuela de medicina. "Cuando tuve la opción de optar por no participar en el programa V-5, hice y terminé mis cursos de pre-medicina en la UND como civil. Después de graduarme, asistí a la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Boston, me gradué e hice una pasantía en Boston City Hospital por un Luego me mudé a Chicago para obtener una residencia en psiquiatría en el Centro Médico Michael a Reese. En Chicago, mi junta de reclutamiento en Massachusetts decidió que mi tiempo V-5 era "no deber avivo" y cambió mi clasificación a IA. Sin embargo, la Junta Médica de Illinois , determiné que mi entrenamiento de V-5 estaba en "servicio activo" y me reclasificó de nuevo donde había estado. Puede que no haya sido "justo" (estuve de acuerdo con la junta de reclutamiento sobre eso, pero la ley es la ley y quería Completar mi formación psiquiátrica sin interrupción Desde entonces he sentido un grado de responsabilidad hacia el ejército y me uní al programa de la Reserva del Cuerpo Médico de EE. UU. y pasé dos semanas al año en una facultad de Medicina del Ejército en Hawai, lo que hice hasta la edad de jubilación.


Entré al programa V12 en Central Missouri State en Warrensburg en junio de 1945. El programa se suspendió allí después de un semestre de cuatro meses. Luego, la unidad fue enviada a la Universidad de Brown en Providence, R I. Antes de que terminara el semestre en Brown, debido a la rendición de Japón el 2 de septiembre, a algunos de los que estaban en el programa se les permitió abandonar y transferirse a la Reserva Naval. Luego nos enviaron a Great Lakes para un campo de entrenamiento de un mes. La base también se redujo rápidamente. Todo lo militar se estaba deteniendo. Permanecer en el V12 requería 4 años obligatorios de servicio activo después de completar la universidad.


Me alisté en la marina en agosto de 1945 y mientras esperaba órdenes para el campo de entrenamiento recibí una carta de la Oficina de Adquisiciones de Oficiales Navales en Los Ángeles que indicaba que los resultados de mi prueba de clasificación general indicaban que podría calificar para el V -Programa de candidato a oficial 12 o V-5. El programa V-12 dio lugar a una comisión como oficial de línea regular y el V-5 a una comisión en la rama de aviación. Elegí este último y, después de probar, me enviaron desde Long Beach, CA a Colgate Univ en Nueva York. Después de un año de asistir en uniforme como aprendiz de marinero (AS-V5), las unidades del campus de la marina en los EE. UU. Se cerraron y nos dijeron que obtuviéramos la admisión a otra universidad para nuestro segundo año asistiendo como civiles y pagados por la marina. . Durante el verano de 1946, el programa V-5 se cambió al Plan Holloway que proporcionaba completar 2 años de universidad, nombramiento como guardiamarina, 2 años de entrenamiento de vuelo, comisión en la marina regular y un año en la flota y 2 años más de universidad. como teniente JG si es retenido o como civil si no. Terminé volando aviones de combate desde portaaviones en 1949 y 1950 y regresé a la escuela cuando terminó mi año. Google "Flying Midshipmen" o un libro titulado "Once a Jock ..." para obtener más información. Una de mis aventuras está en la pág. 62 en el libro.


Encontré un viejo periódico Chicago Tribune de 1942 donde entrevistaron a mi padre como mejor estudiante de su escuela secundaria. Afirma que tenía la intención de alistarse en el "NUEVO ARMADA V5 PROGRAMA "que proporciona entrenamiento de vuelo para graduados de secundaria


Escuela de Guardiamarinas de la Reserva Naval de los Estados Unidos

los Escuela de Guardiamarinas de la Reserva de la Marina de los Estados Unidos fue un programa acelerado de entrenamiento de oficiales navales auxiliares instituido en junio de 1940. [1] Su objetivo era capacitar a 36,000 oficiales de la Reserva Naval planificados para los comandos en la flota de la Armada de los EE. UU. Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Escuela de Guardiamarinas de la Reserva Naval de los Estados Unidos
Activo1940 - 1945
PaísEstados Unidos
RamaReserva Naval de Estados Unidos
EscribeCapacitación
PapelCurso postuniversitario para la formación de oficiales subalternos de la Marina de los EE. UU.

Para lograr esto, se establecieron varias Escuelas de Guardiamarinas de la Reserva Naval, principalmente en los campus universitarios de todo el país. Entre 1940 y 1945, sus candidatos a oficiales subalternos, muchos ex alumnos del entrenamiento V-12 de la Marina, completaron un curso de adoctrinamiento de 30 días antes de ingresar a la escuela de guardiamarina de 90 días. Programa de entrenamiento universitario de la Marina V-7. [2] Después de completarlo con éxito, los graduados fueron comisionados como alférez en la Reserva Naval de EE. UU. La mayoría entró en servicio activo con la flota estadounidense [3] en el Teatro Pacífico durante la guerra. [4]


Veteranos y Militar Servicios

Fundada originalmente en 1801 como South Carolina College, la moderna Universidad de Carolina del Sur de hoy tiene una larga historia de tradición y servicio militar.

Los veteranos transforman la población universitaria y estudiantil

Carolina del Sur como institución ha sido transformada por estudiantes veteranos. En 1944, hacia el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, el cuerpo estudiantil incluía a 21 veteranos. Entre la primavera de 1945 y el otoño de 1947, la inscripción se disparó de 1.420 estudiantes a 4.614, un aumento del 225 por ciento en solo dos años y medio. En 1947, el 66 por ciento del alumnado era exmilitar, incluidas 44 mujeres.

La universidad inscribió a más veteranos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial que cualquier otra universidad de Carolina del Sur. La Ley de Reajuste de los Militares de 1944, también llamada Declaración de Derechos de los GI o GI Bill, hizo que la universidad fuera accesible para muchos más habitantes de Carolina del Sur.

Hitos en la historia militar

1860: South Carolina College cierra durante la Guerra Civil.

1862: Todos los estudiantes de la universidad se ofrecen como voluntarios para el servicio el 8 de marzo, y las autoridades federales toman posesión de los edificios de la universidad y los convierten en un hospital.

1865: El ejército de la Unión toma posesión del colegio el 24 de mayo.

1866: El colegio reabre como universidad.

1914-18: Durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, la mayoría de los estudiantes participaron en el programa ROTC de la universidad, que más tarde se convirtió en el Cuerpo de Entrenamiento del Ejército de Estudiantes. Después de la guerra, el cuerpo y, más tarde, el programa ROTC se disolvieron.

1935: El Edificio Conmemorativo de la Guerra Mundial está dedicado a los soldados de Carolina del Sur que sirvieron y murieron en la Primera Guerra Mundial. Se pagó mediante suscripción privada y una subvención federal de la Administración de Obras Públicas.

1940-1944: La universidad opera durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial a plena capacidad después de transformarse en una escuela naval que incluye una Escuela Preparatoria de Vuelo de la Armada V-5, un programa de Servicio de Entrenamiento de Guerra y Administración de Aeronáutica Civil y un Programa de Entrenamiento Universitario de la Armada V-12.

1947: Con más de 4.500 estudiantes, la inscripción se ha disparado y hay más veteranos en Carolina del Sur que estudiantes antes de la guerra. La inscripción de veteranos alcanzó su punto máximo en la posguerra con 2.743.

Mediados de la década de 1950: Una segunda ola de inscripción de veteranos comienza después de la Guerra de Corea.

1972: Comienza el programa de la universidad en Fort Jackson.

2012: Los formularios de la Asociación de Estudiantes Veteranos.

2014: Carolina del Sur gana la primera de muchas designaciones de Escuela Amigable para Militares por Victory Media Inc.

2016: Se forma el Consejo de Antiguos Alumnos de Veteranos.

2018: Trece de un grupo original de 28 marcadores que honran a los estudiantes universitarios y ex alumnos que murieron durante la Primera Guerra Mundial y la disputa fronteriza con México se trasladan al jardín delantero del War Memorial Building. Los marcadores adicionales se reproducirán e instalarán más adelante.

2019: La Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Carolina del Sur establece la Clínica de Derecho de los Veteranos.


