5 de junio de 1945

5 de junio de 1945

5 de junio de 1945

Alemania

Se decide que Alemania se dividirá en cuatro sectores, cada uno ocupado por una de las potencias aliadas. El plan original no incluía a Francia. Berlín será ocupada conjuntamente

Diplomacia

Los franceses sugieren que debería haber una conferencia aliada sobre el Medio Oriente

Pacífico

Okinawa: Marines en Oruku se apoderan del aeródromo de Naha



Acontecimientos históricos de junio de 1945

    EE. UU., Reino Unido, URSS y Francia declaran autoridad suprema sobre Alemania Se estrena & quot Free People & quot en Ámsterdam en la caricatura de Warner Bros & quot A Gruesome Twosome & quot, protagonizada por Tweety estrenos en EE. UU. -10] Tropas australianas aterrizan en Brunei Bay, Borneo del Norte

Evento de Interesar

9 de junio 71 Derby de Kentucky: Eddie Arcaro a bordo de Hoop Jr anota su tercera de las 5 victorias récord en Derby

Evento de Interesar

9 de junio Después de una victoria por 8-7 sobre los Phils, el manager de Brooklyn Leo Durocher es arrestado por una queja de un fan de que Durocher lo golpeó.

    El destructor estadounidense William D Porter (& quotWillie Dee & quot) hundido por un kamikaze El 7o regimiento de la Infantería de Marina de los Estados Unidos conquista la cumbre de Kunishi Ridge, Okinawa El equipo de fútbol Heerjansdam forma la península de Orokoe Okinawa capturado, con 6.000 muertos El partido político holandés ANJV establecido en el Concert building, Amsterdam 70th Preakness: Wayne D Wright a bordo de Polynesian gana en 1: 58.8

Evento de Interesar

18 de junio William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw), político fascista y locutor de propaganda nazi, acusado de traición en Inglaterra

    Estados Unidos derrota a las fuerzas japonesas en Okinawa 77th Belmont: Eddie Arcaro a bordo de Pavot gana en 2: 30.2 Último desafío japonés organizado roto (Tarakan) Se forma el gobierno de Schermerhorn en los Países Bajos El Desfile de la Victoria de Moscú tiene lugar Desembarco de los aliados en Ternate, capital de las Islas Maluku en la actualidad día La sede general imperial de Indonesia en Tokio anuncia la caída de Okinawa Inglaterra gana la segunda prueba de cricket Victory en Bramall Lane por 41 carreras

Carta de Naciones Unidas

26 de junio Carta de las Naciones Unidas firmada por 50 naciones en San Francisco


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1. "USS Pittsburgh" en Diccionario de buques de combate navales estadounidenses.

2. ADM John E. Gingrich, USN, Biografías en la historia naval, Comando de Historia y Patrimonio Naval.

3. "USS Pittsburgh" en Diccionario de buques de combate navales estadounidenses.

4. Comandante [John Gingrich] a Comandante en Jefe, Flota de los Estados Unidos, Informe de daños - Tifón del 5 de junio de 1945, con fecha del 26 de junio de 1945, RG19, Archivos Nacionales, College Park, MD (en adelante NARA), 1.

6. Bob Drury y Tom Calvin, El tifón de Halsey: la verdadera historia de un almirante en combate, una tormenta épica y una prueba inédita (Nueva York, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2007).

7. ADM Horacio Rivero, USN, “Reminiscences of Admiral Horacio Rivero Jr., U.S. Navy (Retired),” (Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, mayo de 1978), 151.

8. Informe de daños, 26 de junio de 1945.

9. USS Pittsburgh Deck Log, 5 de junio de 1945, RG24, NARA.

11. Carta de Russell Barr a Alva y Hazel Barr, sin fecha, en posesión del autor.

12. USS Pittsburgh Deck Log, 5 de junio de 1945.

13. SF2 / c William Bingler, USN, "An Episode Recalled", en Bucanero, el USS Pittsburgh Boletín de la Asociación, enero de 2010, 9.

14. Fergus Hoffman, "Two-Thirds of Cruiser cojea en busca de un nuevo arco", Seattle Post Intelligencer, 18 de julio de 1945, 2.

15. “Reminiscencias del Almirante Horatio Rivero, Jr., Marina de los Estados Unidos (Retirado)”, 153.

16. Robin Coons, "Crew Averts Disaster in Raging Sea", Seattle Times, 13 de julio de 1945.

17. USS Pittsburgh Deck Log, 5 de junio de 1945.

18. Fergus Hoffman, "Two-Thirds of Cruiser cojea en busca de un nuevo arco".

19. SF2 / c William Bingler, USN, "An Episode Recalled".

20. Rivero, “Reminiscences”, pág. 155.

21. Robin Coons, “Crew Averts Disaster in Furging Sea”, 1, 7.

22. USS Pittsburgh Deck Log, 5 de junio de 1945.

24. Fergus Hoffman, "21 Men Saved Pittsburgh", Seattle Post Intelligencer, 19 de julio de 1945.

25. SF2 / c William Bingler, USN, "An Episode Recalled", (continuación) en Bucanero, el USS Pittsburgh Boletín de la Asociación, julio de 2010, 10.