Colección Muhlenberg College World War II Navy V-12 y V-5: Acerca de la colección

El 1 de julio de 1943, se implementó el Programa de Entrenamiento Universitario de la Marina V-12 en los campus universitarios de los Estados Unidos. Diseñado para complementar las filas de oficiales de la Armada y el Cuerpo de Marines de los EE. UU. Con hombres con educación universitaria, este programa ofreció un beneficio mutuo a los colegios y universidades cuyos cuerpos de estudiantes se habían reducido drásticamente por el servicio militar. Al final de la guerra, habían participado 131 colegios y universidades.

El V-12 era un programa acelerado: las universidades funcionaban durante tres semestres de cuatro meses cada año, lo que permitía a los estudiantes completar una licenciatura en dos años. Una vez que hubieran recibido sus títulos, los hombres de la Marina se reportarían a la Escuela de Guardiamarina & rsquos, y después de cuatro meses de entrenamiento adicional, serían comisionados como alférez en la Reserva de la Marina de los EE. UU. Los candidatos a la Infantería de Marina procederían al campo de entrenamiento y a la Escuela de Candidatos para Oficiales y rsquos, después de lo cual serían comisionados como subtenientes.

La primera cohorte de marineros e infantes de marina de Muhlenberg & rsquos llegó el 1 de julio y estaba compuesta por 260 & ldquobluejackets & rdquo y 200 infantes de marina. El número de estudiantes civiles durante los dos años de los programas navales fluctuó entre 110 y 150 por trimestre.

& ldquoAl atardecer del sábado 3 de julio, todos los miembros de la unidad se habían sometido a su examen físico, su prueba de natación, su prueba de fuerza, habían sido vacunados y estaban inscritos en su programa académico. Como resultado, las clases comenzaron regularmente a las 0800 de la mañana del lunes 5 de julio, y Muhlenberg fue el único V-12 College en el país que logró este récord.

-- Unidad de Historia Naval de la Armada V-12: Muhlenberg College

La colección comprende fotografías, listas de clases, horarios de cursos, folletos promocionales y correspondencia relacionada con la implementación de los programas V-12 y V-5, que cubren el período 1942-1946.


En 1908 en Fort Myer, Virginia, un par de inventores llamados Orville y Wilbur Wright volaron una demostración de una de las primeras naves "más pesadas que el aire". Dos oficiales de la marina que observaban la demostración se inspiraron para presionar para que la marina adquiriera aviones propios. En mayo de 1911, la marina compró su primer avión. De 1911 a 1914, la marina recibió lecciones de vuelo gratuitas del pionero de la aviación Glenn Curtiss en North Island, San Diego, California.

En 1911, la marina comenzó a entrenar a sus primeros pilotos en el campamento de aviación recién fundado en Annapolis, Maryland. En 1914, la Armada abrió la Estación Aérea Naval de Pensacola, Florida, apodada la "Annapolis del aire", para entrenar a sus primeros aviadores navales. Los candidatos debían haber cumplido al menos dos años de servicio en el mar y la formación era de 12 meses. En 1917, el programa de la marina se convirtió en parte del Programa de Entrenamiento de Oficiales de Vuelo. La demanda de pilotos, sin embargo, aún excedía la oferta. La marina organizó una milicia naval sin fondos en 1915 alentando la formación de diez unidades de milicia estatales de entusiastas de la aviación. los Ley de asignaciones navales del 29 de agosto de 1916 incluía fondos para un Cuerpo de Vuelo Naval (NFC) y un Cuerpo de Vuelo de Reserva Naval. Los estudiantes de varias universidades de la Ivy League organizaron unidades de vuelo y comenzaron la capacitación de pilotos por su cuenta. La NFC reunió a 42 oficiales de la marina, seis oficiales de la Infantería de Marina de los Estados Unidos y 239 soldados cuando los Estados Unidos declararon la guerra el 6 de abril de 1917. Estos hombres reclutaron y organizaron miembros calificados de las distintas milicias navales estatales y unidades de vuelo universitarias en la Reserva Naval. Cuerpo de vuelo. [1]

Para satisfacer la demanda de aviadores, la Marina creó un programa de cadetes similar al Programa de oficiales de vuelo utilizado por el Ejército.

Ley de cadetes de aviación naval (1935)

El 15 de abril de 1935, el Congreso aprobó la Ley de cadetes de aviación naval. Esto estableció el programa de voluntarios de reserva naval clase V-5 Naval Aviation Cadet (NavCad) para enviar candidatos civiles y alistados a entrenar como cadetes de aviación. Los candidatos debían tener entre 19 y 25 años, un título de asociado o al menos dos años de estudios universitarios, y debían completar una licenciatura dentro de los seis años posteriores a la graduación para mantener su comisión. El entrenamiento era de 18 meses y los candidatos tenían que aceptar no casarse durante el entrenamiento y servir durante al menos tres años más de servicio activo. [2]

Los candidatos civiles que se habían graduado o abandonado la universidad se clasificaron como clase de reserva voluntaria V-1 y tenían el rango de marinero ordinario en la reserva organizada. Los candidatos que aún no habían completado un título de cuatro años tenían un límite de tiempo establecido después de la capacitación para completarlo. Aquellos que no lo hicieron, perdieron su rango y recibieron una transferencia a la clase de reserva voluntaria V-6. Los candidatos que se ofrecieron como voluntarios mientras aún estaban en la universidad se inscribieron en el Programa Universitario Acreditado y se clasificaron como clase de reserva voluntaria V-1 (ACP).

Los candidatos que aún no estaban en la marina fueron evaluados y procesados ​​en una de las 13 bases aéreas de reserva naval en todo el país, cada una de las cuales representa uno de los distritos navales elegibles. Consistían en los distritos navales primero y tercero al decimotercero (que representan los 48 estados de los Estados Unidos continentales) y el decimocuarto distrito naval (que comprende los territorios del Pacífico de Estados Unidos y tiene su sede en Pearl Harbor, Hawái).

Los candidatos que fueron seleccionados pasaron a la Escuela Preparatoria de Vuelo Naval. Este fue un curso de entrenamiento físico (para poner en forma a los cadetes y eliminar a los no aptos), habilidades militares (marchar, pararse en formación y realizar el manual de armas) y costumbres y etiqueta navales (ya que se consideraba a un oficial naval un caballero). La escuela de pre-vuelo fue un curso de actualización en matemáticas y física con aplicaciones prácticas de estas habilidades en vuelo. A esto le siguió un breve módulo de entrenamiento de vuelo preliminar en el que los cadetes realizaron 10 horas en un simulador seguido de un vuelo de prueba de una hora con un instructor. Aquellos que pasaron recibieron insignias de vuelo V-5 (alas de aviador de metal dorado con la insignia V-5 en el centro). Fueron enviados a entrenamiento de vuelo primario y básico en NAS Pensacola y entrenamiento de vuelo avanzado en otra estación aérea naval.

Los graduados se convirtieron en aviadores navales con el rango de cadete de aviación, que se consideraba superior al rango de suboficial en jefe, pero por debajo del rango de suboficial. Como miembros de la reserva de voluntarios, recibían el mismo salario que un marinero ordinario (75 dólares al mes durante el entrenamiento o servicio en tierra, 125 dólares al mes cuando está en servicio activo en el mar y 30 dólares por mes). Después de tres años de servicio activo, fueron revisados ​​y pudieron ser promovidos al rango de teniente (grado menor) en la reserva naval y recibir un bono de $ 1,500.

Los cadetes que salieron del programa V-5 fueron asignados a la clase de reserva voluntaria V-6 con el rango de marinero ordinario. [3] Esta era una categoría de espera que permitía a la marina evaluar al candidato para reasignación a otra parte de la reserva de voluntarios o reasignación a las ramas de servicios generales de la marina o reserva naval. Estaban exentos de ser reclutados por el ejército en tiempos de guerra, pero se los consideraba reservistas en la marina y podían ser llamados al servicio activo en cualquier momento.

Ley de reserva de aviación naval (1939)

Debido a los salarios bajos y la promoción lenta, muchos cadetes de la aviación naval dejaron el servicio para trabajar en las crecientes industrias de la aviación comercial y las aerolíneas. El 11 de abril de 1939, el Congreso aprobó la Ley de Reserva de Aviación Naval, que amplió los parámetros de la anterior Ley de Cadetes de Aviación. El entrenamiento fue de 12 meses. Los graduados recibieron comisiones en la Reserva Naval como alférez o en la Reserva del Cuerpo de Marines como segundo teniente, y sirvieron siete años adicionales en servicio activo.

Uniformes e insignias Editar

Durante la escuela básica y de tierra, sus uniformes de servicio de 1935 a 1943 fueron uniformes de fatiga verdes excedentes del Cuerpo de Conservación Civil (CCC). Los cadetes de la aviación naval usaron los mismos uniformes de gala que los oficiales navales una vez que completaron la primaria.

Los cadetes llevaban una insignia diferente a la de los cadetes de la aviación del ejército: un escudo amarillo con un jefe azul con la palabra "marina" en letras amarillas, un par de alas de aviador naval bordeadas y decoradas en azul en el medio, y la letra-número "V- 5 "en azul en la base. La insignia era de plata esterlina esmaltada para usar en el bolsillo del pecho de las chaquetas de uniforme de gala y en forma de parche de tela para usar en los uniformes. Los graduados recibieron alas de aviador naval de metal dorado en lugar de las alas de metal plateado otorgadas a los aviadores del ejército.

1940-1945 Editar

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, el programa de entrenamiento de pilotos de la USN comenzó a aumentar. Tenía las mismas etapas que el programa de aviación del ejército (pre-vuelo, primario, básico y avanzado), excepto que el vuelo básico agregó una etapa de aterrizaje de portaaviones para pilotos de combate y torpedos o bombarderos en picado.

En 1940 se modificó para parecerse más al programa V-7 de la reserva naval. Los candidatos tenían que asistir a dos semestres de 4 meses (o "trimestres" de 10 semanas) de la universidad antes de asistir al vuelo previo. El pre-vuelo se dividió en escuela preparatoria de vuelo, escuela pre-guardiamarina y escuela guardiamarina. La Escuela Preparatoria de Vuelo fue un "campo de entrenamiento" de cuatro semanas que enseñó disciplina y ejercicio, etiqueta y protocolo (como se esperaba que un oficial fuera un caballero), y ética (como se esperaba que un oficial fuera honorable) los graduados se convirtieron en Marineros de Segunda Clase. . La Escuela Pre-Guardiamarina consistió en cuatro meses de cursos académicos acelerados en ciencias, matemáticas y física para aquellos candidatos entre las edades de 17 y 20 que no tenían los requisitos educativos para asistir a la Escuela Guardiamarina. Los graduados se convirtieron en Guardiamarinas. La Escuela de Guardiamarina (apodada "Pre-Ensign") consistió en tres meses de experiencia en la navegación (natación y manejo de botes), navegación, artillería, telegrafía, ingeniería, liderazgo e historia militar naval. Los que se lavaron se colocaron en la piscina general V-6 como Marineros de Segunda Clase en la Reserva Naval.

A principios de 1943, se establecieron escuelas preparatorias de vuelo en 17 colegios y universidades. [4] [5]

En julio de 1943, los programas V-5 y V-7 se fusionaron en el nuevo programa V-12. Los estudiantes V-5 fueron reclasificados como V-12A (con la A de Aviación). Los candidatos tenían que asistir a cuatro semestres de 4 meses (o "trimestres" de 10 semanas) de la universidad antes de asistir a Pre-Flight o podían optar por transferirse al NROTC. El programa V-12 difería en que se centró en la educación universitaria y eliminó las etapas de la Escuela Preparatoria de Vuelo Naval y los Servicios de Entrenamiento de Guerra. [6] [7]

La escuela primaria de vuelo estaba en NAS Pensacola y enseñó vuelo y aterrizaje básicos. Usó los entrenadores primarios NAF N3N o Stearman N2S, apodados "Yellow Perils" por su esquema de pintura amarillo brillante (y la inexperiencia de los estudiantes pilotos). La Escuela Básica de Vuelo se dividió en dos partes: la parte uno enseñó vuelo instrumental y vuelo nocturno y la parte dos enseñó vuelo en formación y artillería; una parte adicional tres etapa para pilotos de aviones monomotores enseñó aterrizaje de portaaviones. Utilizaron el entrenador básico norteamericano SNJ. El entrenamiento de vuelo avanzado calificó al piloto en un caza monomotor, bombardero en picado o bombardero torpedo o en un transporte multimotor, avión de patrulla o bombardero graduados fueron clasificados como Aviadores Navales y recibieron alas de Aviador Naval de oro. Cada graduado tenía alrededor de 600 horas de vuelo en total, con aproximadamente 200 horas de vuelo en aviones de primera línea de la Armada. Los pilotos que se desvanecieron fueron asignados como insignias regulares.

A los cadetes de aviación naval alistados se les pagaba $ 50 mensuales por el primer mes de entrenamiento (como aprendiz de marinero en "Boot Camp") y $ 75 mensuales por el segundo al octavo mes (como marineros de segunda clase o guardiamarina asistiendo al entrenamiento). A los estudiantes comisionados de Aviación Naval (NavCad Ensigns u oficiales comisionados que asisten a la Escuela de Vuelo) se les paga $ 245 / mes (el mismo salario que un alférez que asiste a la capacitación).

Solo en 1942, el programa graduó a 10.869 aviadores, casi el doble de los que habían completado el programa en los 8 años anteriores. En 1943 había 20.842 graduados en 1944, 21.067 y en 1945 había 8.880. Así, en el período de 1942 a 1945, la Armada de los Estados Unidos produjo 61.658 pilotos, más de 2,5 veces el número de pilotos que la Armada Imperial Japonesa. [8] [ verificación fallida ]

1946-1950 Editar

Bajo el Plan Holloway, el Programa NavCad fue reemplazado por el Programa Universitario de Aviación Naval (NACP) de siete años. Los candidatos asistirían a la universidad durante dos años como marineros no calificados. Luego irían a entrenamiento de vuelo como guardiamarina y servirían en servicio activo de vuelo por un total de tres años. Después de sus dos primeros años en el rango de guardiamarinas, serían promovidos a alférez. Luego se les asignará en los Estados Unidos para terminar su educación universitaria durante los últimos dos años para poder mantener su comisión.

1950-1955 Editar

El programa NavCad se restauró en 1950 y existió hasta 1968. Posteriormente se reinició de 1986 a 1991.

1955–1968 Editar

El programa de la Marina se separó en 1955, formando la Escuela de Candidatos a Oficiales de Aviación (AOCS) en NAS Pensacola. Todos los candidatos a oficial de aviación (AOC, por sus siglas en inglés) eran graduados universitarios o universitarios de 4 años instruidos por personal de la Marina y capacitados por instructores de instrucción del Cuerpo de Infantería de Marina.

NavCads continuó integrándose en AOCS. La principal distinción fue que los AOC, con sus títulos de licenciatura, ya fueron comisionados como Alférez en la Reserva Naval al graduarse. Asistieron a la escuela de vuelo como oficiales comisionados a la par con sus compañeros de clase de USNA, NROTC, Marine Corps OCS y PLC, USCGA y Coast Guard OCS. Por el contrario, los NavCads, que tenían algo de universidad, pero que por lo general no tenían una licenciatura, asistieron a todo su programa de escuela de vuelo como candidatos no comisionados. No recibieron sus comisiones como Alférez hasta que completaron el entrenamiento de vuelo y recibieron sus alas como Aviadores Navales. Estos antiguos NavCads, oficiales comisionados sin licenciatura, completarían su recorrido inicial de escuadrón de flota. Luego serían enviados a la Escuela de Postgrado Naval o un colegio o universidad civil como Alférez en su primera asignación de servicio en tierra para terminar su licenciatura. AOCS dejó de aceptar candidatos civiles y alistados de NavCad en 1966, poniendo así fin al programa NavCad por un tiempo.