26. "Gale dispersa una vasta flota estadounidense en un área de 125 millas", Seattle Daily Times, 13 de julio de 1945.

27. Fergus Hoffman, "21 Men Saved Pittsburgh".

28. USS Pittsburgh Deck Log, 5 de junio de 1945.

29. “USS Munsee," en Diccionario de buques de combate navales estadounidenses.

30. E. W. Mills, Jefe interino de la Oficina, a Jefe de Operaciones Navales, Asunto: Clase CL55 y Clase CA 68: Resistencia de la estructura de proa, 30 de julio de 1945 (RG38, NARA).


Hoy en la historia de la Segunda Guerra Mundial: 5 de junio de 1940 & # 038 1945

Hace 80 años, 5 de junio de 1940: Comienza la batalla de Francia: los alemanes lanzan una ofensiva al sur de Francia.

Gran Bretaña anuncia nuevas medidas de emergencia: se prohíben las huelgas, se desalientan las vacaciones y los mineros y agricultores no deben dejar sus trabajos sin permiso del gobierno.

Acorazado USS Indiana en un tifón cerca de Okinawa, 5 de junio de 1945 (Archivos Nacionales de EE. UU .: 80-G-342732)

Hace 75 años, 5 de junio de 1945: El Consejo de Control Aliado se reúne y acuerda la partición de Alemania y Berlín en cuatro zonas de ocupación (británica, estadounidense, francesa, soviética).


Archivo # 256: & quotCornhusker CAP News Vol. 3, No. 5 junio-julio 1945.pdf & quot

bilización va a ser una que usted
ganó & # 039t olvidar y uno que no puede pagar
perderse.

Con énfasis en formar nuevos amigos.
barcos, averiguando lo que hay cerca en avia
ción, a través de la representación del fabricante y # 039s

tivas, volando numerosos tipos de misiones,
cuidando todo el trabajo provisional
para nuevos miembros y completarlo mientras

en el campamento, participando en un evento bien organizado
plan de recreación y averiguar qué
serán nuestros intereses y programa después

l a w a r, a l o n w i t h c o n f e r e n c e s y
períodos de preguntas, demostraciones de radio,

competencia de rifles y posiblemente entrenador de enlaces
tiempo. Todos estos y más formarán nuestro

programa este año.
Es una ballena de mucho trabajo para organizar
izar una movilización pero sus oficiales están

dispuesto y feliz de hacerlo. Ahora esta arriba
a cada escuadrón y comandante de vuelo
der y cada miembro de CAP para obtener esos
viejos miembros de nuevo en rollo y ronda

hasta todos los nuevos miembros posibles y
llévalos a todos a esta movilización.

Nos gustaría ver cuatrocientos pre
s e n t h i s y e a r.

El gobernador Dvi ^ ight Griswold de Nebraska firma la Proclamación anunciando
CAP WEEK en Nebraska. Mirando son, de izquierda a derecha, el teniente W. G. Brown,
CO Escuadrón Lincoln, Capitán Kenneth D. Kimmel, CO Grupo 762, Teniente C. £.
Taylor, oficial ejecutivo, Lincoln Squadron y el teniente H. C. Henderson,
Oficial de inteligencia .— ^ (Foto cortesía de Lincoln Squadron.)

Semana de la PAC obsoleta
CAP WEEK comenzó con la Proclamación # 039s del Gobernador Griswold del 13 al 20 de mayo como
Semana de contratación de CAP, y varios Ma

Esté atento a los avisos de preinscripción y

yors de la ciudad hicieron proclamas similares.

boletines especiales. Se servirán las comidas
por un dólar por día lo mismo que el último

todas las escuelas secundarias tendrán asambleas especiales

año. Obtenga más información.

en el que apareció un miembro del personal del ala

Pueden obtenerse nuevos en el

En Omaha se hicieron arreglos en

Campamento Sumnier para Cadels
En el campo aéreo del ejército de Kearney
Los arreglos progresan rápidamente
para el campamento de verano de los cadetes en
la Base Aérea de Kearney del 13 al 25 de agosto.
La cuota de doscientos cadetes ha
ha sido superado con creces y ha sido ne

hablar. Más de doscientos cadetes fueron

cesario para reducir la asistencia solicitada

Oficial de suministro de ala. Repasa tu
cortesía militar como muchos oficiales del ejército

clubes fueron anfitriones de Wing Staff represen
tatives, quien habló sobre Civil Air Patrol.

ka Elks Lodge, mil cuatrocientos dólares

disfrutar de la natación, la recreación y las cosas

El ala de comunicaciones oficial produ

persecución de uniformes para los cadetes en

de interés en Civil Air Patrol y avia

ced una variedad de transcripciones de 5 minutos

ción. Menos trabajo y más información

atendiendo el campamento. Este es un espléndido ex

sobre nuestra organización y enviado

amplia de una gran orden fraternal expresa

Planifique sus vacaciones en Ashland y

La mayor parte del almuerzo y servicio de Omaha & # 039s

y el juego estará a la orden del día

a las estaciones de radio de todo el

estado. (Continúa en la página 4)

A través de la generosidad de Nebras

se ha puesto a disposición para el pur

cantar su interés y aprecio por la
(Continúa en la página 4)

Publicado cada mes por Nebraska
Ala de la Patrulla Aérea Civil, 504 South 18th
Calle, Omaha 2, Nebraska.