Pilotos monomotor entrenados en el T-28 Troyano. [9] El entrenamiento de aterrizaje de portaaviones piloto se realizó en el USS. Antietam [10] de 1957 a 1962 y el USS Lexington de 1962 a 1991. En NAS Memphis, hicieron la transición al T2V Estrella de mar (1957-1970) o T2 Castaño de Indias (1959-2004) entrenador a reacción. [11]

1968–1986 Editar

AOCS se mantuvo en funcionamiento tanto con el canal AOCS tradicional para los graduados universitarios y universitarios de 4 años, como con el canal Candidato a Oficial de Reserva de Aviación (AVROC), que generalmente inscribía a estudiantes universitarios y universitarios mientras eran estudiantes de segundo o tercer año de la universidad. Los estudiantes de AVROC luego asistirían a la primera mitad de AOCS entre su tercer y cuarto año, regresando para la segunda mitad del programa después de su graduación y la obtención de una licenciatura o licenciatura. Por esta razón, las clases de AVROC se agruparon en los meses de verano y otoño, generalmente intercaladas entre dos clases tradicionales de AOCS.

Durante este período, AOCS continuó produciendo posibles Aviadores Navales, Oficiales de Vuelo Naval (conocidos como Observadores de Aviación Naval antes de 1966) y una cohorte más pequeña de Oficiales de Inteligencia Aérea y Oficiales de Servicio de Mantenimiento de Aeronaves que no volaban. La duración del programa AOCS se acortó unas pocas semanas en 1976 con la eliminación del entrenamiento previo a la puesta en servicio en el T-34B. Mentor aviones para estudiantes de aviadores navales en el antiguo escuadrón de entrenamiento ONE (VT-1) en el antiguo NAS Saufley Field y un programa de estudios previo a la puesta en servicio de duración similar en el escuadrón de entrenamiento TEN (VT-10) para estudiantes de oficiales de vuelo naval en NAS Pensacola / Sherman Field .

El programa AOCS era exclusivamente masculino hasta 1976, cuando las primeras AOC femeninas ingresaron al programa.

1986–1993 Editar

NavCad se reabrió temporalmente en marzo de 1986 para satisfacer las demandas de la Marina en expansión de la administración presidencial Reagan y se integró nuevamente en el programa de la Escuela de candidatos a oficiales de aviación. Los candidatos debían tener un título de asociado o 60 horas semestrales de estudios universitarios. Al igual que sus predecesores décadas antes, estos NavCads completarían el entrenamiento de vuelo como cadetes, recibirían sus comisiones una vez que recibieran sus alas como aviadores navales y luego tendrían tiempo para asistir a la universidad y completar su título en su primera asignación de servicio en tierra. El programa NavCad se cerró nuevamente después del final de la Guerra Fría, una reducción proporcional en la estructura de la fuerza de aviación naval de los EE. UU. Y una decisión del personal de servicio de volver a limitar el entrenamiento de vuelo naval a los graduados universitarios de oficiales comisionados. Los últimos solicitantes civiles de NavCad fueron aceptados en 1992 y el programa NavCad finalmente se canceló el 1 de octubre de 1993.

1994-Actualidad Editar

En 1994, el programa de la Escuela de Candidatos a Oficiales de la Marina (OCS) se trasladó del Comando de Educación y Entrenamiento Naval (NETC) en la Estación Naval de Newport, Rhode Island, a NAS Pensacola y se fusionó con AOCS. En julio de 2007, este programa OCS fusionado se trasladó de nuevo a Newport. Hoy, los futuros candidatos a oficial de servicio de aviador naval, oficial de vuelo naval, inteligencia naval y mantenimiento de aeronaves navales ahora asisten al OCS general en NETC Newport. Después de completar el programa OCS, los graduados designados como Estudiantes de Aviadores Navales (SNA) y Estudiantes de Oficiales de Vuelo Naval (SNFO) proceden al Comando de Escuelas de Aviación Naval en NAS Pensacola para el Adoctrinamiento Prevuelo de Aviación con sus contrapartes SNA y SNFO comisionados a través de la Academia Naval de EE. UU. NROTC, Clase de Líderes de Pelotón del Cuerpo de Marines-Aire (PLC-Aire), Clase de Candidato a Oficial del Cuerpo de Marines, Academia de la Guardia Costera de los Estados Unidos y OCS de la Guardia Costera.

Este era un programa para entrenar a pilotos alistados en la Armada para volar aeronaves grandes o multimotores o dirigibles piloto, ya que los oficiales piloto fueron asignados para volar cazas y caza / bombarderos.

1916-1917 Editar

Un programa de entrenamiento para pilotos alistados se inició el 1 de enero de 1916 y consistió en siete suboficiales y dos sargentos de la marina. Se inició una segunda clase el 21 de marzo de 1917, que constaba de nueve suboficiales (uno de los cuales se transfirió de la clase anterior).

1917-1918 Editar

Una vez que Estados Unidos entró en la Primera Guerra Mundial, se suspendió todo el entrenamiento de pilotos en Pensacola. Los candidatos a aviador naval fueron enviados a Europa para ser entrenados después de pasar la Escuela de Tierra y el programa de aviador alistado fue suspendido. Doscientos Landsmen (100 Intendente (Aviación) Landsmen y 100 Maquinista (Aviación) Landsmen) fueron entrenados para actuar como personal de tierra.

Para ampliar el número de pilotos disponibles, la Marina de los EE. UU. Envió a 33 suboficiales de intendencia (aviación) a escuelas de formación de pilotos en Francia e Italia. Los graduados recibieron alas de aviador militar. Dos suboficiales (Harold H. "Kiddy" Karr y Clarence Woods) recibieron alas de piloto francés e italiano. Trece se convirtieron en suboficiales u oficiales comisionados y veinte permanecieron como suboficiales. Los aviadores alistados se utilizaron como pilotos de transbordador. Los Ferry Pilots volaron aviones dañados preparados por un jurado a los depósitos de la parte trasera para realizar reparaciones extensas que no se podían hacer en el campo. Luego volarían aviones reparados o nuevos de regreso a los aeródromos de avanzada en el frente.

1919-1940 Editar

Después de la guerra, la Armada decidió que la triste tarea de volar aviones de transporte o dirigibles debería recaer en los soldados. En 1921 las especialidades eran hidroaviones (aviones de exploración con tren de aterrizaje de pontones), barco-avión (aviones de exploración diseñados para ser catapultados desde un barco) y dirigibles (aviones más ligeros que el aire).

1941-1948 Editar

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, la Armada, la Guardia Costera y el Cuerpo de Marines produjeron Pilotos de Aviación Naval para satisfacer las demandas de la fuerza de Aviación Naval en expansión.

La Armada produjo 2.208 NAP durante la guerra y entrenó? NAP entre 1945 y 1948. Para satisfacer la demanda de la Guerra de Corea, se crearon 5 NAP en 1950 antes de que se cerrara el programa.

La Guardia Costera produjo 179 NAP durante la guerra y luego entrenó a 37 NAP entre 1945 y 1948.

La Infantería de Marina produjo 480 NAP durante la guerra.

1949–1981 Editar

Después de 1948, la calificación NAP terminó oficialmente. Sin embargo, los NAP todavía estaban en servicio, ya sea volviendo a su rango y posición de alistados o continuando como pilotos.

Los últimos NAP del Cuerpo de Marines alistados (Sargentos de Artillería Mayor Joseph A. Conroy, Leslie T. Ericson, Robert M. Lurie y Patrick J. O'Neil), se retiraron simultáneamente el 1 de febrero de 1973. El último NAP del Cuerpo de Marines (Suboficial Jefe 4 Henry "Bud" Wildfang) se retiró el 31 de mayo de 1978.

El último NAP de la Guardia Costera alistado (Master Chief Petty Officer / ADCMAP John P. Greathouse) se retiró en 1979.

El último NAP de la Marina alistado (Master Chief Petty Officer / ACCM Robert K. "NAP" Jones) se retiró el 31 de enero de 1981.

Conocido como el "Plan Holloway", en honor a su creador, el contralmirante James L. Holloway, Jr., el Programa universitario de aviación naval (NACP) fue creado por una ley del Congreso (Ley Pública 729) el 13 de agosto de 1946. Fue diseñado para cubrir el déficit potencial percibido de Aviadores Navales una vez que expiraran los alistamientos de los aviadores de antes y de guerra veteranos que actualmente están en servicio.

The Naval Aviation College Program granted high school graduates between the ages of 17 and 24 a subsidized college education in a scientific or technical major for two years in exchange for enlistment as Apprentice Seaman (AS), USNR, and a commitment to serve in the navy for 5 years. Students received free tuition, fees and book costs and $50 per month for expenses. After completing pilot training within two years, they then had to serve on active duty for at least one year, for a total of three years. They then had to return to school to finish their remaining education within the remaining two years or lose their commission.

It also offered the remaining aviation cadets still in training and newly graduated Naval Aviators the chance to serve as full-time active duty pilots rather than be discharged or serve stateside and part-time in the Reserves. However, they would not receive the education benefits of the full aviation midshipmen, nor would they receive the starting rank of ensign like the aviation cadets. In January, 1947 the aviation cadet program was ended and only aviation midshipmen would be accepted for training.

The aviation midshipmen (dubbed "Holloway's Hooligans") had Regular Navy commissions rather than the Naval Reserve commissions granted the aviation cadets. However, they were not allowed to marry until they fulfilled their 3-year service commitment and could not be commissioned as ensigns until two years after their date of rank (the date they received their midshipman's warrant). They also had to live on meager pay ($132 a month $88 base pay plus $44 Flight Status pay) while having to pay for mess fees and uniforms.

Later, the midshipmen were informed that their two years spent in training and active service as a pilot didn't count towards seniority, longevity pay or retirement benefits. This was not rectified until an Act of Congress was passed in 1974. Even then it only affected the less than 100 officers still in service.

Training (1946–1950) Edit

After attending their first two years of school, the students attended around two years of pilot training. (Quick learners could qualify as Naval Aviators earlier than this and flew in fleet operational squadrons as aviation midshipmen). At the end of the two year appointment as aviation midshipmen, the newly designated Naval Aviators were commissioned as ensigns, USN.

First they attended a four-week Officer Candidate Training Course at NAS Pensacola. The students were drilled by navy petty officers. Graduates were promoted to aviation midshipmen fourth class and wore a khaki uniform with black dress shoes they had no collar insignia badge. They were not allowed to drink and had restrictions on leave.

Pre-flight training was a refresher in math and science coursework and taught military skills like transmitting and receiving Morse Code. The candidates were drilled by Marine sergeants and were placed under a stricter regimen of discipline. Graduates of pre-flight were promoted to midshipmen third class they wore a single gold fouled anchor badge on their right collar.

Primary Flight Training was at Whiting Field, where the midshipmen were taught basic flying. The wartime SNJ Texan (1935-1950s) primary trainer was used it was later gradually replaced by the T-28 Trojan (used from 1950 to the early 1980s). Graduates were promoted to Midshipmen Second Class, who had gold fouled anchor badges on each collar.

Basic Flight Training was split into two parts. Flying by instruments and night flying were taught at Corry Field and formation flying and gunnery were taught at Saufley Field. Field Carrier Landing Practice (FCLP) was held at Barin Field. Carrier Qualification (CarQual) testing was first held aboard the USS Saipán (CVL-48) from September 1946 to April 1947 later it was held aboard the USS Wright (CVL-49) (1947 to 1952) or USS Cabot (CVL-28) (1948 to 1955). Graduates were promoted to Midshipmen First Class and got to wear gold fouled anchor badges with eagles perched on them on each collar. The student could now wear a Naval Aviator's green duty uniform and brown aviator's boots and restrictions on drinking and leaves were lifted.

Advanced Flight Training took place at NAS Corpus Christi, Texas. There the midshipmen were sorted into single-engine (fighters and fighter-bombers) and multiple-engine (transport, reconnaissance, and bomber) pilots. Although there were jet aircraft in service, Advanced training was on soon-to-be-obsolescent propeller driven aircraft like the F6F Hellcat (USS Saipan) and AD-4 Skyraider (USS Wright and USS Cabot).

Problems Edit

From 1948 to 1950 the program was subject to cost-cutting due to post-war budget restructuring that favored the Air Force over the Navy. This impaired training and discouraged retention of its students and graduates. Midshipmen were being offered a release from their service commitment or a place in the Naval Reserve rather than a Regular Navy commission.

From June to September, 1948 the number of students at Pensacola expanded to five training battalions, swamping the facilities. Graduates of Pre-Flight in November and December 1948 were assigned to the USS Wright (CVL-49) to do maintenance and guard duty until a slot opened up for them at Whiting Field to begin Basic. In June, 1949 students in Basic and Advanced Flight Training were sent on leave for a month because Pensacola and Corpus Christi had used up their monthly aviation gasoline allotment and there was no funding for more.

On May 19, 1950, the Navy announced that the program was ending and that aviators would be drawn from Annapolis and Navy ROTC or OCS programs. Less than 40 members of the latest graduating class of 450 midshipmen would be retained and the rest (including the midshipmen still in training) would be let go by the end of June. The dawn of the Korean War on June 25 saved the remainder but they were told they were only authorized until July 31 (later extended to a 12-month period). In the fall of 1950 they were told that they could remain on active duty "indefinitely" (i.e., until the end of hostilities), but pre-war limits on promotion and pay would still be in force.

Dismissed Midshipmen were given a deal. They would be given enough free tuition, fees and book costs for two years to finish their college education this deal would be revoked if they failed out. They also received a $100 cash stipend for expenses, twice what they received before.

Results Edit

Around 3,600 students entered the program an estimated 58% (around 2,100) of the aviation midshipmen graduated to become naval aviators. [12] The graduates went on to become extremely influential: fifteen became Admirals [13] and two (Neil Armstrong and Jim Lovell) became astronauts. [14]

Famous "Flying Midshipmen" Edit

In 1946, Richard C. "Jake" Jacobi, one of the many aviation cadets who transferred to the program, became the first aviation midshipman to complete flight training.

Aviation Midshipman Joe Louis Akagi became the first Japanese-American Naval Aviator. He served in the Korean War with squadron VF-194 ("Red Lightning"). He received the Distinguished Flying Cross in June 1954. [15] for his valorous actions on July 26, 1953, in which he bombed a railroad tunnel, severed three railroad bridges, cut rail lines in two places, and knocked out two anti-aircraft positions.

In October 1948, Aviation Midshipman Jesse L. Brown was commissioned as an ensign and became the first African-American Naval Aviator. He served during the Korean War with VF-32 ("Fighting Swordsmen") flying the F4U Corsair, dying in combat on December 4, 1950. He was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. [16] The frigate USS Jesse L. Brown was named in his honor.

In May 1949, Norman Gerhart became the last aviation midshipman to complete the regular flight training program under the Holloway Plan.

On April 8, 1950, Ensign Thomas Lee Burgess of Patrol Squadron 26 (VP-26, the "Tridents"), became the first aviation midshipman to die while on active service. Burgess' PB4Y-2 Privateer, based at NAS Port Lyautey, Morocco, was shot down over the western Baltic Sea in international waters by the Soviet Air Force. The Soviets claimed they thought it was a B-29 bomber, that it had violated Latvian airspace, and that it had fired on planes sent to intercept it. No crewmen were recovered. [1] [ permanent dead link ]

On August 16, 1950, Aviation Midshipman Neil Armstrong was qualified as a Naval Aviator he was commissioned as an ensign in June 1951. He served during the Korean War with Fighter Squadron 51 (VF-51, the "Screaming Eagles"). He later became a NACA test pilot, a NASA astronaut, and was the first man to walk on the Moon on July 20, 1969.

Although he finished his education at United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Jim Lovell began as a midshipman cadet at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He flew F2H Banshee night fighters from 1954 to 1956 and qualified and taught transition flying in the McDonnell F3H Demon fighter in 1957. In 1958 he became a test pilot – later transitioning to being an astronaut. He was involved with Project Mercury and the Gemini and Apollo programs, was the command module pilot and navigator for the Apollo 8 mission and commanded the Apollo 13 mission. He was the first astronaut to travel in space four times and is one of only 24 men to orbit the moon. Afterwards he continued to serve in the US Navy, retiring at the rank of captain in 1973.