Director de redacción, capitán Stanley B. Marsh
Editor

CornM. Oficial. Teniente Coronel Harry B. Sidles
Oficial ejecutivo Mayor M. M. Meyers
Ayudante

Oficial de suministro Mayor Rudy Mueller
Oficial de Operaciones Mayor Vic M. Schroeder
Oficial médico Capitán A. D. Cloyd
Tr a i n i n i n i n d e r C a p t. G. C . F o l l m e r
I n t e l l i e n c e O f fica r. . . . C a p t. S t a n l e y M a r s h

Comm. Oficial Capitán Harry Burke
E n g. Of fi c e r C a p t. W m. UNA . E r a s e r, J r.

Capitán de servicio especial Gould Dietz

■ uture ol CAP Id
AV I AT I O N N E W S, p u b l i s h e d b y M c
Graw-Hill, afirma que Civil Air Patrol & # 039s

Elk & # 039s Club of Nebraska presenta uniformes a Civil Air

la perspectiva futura es desfavorable, siguiendo

Cadetes de patrulla que asistirán al campamento de verano en Kear

divulgación del Departamento de Guerra ap

ney Base Aérea del Ejército. De izquierda a derecha es el Capitán Leonard

proyecto de ley de propiedad que hizo no, provi

J. Heinsen, CO Cadete del escuadrón de Omaha CO Charles
Martin, ayud al Sr.J, C. Travis, Chirman de la guerra de Elk ^ s

sión para la PAC en 1946, y que la PAC

League, originalmente formada para continuar
C A P a f t e r t h e w a r, h a s n o t y e t s h o w n
w h a t r o l e i t p r o p o s e s t o p l a y.
Teniente Coronel Harry B. Sidles, Nebraska
W i n C o m a n d e r, w a s c a l l e d u p o n t o

Comité .— (Omaha World-Herald PhotoJ

discutir este tema y expresar su opin

ión de las noticias y cómo podría afectar
Patrulla Aérea Civil. Declaración del Coronel Sidles
es como sigue:

& quotEsto no debería ser particularmente alarmante

a cualquiera, ya que esto ha sucedido en
dos ocasiones anteriores en el pasado. Como
de hecho. El cuartel general del ala tiene
se ha informado de que se han
aún no se ha hecho para el Army Air
Fuerzas, así que en consecuencia podríamos creer
que el futuro de la AAF podría no ser
favorable.

`` En vista del hecho de que AAF por
sonnel y varios vehículos de transporte.

se están asignando cles y ayudas para la formación
t o C A P, w e s h o u l d n o t l o o k t o o u n f a v o r

capaz en cuanto al futuro y la posguerra acti
vidades de la Patrulla Aérea Civil. & quot

LLEGARON NUEVOS AVIONES DE ENTRENAMIENTO,
TODAVÍA A TIERRA

Seis PT * 17 & # 039 llegaron al Día de la Decoración para
uso por la Patrulla Aérea Civil del Ala de Nebraska
en dar vuelos de orientación a los cadetes.
Pendiente de recepción de órdenes de operaciones el
los aviones están conectados a tierra. Estas órdenes deben

llegar pronto, sin embargo, y luego los aviones
se pondrá inmediatamente en uso en su
función designada.

El número de junio de la revista Elk & # 039s,

publicación nacional de la Benevolente y

Base aérea del ejército de Kearney. El resultado
fue que la Logia suscribió la necesidad
pedir $ 1,400.00 para los uniformes, y no

naciones vertidas en el cuartel general de Elk & # 039s
ters de logias locales en todo el estado.
Entonces

Orden protectora de los alces de los Estados Unidos

campamento será elegantemente decorado en nuevos

tes, llevó una historia sobre las actividades y
programa de formación de Patrulla Aérea Civil, por

uniformes, que le darán al grupo que
apariencia de precisión de corte limpio que agrega
tanto a un porte militar, y orgullo
en su apariencia que es tan im

F a i r f a x D o w n e y, w h i c h i s t h e b e s t c o v

la rabia de nuestra organización ha traído
a nuestra atención.

El artículo cubre todas las fases de nuestro
actividades desde el inicio de Civil
Air Patrol, e incidentes individuales des

p o r t a n t m o r a l e f a c t o r.
El Benevolente y Protector O

cuna se han tomado de la exper

der of Elks - El ala de Nebraska
S t a f f T h a n k s Yo u, T h e S q u a d r o n s
Gracias, los cadetes gracias,

Las ciencias de los escuadrones CAP procesan el

A l l C i v i l A i r P a t r o l T h a n k s ¡Tú!

Lo mejor de la historia de Downey & # 039s
c o w e v e r, es t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s t r u e. Nosotros

todos hemos leído algunos bastante inverosímiles
historias sobre Civil Air • Patrol, escritas
por personas que piensan que los hechos son menos rápidos

cinating que ficción. Miembros de Ci
vil Air Patrol sabemos que nuestra historia es

una fase de guerra inusual e interesante
América, nacida del patriotismo en el
crudo y desarrollado por el mejor hombre en
stincts — aprender y dar.
La Patrulla Aérea Civil de Nebraska tiene otra
razón para estar agradecido a los Alces. Saber

ing el trabajo del Elk & # 039s War Commit

En primer lugar, cuatro oficiales de CAP se acercaron al Sr.

Comité, con la sugerencia de que

ganar asistir al campamento de verano en el

J, C. Travis de Omaha, presidente de la
proporcionar uniformes nuevos a los dos hun

Omaha Squadron 3 miembros en A & amp
E Curso de mecánica en Omaha Uni
v e r s i t y. L t. G l e n F i s h e r i n s p e c t s
w i n s p a r. - (Foto por W / 0 H. E.
Wohlford.)

N w U is I T e N ba k Wn
e nt n h e r s a i
BOYSTOWN

La licencia de la estación se emite al teniente coronel Har

r y B. S i d l e s, W i n c o m a n d e r, y c o v
ers cualesquiera unidades ahora licenciadas o por ser li
censurado

Se ha organizado un vuelo de cadetes en

Miembros del Escuadrón 1 de Omaha que operan

El capitán Baldwin tiene premio de vuelo
Plan

Capitán Arthur Baldwin, Grupo Com
mander en Fremont, ha desarrollado planes
otorgar una beca de vuelo a cinco cadetes
de diez horas cada uno. Los fondos deben ser rai

El padre Flanagan & # 039s fanious Boystown por

algunas de las unidades tienen para el

sed por suscripción popular de mer

C a p t a i n W. C. G a r n e r y n d m e m b e r s de
su Escuadrón Omaha 3, en la actualidad

la mayor parte construyó sus propias radios. los

cantos, y las indicaciones son que el mon

la sección de radio se reúne una vez a la semana para trabajar

Serán criados sin dificultad. Cómo

aproximadamente cien chicos tienen
inscrito para la formación de la Patrulla Aérea Civil, y

en la construcción y reconstrucción de su equipo

e v e r, b e c a u s e d e s u m m e r v a c a t i o n

período el plan se aplaza hasta

las clases se llevan a cabo una vez por semana. los
El vuelo está adjunto al Escuadrón 3 y
Los miembros del escuadrón son los instructores.
—Escuadrón del condado de Clay—
Se activó un nuevo escuadrón este

el mes pasado, . con Sede en el

ensliuB! Grupos de fotos de escuadrones
Sargento. Wilbur Lyon, sección de fotos lea
der del Escuadrón 1 de Omaha, escribió recientemente

a la Eastman Kodak Company en Ro

El comandante en jefe, el teniente Milton A.

c h e s t e r, N e w Yo r k, t o i n q u i r e a b o u t o b

M e y e r, i s i n h e C i v i l i a n T r a i n i n B r a n c h
allí. Anteriormente fue miembro de

tener material de formación para ser utilizado en
trabajo en clase. En respuesta, recibió una
cantidad ilimitada de material de formación
y literatura, junto con listas de

charlas de diapositivas de formación que pueden ser ob

uno de los más grandes y fuertes del
Ala de Nebraska. Sus oficiales están todos en

mantenida de forma gratuita sobre la base de un préstamo.

calibrado en el trabajo de instrucción civil en el

campo, y todas las instalaciones de formación de

fotografía para ponerse al día con la formación

la base se ha puesto a disposición
ses y reuniones se llevarán a cabo en el

datos. Escriba a Eastman Kodak Co.,
C a m e r a C l u b D e p a r t m e n t, A t t e n t i o n M r,
UNA . C . S c h m i t t, R o c h e s t e r, N e w Yo r k. a l

así que a Agfa, Inc., Binghampton, Nueva

El personal del Escuadrón proviene de
varias localidades cercanas a la base aérea, y

del Escuadrón de Patrulla Aérea Civil. Clas

se conocerá como el Escuadrón del Condado de Clay

Esta es una oportunidad para otros escuadrones
cuales

El teniente Roy L, Highfield ha sido designado

Ed oficial al mando del grupo 761,

Capitán Paul G. Gordon, CO del

sucediendo al Capitán M. J. Warren en el

Grand Island Squadron, anuncia que
por gratificación de patrocinios locales especiales

correo. Este grupo está formado por Omaha
S q u a d r o n s y n d & # 039 B l a i r. N e w G r o u p O f
f c e r s a r e: E x e c u t i v e O f f c e r, C a p t. W.

arreglado (incluyendo individuos ahora ser

C . G a r n e r Tr a i n i n i n de O f fi c e r, L t. G. T.

Los premios de tiempo se harán de la siguiente manera:

M o r k I n t e l l i e n c e O f fi c e r, L t. J. K e n

n e t h E w i n C o m m u n i c a t i o n s O f fi c e r,
Capitán Leonard J. Heinsen y operaciones
Of fi c e r, L t. C . D . C o w a r d.
—Omaha Squadr & ltm No. 4—

Omaha tiene otro escuadrón, su com
El oficial de mando es el teniente G, T. Mork, por
merly líder de los vuelos C. y D de Squa
dron 3. Además del escuadrón y el cadete

med Omaha Squadron No. 4 tiene un empate
en cada sesión de clase quincenal, el
ganador recibiendo una observación de una hora y # 039s