In 1982, Admiral George "Gus" Kinnear, the first Flying Midshipman to reach the rank of 4-star admiral, retired.

On August 1, 1984 Rear Admiral William A. Gureck, the last Regular Navy "Flying Midshipman", retired.

The Marine Corps developed programs to meet demand for pilots beginning in this time frame. Prior to this time, the Marine Corps simply relied on garnering its pilots from among Navy trainees. One hurdle was a three-year minimum service requirement after completing flight training, which caused hesitation among potential officer candidates. It was a five-year commitment because flight training was approximately two years.

In 1955, a special Platoon Leader's Course (PLC) variant called PLC (Aviation) was created. It was like PLC, but it sent officer candidates directly to the Navy's Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) rather than Basic School. Its advantage was that if the candidate changed his mind, he could still go on to Basic. Un Aviation Officer Candidate Course (AOCC) followed in 1963 to train dedicated Marine pilot officer candidates that went straight to AOCS.

Marine Cadet Program (MarCad) Edit

Since this still did not meet the demand, the Marine Aviation Cadet (MarCad) program was created in July 1959 to take in enlisted Marines and civilians with at least two years of college. Many but not all candidates attended "Boot Camp" and the School of Infantry before entering flight training. Early in the program flight training was deferred because the Naval Air Training Command at Pensacola did not yet have the capacity to absorb a growing number of trainees. [17] In the early 1960s the MarCad program expanded to meet the needs in Vietnam, while not lowering the bar to qualify as a Naval Aviator. All Navy pilot trainees, whether Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard, had to meet the same standards to become a Naval Aviator. Likewise, MarCads were eligible for the same training pipelines as all other trainees: jets, multi-engine, or helicopters. With helicopter requirement looming large for Vietnam, MarCads shifted from flying the T-28C after carrier qualification to multi-engine training in the SNB (C-45), in which they obtained an instrument rating. [18] With few multi-engine billets in the Marine Corps, many MarCads transitioned to helicopters at Ellyson Field, [19] flying the Sikorsky H-34 (used 1960–1968) [20] or Bell TH-57A Sea Rangers (used 1968–1989) [21] [http://www.helis.com/database/sqd/509/.

Graduates were designated Naval Aviators and commissioned 2nd Lieutenants in the Marine Corps Reserve. The MarCad program was closed to new applicants in 1967, the last trainee graduating in 1968. Most MarCads signed a contract to remain on active duty for three years after the completion of flight training in this time period. MarCads who did not complete flight training but had an active duty obligation remaining, would return to duty in the Marine Corps at a grade commensurate with their skills. Between 1959 and 1968 the program produced 1,296 Naval Aviators.

Famous MarCads Edit

In February 1961 Second Lieutenant Clyde O. Childress USMC became the first MarCad to be commissioned. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross on July 18, 1966, for his valorous actions supporting Marine ground forces near Dong Ha, Vietnam during Operation Hastings. Childress retired in 1977 with the rank of Major.

On October 6, 1962, First Lieutenant Michael J. Tunney USMC not only became the first MarCad to die in combat, but did so in the first fatal Marine Corps helicopter crash in Vietnam. While serving with Marine Medium-Lift Helicopter Company HMM-163 ("Ridge Runners") in South Vietnam during Operation SHUFLY (Task Force 79.5), the UH-34D Seahorse helicopter Tunney was co-piloting crashed and burned due to mechanical failure. The badly-injured pilot, 1st Lieutenant William T. Sinnott USMC, was the only survivor. Sinnott had to be evacuated by helicopter through the thick jungle canopy. The body of door-gunner Sergeant Richard E. Hamilton USMC fell out during the crash and was found intact and otherwise unharmed. The burnt bodies of Flight Surgeon Lieutenant Gerald C. Griffin USN, Hospital Corpsman HM2 Gerald O. Norton USN, [22] and technicians Sergeant Jerald W. Pendell USMC and Lance Corporal Miguel A. Valentin USMC were recovered from the wreckage. The body of Crew Chief Corporal Thomas E. Anderson USMC was never found. [23]

On March 22, 1968, Second Lieutenant Larry D. "Moon" Mullins USMC was the last MarCad to be commissioned.

Brigadier-General Wayne T. Adams USMC (MarCad Class 14-62) was the highest-ranked MarCad, retiring with the rank of Brigadier-General in 1991. He was a fighter jet pilot (F8 Crusader) (), helicopter pilot (CH-46), and attack jet pilot (A-6 Intruder).


A Simple Twist of Fate Saved Paul Newman’s Life During his WWII Service

Paul Newman was born in 1925 in Cleveland, Ohio, the second son of Arthur and Theresa Newman, according to IMDb. His father, who was of Jewish descent, ran a sporting goods store.

His mother was a Christian Scientist from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and she had a love of the creative arts which she passed down to young Paul. He began acting in plays in elementary school and never really stopped.

Newman in his first film, The Silver Chalice (1954)

He’s best known for his acting career, and he played in about 60 films in the course of his 50 years in the business.

Despite his incredible body of work, Newman remained very humble about his accomplishments and always believed himself to be lucky to get to do what he did.

Those beliefs had their genesis in a time before he became a big Hollywood actor. They had their roots in the period when he served his country during World War II.

U.S. Navy portrait of Paul Newman

Newman enlisted in the Navy right after he completed high school, joining the V-12 program at Yale, with hopes of becoming a pilot. Unfortunately Newman was found to be color-blind, which made him ineligible to fly.

Instead, he was shipped off to basic training and ended up becoming a gunner and rear-seat radioman for torpedo bombers.

He was sent to Barber’s Point in 1944 where he was part of the operation of torpedo bomber squadrons meant to train replacement pilots for the war effort. After that, he was sent to an aircraft carrier, where he was a turret gunner for an Avenger torpedo bomber.

Gate at Naval Air Station Barber’s Point as it appeared in December 1958

According to Newman’s Own Foundation, one event occurred during his time in the navy that deeply affected his beliefs about humility and luck.

When his squadron was in Saipan, attached to USS Bunker Hill, the pilot of the plane Newman was assigned to picked up an ear infection. As a result, the plane was grounded and didn’t go when the rest of the squadron was deployed with the Bunker Hill.

USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) at sea in 1945

Several days after the deployment, the ship was hit by kamikazes and crippled. Around 400 of the crew died, the few survivors managed to keep the ship afloat and the badly damaged Bunker Hill was decommissioned in 1947. That one simple twist of fate – the pilot’s ear infection – meant the difference between his life and death. It was a fact he remained aware of his whole life. Newman certainly did see some combat during his time in the Pacific, though, and was decorated for it.

During his Navy years, he was awarded a Combat Action Ribbon and also Combat Aircrew Wings for his work as a gunner and radioman. His other honors included the American Area Campaign Medal, a Good Conduct Medal, and a World War II Victory Medal.

Take a closer look with this video:

After the Japanese surrender, he spent the last few months of his active duty service in Seattle, as part of a land-based support unit, and was discharged from the Navy in 1946.

Paul Newman on a water taxi in Venice in 1963 Photo by Lmattozz -CC BY-SA 4.0

He used the GI Bill to enroll in Kenyon College in Ohio and received BAs in both Drama and Economics. Later, he spent a year at the Yale School of Drama before heading to New York and studying at the Actor’s Studio.

The rest of his life is much better known – his prolific acting career, his love of, and involvement with, auto racing, his family life, and his “Newman’s Own” line of salad dressings and pasta sauce.

Newman And Woodward
American actor Paul Newman (1925 – 2008) with his wife, actress Joanne Woodward, circa 1963. (Photo by Fotos International/Archive Photos/Getty Images)

Of the latter, Newman’s Own has earned well over $100 million – more than he earned in his acting career – and he donated all of it to various charities.

In 2005, he also created the Newman’s Own Foundation, with the purpose of supporting military personnel, veterans, and their families.

Since 2010, the foundation and Newman’s Own, Inc. have donated over $18.6 million to help the men and women who serve.

The foundation has given grants to a wide range of nonprofits who offer services to Veterans and military personnel including education services, entrepreneurship, and other services as well.

It’s all part and parcel of Newman’s unfailing awareness both of his own blessings in life and the power of a little bit of luck in transforming lives.


Difference between V-5 and V-12 Navy programs during WWII - History

Henry Curtis Herge (1907-2003) was the Commanding Officer of the Navy College Training Program at Wesleyan University, known as the V-12.

Materials include items specifically related to Wesleyan's V-12 program as well as writings, research, and published works related to naval wartime training, the Navy V-12 program, naval curricula information, and higher education during wartime in general.

Extent: 2.5 and 5 Language: Material in English

Background

Materials include items specifically related to Wesleyan's V-12 program as well as writings, research, and published works related to naval wartime training and higher education during wartime in general. The first series, Wesleyan Navy V-12 Program, includes correspondence belonging to Herge and other Wesleyan figures regarding V-12 at Wesleyan student publications and other student guides and programs articles about Wesleyan's V-12 program published in campus publications a report assessing Wesleyan's program and a list of people involved in the V-12 at Wesleyan. The second series, Research and Writings, includes writings by Herge as well as research reports and other data used in his writings. Most of the writings are undated but seem to date from the mid- to late-1940s and are mostly in a draft, typescript format. Topics of the writing and research are higher education during wartime and wartime training. The third series, Other Publications, consists of journals, pamphlets, and other published materials that belonged to Herge. The subjects include wartime naval training, the Navy V-12 program, naval curricula information, and higher education in general.

Series 1: Wesleyan Navy V-12 Program

Series 2: Research and Writings

Series 3: Other Publications

The following is an obituary note submitted to Wesleyan University following Herge's death in 2003.

Henry Curtis Herge, 97, who served as Dean of the Rutgers University Graduate School of Education in New Brunswick, New Jersey from 1953 to 1964, died March 8, 2003 of pneumonia. He lived in Fleet Landing, a retirement community in Atlantic Beach, Florida, but he had a home in Middletown, Connecticut from 1943 to 1945.

Dr. Herge began his long career in domestic and international education in 1928 as an English instructor, school principal, and school supervisor in public school systems on Long Island, New York. During World War II, he enlisted in the U.S. Navy and, subsequently, became the Commanding Officer of the Navy College Training Program at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, which graduated 6,000 Navy and Marine Corps officers between 1943 and 1945. Just after V-J Day, he became Associate Director of the American Council on Education in Washington, D.C. and in 1946, he became State Director of Higher Education and Teacher Certification in the Connecticut State Department of Education in Hartford, Connecticut.

In 1953, Dr. Herge accepted the invitation of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, to become Dean and professor of the Graduate School of Education, in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Among his other achievements, Dean Herge spearheaded the funding, design and construction of the building which today houses the Graduate School of Education. He left Rutgers in 1964 for a series of appointments with the Agency for International Development and the Organization of American States in Paraguay, Jamaica, Zambia, Malawi, and Italy, where he assisted in developing teacher training and school management curricula and programs. He returned to Rutgers as a professor in the Graduate School of Education and as the Associate Director of the Rutgers Center for International Studies. He retired in 1975.

Born in Brooklyn, New York, Dr. Herge was the recipient of three degrees at New York University, a Ph.D. at Yale University, and an honorary degree at Wesleyan University. He was the author of Wartime College Training Programs of the Armed Services (1948) The College Teacher (1966) and A Taut and Salty Ship, The V-12 at Wesleyan (1991) and was the author of numerous articles in professional journals. He also served as an adjunct professor of education at Hartford University and Fairfield University, in Connecticut, and at the University of Southern California.

Survivors include his wife of twenty-six years, Alice Wolfgram Herge, of Atlantic Beach, Florida two sons, J. Curtis Herge, of Potomac Falls, Virginia, and H. Curtis Herge, Jr., of Pittsford, New York six grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. Dr. Herge's first wife, Josephine Breen Herge, died in 1975.

Acquisition information: Given by Henry Curtis Herge in 1988, 1990, and 1995. Physical location: For current information on the location of these materials, please consult Special Collections & Archives staff. Rules or conventions: Finding aid was prepared using DACS

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Navy V-5 and V-12 Training Unit Records, Special Collections & Archives, Wesleyan University


College Life During World War II Based on Country's Military Needs

On December 8, 1941, James B. Conant, then President of the University, spoke before a large audience in Sanders Theatre. "The United States is now at war . . . . We are here tonight to testify that each one of us stands ready to do his part in insuring that a speedy and complete victory is ours. To this end I pledge all the resources of Harvard University," he said.

Few Civilian Students

The Government was not slow to accept Conant's offer. By the fall of 1942 over 3,000 Armed Forces personnel were already taking courses at the University. As the number of civilian students continued to decline, it became increasingly clear that a wartime Harvard education was going to differ markedly in its external trappings, if not in its scholastic content, from that offered in peacetime.

For those planning to study at the University as civilians, Provost Paul H. Buck made this difference quite explicit. The wartime educational philosophy of the University was enunciated when Buck addressed the incoming class of '46." . . . Obviously your first responsibility is to prepare yourself for usefulness in the war effort. College men need not be told again that they have no right to be in college unless they have planned their program in the light of participation in the war . . . . We firmly believe that every physically qualified man of college age should be trained for the Armed Services unless specifically assigned to other work by an appropriate federal agency." he stated.

Summer vacations had already gone the way of other peacetime pleasures. With regular instruction established on a year-round basis, a third 12-week summer term was added to the normal two-semester system.

Freshmen Dominate

The freshman class soon dominated undergraduate life. Most of the other students had succumbed to the draft. Squeezed into a few Houses they tried to grab what education they could before turning 18. While the Yard was given over to the military, Kirkland and Eliot Houses became the headquaters for a new Navy program, V-12. The Army took over control of Leverett and Winthrop Houses, filling them with a counterpart to V-12, ASTP. Adams, Lowell, and Dunster remained the only civilian sanctuaries, but the latter could not survive past June of 1944 when the Army Air Force took over.

V-12 and ASTP members, however, doubled as undergraduate students besides being in the military. They received their degrees and commisions at the same time, and were kept quite busy in the process. A typical day in Eliot House began at 0600 (6 a.m.) with a two mile run and calisthentics. By 0710 the future naval officers had swabbed the decks, cleaned themselves and their rooms, and stood inspection. Classes started at 0800, continuing through the morning. Physical drill followed dinner. Buglers sounded taps at 2315.

With such a schedule, life became just another almost forgotten peace-time amusement. As for college pranks, "the students were too damned frightened," according to Arthur Darby Nock, Frothingham Professor of the History of Religion and a resident of Eliot all through the war. "It was like a ship on shore. The boys probably knew that the least bit of jibbery pokery, and they were back in the ranks," he says.

Society Eats Horsemeat

In such an atmosphere student opinion came to a standstill, even among civilians. The CRIMSON was replaced by the twice weekly Service News, a paper which did not run an editorial until Franklin D. Roosevelt died in April, 1945. The Student Council also showed an amazing lack of energy. It could find little more than the quality of food to discuss. Nock recalls that "the college kitchens kept up their functions although one time at the Society of Fellows they fed us horsemeat."

But while the Dewey-Roosevelt presidential election passed by almost unnoticed, war events did stir up interest. When the Allies landed in Normandy on June 6, 1944, thoughts immediately turned toward victory. On the other hand, Nock remembers that the air was charged with "a quite astonishing gloom when the Bastogne Battle began."

Through it all, however, University life continued almost as if there were nothing abnormal happening. Uniforms became common-place and so did Radcliffe girls in Harvard lecture halls. Undergraduates who had never experienced the pre-war Harvard found nothing unusual about metal trays or double decker beds. While about 500 of the teaching staff took leaves of absence, 1600 stayed. These were assisted by professors who came out of retirement.

Although many liberal arts courses were dropped from the catalogue, the staples remained and were taught by the best men in their respective fields. Some academic changes were evident, of course. Science fields were stressed, and most of the labs became top secret war research centers. Many students received intensive training in languages definitely foreign from the normal Germanic and Romantic peace time studies. The Armed Services needed men proficient in Japanese, Chinese, and Russian. Harvard training helped supply these people.