Vuela en un avión de escuadrón. Este Squadson también tiene un muy buen plan por el cual
los miembros pueden ganar su observador & # 039s

alas. Por un dólar la hora, pagado en
un fondo común para los gastos, los miembros pueden obtener

quince horas de tiempo de observador en un escuadrón
miembro de ron & # 039s avión.
SOPORTES LINCOLN SQUADRON
REVISIÓN

El domingo 17 de junio, el Escuadrón Lincoln
reunidos en el aeropuerto de Union para una bandera
i n c e r e r e m o n y. F i r s t t h e r e w a s m i l i t a r y
taladro en el que tanto el chico & # 039s como la chica & # 039s sec

participaron, seguidas por la bandera

Teniente G. T. Mork, CO de los recién llegados

H a r v a r d A r m y A i r F i e l d, H a r v a r d N e b r.

el Escuadrón Lincoln.
Este escuadrón comienza con una gran
membresía, y debería convertirse rápidamente

El teniente Mork de Omaha No. 4 asciende

v i n a s S q u a d r o n s t a ff o f f f c e r s) fl y i n g
Al final de cada ocho semanas de entrenamiento

levantamiento. Luego vino la revisión formal

e inspección, con el Capitán Kimmel, Grp.
C o m a n d e r, L t. H. C . H e n d e r s o n, L t. O r l o

Powell y WO Harriet Turner, equipo
miembros del personal de ron, en la revisión
pararse . L t. W. G. B r o w n i s C o m m a n d i n g
Oficial del Escuadrón Lincoln.

Misión Spadron 1 Hies Breaklast
Diez aviones tripulados por Omaha Squad

ing, los dos miembros de clase alta cada uno

Los pilotos y observadores de ron 1 despegaron en

recibir ocho horas de vuelo dual

amanecer el 24 de junio. El objetivo era Fre

Al final de cada cuatro semanas de entrenamiento

ing, los cuatro miembros de clase alta
cada uno recibirá una hora de observación

Capitán Arthur Baldwin, Grqup Com
m a n d e r, y n d o t h e r F r e m o n t C A P p e r s o n
nel conoció al Capitán Leonard Heinsen & # 039s group

tiempo de vuelo libre. Selección de clase mem
bers premiados tiempo de vuelo se harán
sobre las calificaciones de asistencia, examen

en el aeropuerto y los llevo al Sendero

vuelos adjuntos en Ashland y

grados, comportamiento y comportamiento general

misiones lar en el Escuadrón de Omaha & # 039s

planes para los próximos meses.

Vuelo en Omaha, el escuadrón 4 tiene órgano

Buscar hotel para un buen desayuno.

Este fue el primero de una serie de simi

Red CAP-WERS para Nebraska
El ala de Nebraska ha recibido una
licencia de la estación por la Comunidad Federal

Comisión de cationes para operar un WERS
la red. Las letras de llamada asignadas son KCHK.
Dieciocho unidades de receptor-transmisor & # 039s

estaban listos cuando la solicitud de licencia
se envió y ahora están en funcionamiento. Unidades
Yo y 2 estamos ubicados en Lincoln, el otro

Diez aviones del Escuadrón 1 de Omaha se alinean en el aeropuerto de Fremont antes de tomar

fuera para regresar a Omaha, - (Foto de la sección de fotos del Escuadrón 1,)

(Viene de la página 1)
Los escuadrones 1 y 3 de Omaha cooperaron en

C a p t. W. C, G a r n e r, C O f O m a h a
Escuadrón 3, anunció que el ganador

Se debe solicitar la necesidad

de una hora de vuelo en su PT-19 para el

sary vacunas al ala médica de
fi cer, Capitán A. D. Cloyd. No se demore

en tener todos los cadetes vacunados ya que esto es

un requisito para asistir a este campamento.

sección del centro de la ciudad. Escuadrón Omaha 2

d o u c h, S q u a d r o n I n t e l l i e n c e O f fi c e r.

Las niñas atendieron las cabinas en los vestíbulos de los teatros.

y el escritorio de la exhibición Aeronca Chief
en Brandeis. '' Tener este avión en
el piso de esta gran tienda departamental

esfuerzos y cooperación en la organización del
Vuelo de Boystown.

North Platte hizo un trabajo sobresaliente en
su asignación de observar el especial
semana. Tuvieron una muy buena exhibición en
un escaparate, tenía un buen periódico co

.Realizado & # 039.Un gran interés.

decorando cuatro grandes ventanales en el

Campamento de verano para cadetes en Kearney AAF

ing y tuvo un instructivo e interés
ing experiencia. Con mayor asistencia
permitido este año y con el pro
gramo ya delineado • por la Base Aérea,

este campamento debería ser el punto más alto
de

(Viene de la página 1)
bien

estado haciendo para las Fuerzas Aéreas del Ejército.

promedio, incluida una Proclamación, por el

El ala de Nebraska está profundamente agradecido con

Alcalde, e informe setenta y cinco minutos
del tiempo de transmisión de radio otorgado a Civil

El b . P. O. E. i n N e b r a s k a.

Los cadetes que asistieron al campamento en
Bruning el año pasado recibió un valioso tren

Las vacunas ya están disponibles para la fiebre tifoidea
inoculaciones y vacunas contra la viruela.

Los grandes almacenes pmaha cooperaron con NebrasIca Wing durante CAP WEEK decorando ventanas
con la Patrulla Aérea Civil. Arriba, a la izquierda, hay una ventana en
Sears, Roebuck Co., arriba a la derecha, Nebraska Clothing

la vida del ejército vivida por el habitual vendido
iers de las Fuerzas Aéreas.

La Patrulla Aérea Civil está profundamente apreciada
ativa del buen espíritu de cooperación evi
defraudado por los oficiales de Kearney
Aire

Co., abajo a la izquierda, Browning King, abajo a la derecha, Brandeis *
Grandes almacenes. Además del escaparate
Brandeis & # 039 tenía un Jefe Aeronca instalado en su principal
piso, que atrajo la atención de toda la ciudad.


Tifón del Pacífico, junio de 1945

El 3 de junio de 1945, los barcos del Grupo de Tarea (TG) 38.1, construidos alrededor de los portaaviones USS Hornet (CV-12) y USS Bennington (CV-20), y los engrasadores del Grupo de Tarea 30.8 estaban operando al este de Okinawa. completó dos semanas de ataques aéreos contra aeródromos japoneses en Okinawa y Kyushu. Aunque se había informado de una perturbación tropical que se estaba formando al este de Filipinas, los informes de avistamientos confusos y las demoras en las comunicaciones privaron a la Tercera Flota de información de ubicación precisa y oportuna. Los informes meteorológicos contradictorios no mejoraron la situación. El 5 de junio, el pequeño y estrecho tifón superó al TG 38.1, que pasó por el ojo de la tormenta a las 07:00 de esa mañana. Vientos huracanados de 70 nudos (80,5 millas por hora), con ráfagas de hasta 100 nudos (115 millas por hora), dañaron casi todos los barcos en TG 38.1 y TG 30.8. En el primero, el crucero pesado USS Pittsburgh (CA-72) perdió su proa y otros dos cruceros sufrieron daños en la estructura. Todos los portaaviones sufrieron daños en la cubierta de vuelo, mientras que el USS Belleau Wood (CV-24) también perdió un ascensor. Los destructores resistieron la tormenta bastante bien, solo el USS Samuel N. Moore (DD-747) sufrió daños importantes en la superestructura. En el grupo de reabastecimiento de combustible, los portaaviones de escolta USS Windham Bay (CVE-92) y USS Salamaua (CVE-96) perdieron parte de sus cubiertas de vuelo y el petrolero USS Millicoma (AO-73) sufrió graves daños en la superficie. Un oficial y cinco hombres murieron o murieron, y otros cuatro resultaron gravemente heridos. Los daños causados ​​por la tormenta destrozaron 43 aviones y otros 33 fueron arrastrados por la borda. Después de continuas recomendaciones sólidas, la Flota del Pacífico estableció procedimientos de despacho de avisos de tifones en lenguaje sencillo sin codificar el 10 de junio y, dos días después, comenzó a volar aviones B-29 en misiones de reconocimiento de tormentas.

En un día como hoy. 1807: Oficiales británicos del H.M.S. Leopard abordó el U.S.S. Chesapeake después de zarpar hacia el Mediterráneo y exigir el derecho a registrar el barco en busca de desertores.

1813: Una fuerza británica intentó tomar Craney Island, el fuerte allí era una de las defensas clave del puerto interior de Norfolk y albergaba la fragata & quotConstellation & quot.

1864: Las fuerzas de la Unión intentan capturar un ferrocarril que había estado abasteciendo a Petersburgo desde el sur y extender sus líneas hasta el río Appomattox.

1864: U.S.S. Lexington, el alférez interino Henry Booby, resistió un ataque confederado sorpresa en la estación White River, Arkansas, y obligó a las tropas confederadas atacantes a retirarse.


1865: El asaltante confederado Shenandoah dispara el último disparo de la Guerra Civil en el Estrecho de Bering.

1898: El almirante Sampson comienza el desembarco anfibio cerca de Santiago, Cuba. El teniente coronel Theodore Roosevelt y el coronel Leonard Wood llevaron a los Rough Riders, un regimiento de caballería voluntario, a la playa de Daiquiri en la Guerra Hispanoamericana.


1941: Durante la Operación Barbarroja, más de 3 millones de soldados alemanes invaden Rusia en tres ofensivas paralelas, en lo que es la fuerza de invasión más poderosa de la historia. Diecinueve divisiones panzer, 3.000 tanques, 2.500 aviones y 7.000 piezas de artillería cruzan un frente de mil millas mientras Hitler va a la guerra en un segundo frente.

1942: Un submarino japonés bombardeó Fort Stevens, Oregon, en la desembocadura del río Columbia.

1944: El presidente Roosevelt firmó la Declaración de Derechos de los GI, que autoriza un amplio paquete de beneficios para los veteranos de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

1944: Después de un ataque aéreo preparatorio sobre Cherburgo, en el que se arrojaron más de 1000 toneladas de bombas, las divisiones del 7º Cuerpo de EE. UU. (Parte del 1º Ejército de EE. UU.) Comienzan a asaltar la ciudad de Cherburgo. Existe una fuerte resistencia alemana.


Volando alto: la historia de la Fuerza Aérea Auxiliar de Mujeres 1939-1945

Nota del editor: Maj Egerton Bird murió el 4 de enero de 1982, a la edad de 82 años.