Churchill Arrives

There were also other and more spectacular abnormalities. One day in the fall of '43 gunboats glided up the Charles River and took positions in the Harvard bend. Motorized police barred off Cambridge streets and thousands of uniformed figures appeared in the Yard. Ever smiling, ever cigar-smoking Winston Churchill was to receive a Doctor of Laws degree in a traditional ceremony at Sanders Theatre. Those who saw and heard the British Prime Minister speak cheered wildly for the man regarded as the greatest figure of the times. After he left in the afternoon both gunboats and police slipped quietly away.

Yale Dropped for B.C.

Meanwhile the summer contingent of the freshman class struggled with such courses as English A, History 1, and Government 1. An informal football team stumbled through an informal football season, meeting and tying Boston College instead of Yale in "The Game." When the summer term came to an6The class of '46 looked like many of Harvard's past classes as it sat down to register for the first time. Within a few short months, however, nearly all of its members were in uniform.</C

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Veteran Memorials

Since its foundation in 1905, thousands of service men and women have called Northwest Missouri State University "home," if only temporarily. Some enlisted after coming to Maryville as a student or employee, while others enrolled or worked for the University after serving their country. Starting in 1918, students, alumni, employees, and community members donated several memorials honoring United States service men and women.

In 1919 the Nodaway County Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution planted trees and raised money for brick pillars and plaques to display names of 46 soldiers who died in the First World War. In the 1970s, the pillars were removed during a street renovation project. They were later reinstalled and formally dedicated on November 10, 2006. The Memorial Plaza lies just west of B.D. Owens Library, on the corner of College Park Avenue and Memorial Drive.

The class of 1948 gifted Northwest with a memorial bronze bell in honor of all soldiers who fought and died during World War II, especially those fallen soldiers who attended Northwest or who once lived in northwest Missouri. The bronze bell has since heralded Northwest achievements and celebrations and mournfully chimed to honor the passing of students. The Bell of '48 is located near the Memorial Bell Tower and is in the direct line of sight of the Administration Building. 

"Roll of Honor" Administration Building, Third Floor

A large display cabinet on the Administration Building's third floor features a number of memorial plaques honoring service men and women from the First World War, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. During the First World War a service flag was displayed outside the Administration Building. Starting in July 1917, the student newspaper, The Green and White Courier, encouraged readers to submit names of any students involved in the war effort and published weekly additions to the "Roll of Honor." A star was added to the flag for each submitted name. After the war, a bronze memorial plaque was displayed in the Administration Building with the names of five students who lost their lives in the First World War.

The tradition of a Roll of Honor continued during World War II. Students and staff created a temporary memorial using an Administration Building bulletin board and encouraged anyone to submit additions. Names were added throughout the 1950s as veterans came to Northwest after the war. The current World War II Roll of Honor displays 1,094 names. The roll includes 35 names with gold stars. The gold star indicates the serviceman died in service.

Korean and Vietnam War veterans were also honored with plaques from student groups. The later wars influenced Northwest enrollment numbers as more veterans sought to further their education under the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, better known as the G.I. Bill. From 1945 to 1955, Northwest enrollment numbers tripled. By 1970, Northwest enrollment grew to 5,000 students.

Navy V-5/V-12 Combat Information Center, Bearcat Stadium Room 109

From 1943 to 1945, Northwest served as a Naval Shore Station for the U.S. Navy. The V-12 program trained deck officers and the V-5 program trained Navy pilots, the programs were administered by Naval officers and taught by Northwest faculty. The program changed the look of Northwest for two years. Residence halls converted to house navy personnel, Naval officers set up temporary offices in the library (now Wells Hall), and Navy recruits joined the Northwest football team. In October 2003, the Combat Information Center classroom was completed thanks to donations from a number of Northwest alumni, including Ned and Margie (Campbell) Bishop. The classroom is in remembrance of those who prepared for combat duty in the Navy at Northwest.

Centrally located on the Northwest campus, the open-air Memorial Bell Tower is an iconic structure that was completed in 1971 to memorialize students, faculty and others who had served the country, including the military. Constructed using pre-cast concrete, the Bell Tower stands 100 feet tall and measures 25 feet in diameter. It also features brass memorial plaques and an electronic carillon that plays at morning, noon and night. University President Robert Foster announced his plan to build the Bell Tower in 1965 and it was completed entirely with funds donated by University alumni and friends. In 2004, the Bell Tower underwent an extensive renovation that included structural repairs and improved handicapped accessibility.

Persian Gulf War Memorial

Donated by the Class of 1991, an outdoor memorial stone lies next to the sidewalk between the J.W. Jones Student Union and the Administration Building. In 1990-1991, two Northwest students in the ROTC program were called into active duty and others had family members called into service. Student organizations and community members held a number of events in support of troops involved in Operation Desert Storm, including a yellow ribbon ceremony at the Bell Tower. KDLX, the student radio station, was selected to send weekly, five-minute broadcasts covering local events to the Armed Forces Radio Network in Saudi Arabia.

For questions or inquiries about Northwest Missouri State University's veteran memorials, please contact the University Archives: 660.562.1974, [email protected]

Northwest Missouri State University
800 University Drive
Maryville, MO 64468 USA


Difference between V-5 and V-12 Navy programs during WWII - History

The Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps was established in 1926 to offer certain college students the necessary Naval Science courses required to qualify them for commissions in the Naval Reserve. NROTC Units were initially established at six universities. The initial program was highly successful, and during the years preceding World War II, it was expanded to include additional universities and colleges. During World War II, the U.S. Navy expanded from a manpower force of 100,000 officers and men in 1938 to over three and one-half million in 1945. The U.S. Navy became the world's leading sea power, and the requirement for a larger regular career officer corps became apparent. As a result of through study by distinguished naval officers, civilian educators, and members of congress, the mission of the NROTC was greatly increased in 1946 to encompass a new program, the Scholarship NROTC. This program, like the U.S. Naval Academy, leads to a commission in the Navy or Marine Corps. The NROTC program is offered at numerous leading universities and colleges throughout the country.

The NROTC Unit at the University of Kansas has a long and proud history, originating from two Navy educational programs developed and implemented in the early to mid-1940's. During World War II, the Navy had a need to provide technical education to many of its personnel. The first group in a series of machinist mates arrived on Mt. Oread on 1 July 1942. On July 1 1943, the Navy formally established both the V-5 Program and the V-12 Program on campus. The V-5 Program was designed to train enlisted personnel in specialized and technical areas such as electrician and machinist mate. The V-12 Program was designed to prepare large numbers of men for the Navy's officer Candidate Schools and to increase the war-depleted students bodies of many campuses. The V-5 Program remained on campus until August of 1944 and the V-12 Program continued until 1 November 1945.

The Department of the Navy's decision to approve the application request for a NROTC Unit at KU was probably the result of the University's reputation for one of the most successful V-5 and V-12 Programs in the country. A bronze commemorative award, engraved with the Secretary of the Navy's name and presented to the University for its commendable performance in training young men during W.W.II, is still on display in the NROTC Unit. Additionally, KU's nationally recognized Engineering Department, including studies in the relatively new field of nuclear energy, influenced the Navy's decision.

The initial letter requesting an NROTC Unit at the University of Kansas was originally signed and dated December 1940 by KU President Deane W. Malott. The application outlined the support to be provided by the Navy Department if the establishment of the Unit were to be approved. The first request was not acted upon, and a second letter, again requesting establishment of an NROTC Unit at KU, was signed by President Malott on 29 March 1945. Finally, on 1 May 1945, the continuing efforts of many Navy and University officials was rewarded when the University Chancellor was notified that KU had been selected as the new home for another NROTC Unit. After a period of transition during the Fall of 1945 and the Spring of 1946, the NROTC Unit became officially operational on 1 July 1946 under the recently approved "Holloway Plan". The five-year delay between the first and second letters was due to indecisiveness by Congress on whether to expand the Naval Academy or enlarge the NROTC program. Their decision to expand the NROTC program came in large measure as a result of Admiral James L. Holloway (Ret.), former Chief of Naval Personnel and "Father" of the Scholarship NROTC Program.


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