MARJORIE EGERTON BIRD: LOS PRIMEROS AÑOS

El gobierno de Transvaal solicitó a James Sydney Bird que fuera a Sudáfrica para construir una prisión en Pretoria y que la administrara a la manera británica. James Bird había sido gobernador de la prisión de Portland cerca de Wentworth en Inglaterra durante muchos años y la había dirigido bien.
Marjorie y su hermano, George, llegaron a Sudáfrica con sus padres en 1902. Marjorie tenía dos años en ese momento y George tres años mayor. Todos vivieron en Johannesburgo durante cinco años hasta que se mudaron a Pretoria, donde la pequeña cabaña detrás de la nueva Reserva de la Prisión de Pretoria se convirtió en su hogar durante los siguientes 15 años. El padre de Marjorie se convirtió en el gobernador de la prisión de Pretoria y este edificio se convirtió en un hito conocido durante muchos años.

Finalmente, Marjorie asistió a la Escuela Diocesana para Niñas en Pretoria hasta la muerte de su padre en 1917. Mientras tanto, el hermano de Marjorie, George, había sido enviado de regreso a Inglaterra para asistir al Dartmouth Naval College desde los 13 años. Su carrera posterior en la Marina duró 55 años. , residiendo finalmente en los Estados Unidos, donde instruyó a los estadounidenses en el arte de los torpedos, hasta su muerte a la edad de 68 años. George tuvo dos hijas. Cherry permaneció en los Estados Unidos mientras su hermana, Peggy, vive en Australia.
Después de la muerte de su padre a la temprana edad de 48 años, Marjorie y la Sra. Bird regresaron a Inglaterra y se instalaron en Dover. En 1926, sin embargo, la madre de Marjorie murió y ella regresó a Sudáfrica, y finalmente consiguió un puesto en el Banco de la Reserva de Sudáfrica, donde permaneció durante los siguientes 20 años.

PRIMERA EXPERIENCIA DE VUELO

En 1936, Marjorie tuvo su primera experiencia de vuelo. Un amigo convenció a Marjorie de que la acompañara al aeródromo de Rand un domingo para dar una vuelta en un avión. Marjorie estaba extremadamente emocionada y pensó que esto sería incluso mejor que conducir un automóvil (una verdadera pasión para ella). Desafortunadamente, el piloto que la llevó fue un poco 'presumido' y, como resultado, este 'cambio' fue casi la causa de que nunca volviera a volar. La joven piloto tonta hizo todo lo que ningún piloto en su sano juicio haría con un pasajero en su primer vuelo. Giró el bucle, rodó, bajó en espiral a gran velocidad y luego volvió a subir en el último minuto. La pobre Marjorie, después de aterrizar, declaró que no quería volver a subir en un avión. Sus rodillas se sentían débiles y temblorosas y su estómago parecía haber cambiado de posición. ¡Qué espantosa introducción a volar!

Mayor Marjorie Egerton Bird

Sin embargo, el instructor jefe había visto su actuación y, después de amonestar adecuadamente al piloto, insistió en que Marjorie subiera con él media hora más tarde, ya que estaba decidido a que ella debería tener una mejor idea de volar; había visto la emoción en sus ojos como se había preparado para ese primer 'flip!' Así que ahora a Marjorie se le dio otra oportunidad y se dio cuenta de que esto era incluso mejor que conducir un automóvil. Disfrutó de cada minuto del vuelo y estuvo eternamente agradecida con el joven instructor jefe. Poco sabía el instructor de la integridad y determinación de la pequeña dama a su lado, y hasta dónde iba a llegar para mejorar el camino para las futuras mujeres piloto y también el tremendo papel que iba a desempeñar en el esfuerzo bélico de 1939. 1945. Poco después de su primer vuelo, Marjorie recibió un pequeño legado de una tía, por lo que ahora todos sus sueños podrían hacerse realidad. Comenzó un entrenamiento de vuelo serio, a un costo de 3 (R6) por hora, y finalmente se convirtió en la orgullosa propietaria de su licencia de piloto 'A'. De hecho, obtuvo su licencia tres horas después de su primer vuelo en solitario y, luego de una hora más, competía con 22 hombres en la Aero Club Round the Reef Flying Race, en la que se ubicó en cuarta posición. Su licencia fue aprobada para varios tipos diferentes de aviones en los que fue entrenada por Doreen Hooper. Su licencia también le da derecho a pilotar pasajeros. A Marjorie le costó 70 (R140) obtener la licencia 'A'. Cuando obtuvo esta calificación, en 1937, se convirtió en una de las diez mujeres de la Unión de Sudáfrica en poseer una licencia de piloto "A".

LA ASOCIACIÓN DE AVIACIÓN DE MUJERES SUDÁFRICAS: NACE UNA IDEA

Miss Egerton Bird relata su primera concepción del entrenamiento de vuelo extensivo para mujeres, que culminó en la Asociación de Aviación de Mujeres de Sudáfrica:
'Un día, no mucho después de haber obtenido mi licencia "A", salí temprano al Rand Flying Club para volar. Después de unas cuantas palabras alegres para mi instructor, me subí a la cabina de mi máquina y finalmente me dirigí a la pista del aeródromo y volé hacia el azul. Fue muy hermoso y se me ocurrió un pensamiento: deseaba que más mujeres tuvieran la oportunidad de ver una belleza como esta. Mientras doblaba para girar hacia Germiston, vi otro avión pilotado por un hombre, un alumno bajo el esquema del gobierno y otro pensamiento pasó por mi mente: "Jove, hay algo muy mal aquí, estoy volando a un costo de 3 por hora y este hombre vuela por NADA! " Siendo completamente abrumado por esta observación, decidí que se debía hacer algo para ayudar a las mujeres y, de alguna manera, proporcionarles vuelos más baratos.

Volé, con el acelerador completamente abierto, a Germiston, rodeé el aeródromo, hice un aterrizaje estupendo y volví al Rand Flying Club, salté de mi máquina, busqué a mi instructor y le dije que iba a intentar conseguirlo. vuelos más baratos para mujeres.
¡Me dio una mirada de asombro y luego se echó a reír! Cuando se recuperó de esto, dijo: "Mi querida señorita Bird, si vive hasta los 90, nunca comenzará nada para reducir las tasas de vuelo de las mujeres, e incluso si por un milagro lo hizo, ¿qué diablos podrían hacer? El aire sería tan inseguro como las carreteras ". Me reí y dije: "Bueno, espera y verás". Fui a buscar al secretario del club, que también se divirtió mucho con esta idea.

Con el paso de los días, me puse en contacto con amigos que estaban interesados ​​en volar y luego, un día, hablando con la señorita Joan Blake, decidimos levantar una petición y enviarla al Gobierno para preguntar si se podía hacer algo. sobre vuelos más baratos para mujeres. This was done and a petition signed by 150 women interested in flying was sent to the Honourable Oswald Pirow, who was then Minister of Defence. He promised to give the matter consideration. The petition was duly acknowledged and the reply stated that, "Perhaps after the first thousand men pupil pilots were trained then something might be done for women."
The training of a thousand pupil pilots would take approximately two years. This answer was most discouraging. So again I went forth and this time I got in touch with Miss Doreen Hooper, who was a flying instructress and a girl I was very proud to know. She had proved that women were capable of functions outside their traditional roles, and she promised to give us every atom of help she could.

La respuesta fue inmediata. A meeting of six women interested in the concept was called. The six involved were: Miss Doreen Hooper, Miss Joan Blake, Miss Elaine Percival-Hart, Miss Sylvia Starfield, Mrs Toy Celliers and myself. The meeting convened in Miss Hooper's flat. Over many cups of tea, and much discussion, we decided to form a committee, placing Miss Hooper in the chair. Joan Blake was made the treasurer and I the secretary, the remaining three being members of the committee.

We decided to ask Mrs Deneys Reitz, who was the Member of Parliament for Parktown, if she would take the chair at a meeting to be called later at the Wanderers' Club. Mrs Reitz consented and appeared very interested in the idea. We advertised this meeting in the press, expecting about 50 women to appear. In actual fact, when the meeting was held on the evening of 5 December 1939, we found the hall packed to overflowing 110 women having enrolled for the evening. Everybody was most enthusiastic, and it was decided that we wauld call ourselves the South African Women's Aviation Association (SAWAA). Mrs Bertha Solomon, Member of Parliament for Hillbrow, was also at the meeting, and she and Mrs Reitz and the committee of six were thrilled with the support which the idea was obviously receiving.

Now we had to decide what to do with these 110 women. At last an opening was made when Mr Haswell, Secretary of the Rand Flying Club, who had been approached, gave us the idea of forming a unit of 32 women. He offered to have eight girls every weekend at the Rand Flying Club. He realized that these girls were all keen to do any work given to them, as long as they could learn about planes and flying. Soon after this other Flying Clubs followed suit, and before six months has passed, the 110 members were split into units of 32, working during weekends learning how to handle aeroplanes and everything appertaining to aircraft. As the secretary of the SAWAA, I was receiving letters from all over the Union of South Africa asking for advice as to how to start women's aviation associations in their particular areas. At the end of one year, branches had been formed throughout the Union of South Africa, and the SAWAA possessed between 3 000 and 4 000 members. Each branch was collecting money to give bursaries to any of their members who showed an aptitude for flying.'

  1. To release men from civil aviation in time of National Emergency.
  2. Ferrying and transport work.
  3. Ambulance work.
  4. Flying mail and despatches, and all normal civil aviation work.
  5. Charter work, urgent medical work, etc.
  6. Instructing.
  7. Technical work.

The rapidity with which the idea spread may be deduced from the fact that when, in February 1939, the women of the East Rand had formed their own branch of the SAWAA, in less than one week 100 women had joined in one town - Benoni. The first parade of a Flight of 32 members of the SAWAA was held at the Rand Flying Club, Germiston, on 6 March 1939. In the February of 1940 the SAWAA achieved another 'first'. Six of its members flew over Johannesburg in formation flight. Marjorie was one of the pilots, and this was the first time in the world that women had flown in formation flight.
The need for the SAWAA may be deduced from the fact that, in 1939, there were only 600 licensed civilian pilots in the Union, compared with approximately 30 000 in England, France and Germany and 60 000 in America.

THE FOUNDATION OF THE WOMEN'S AUXILIARY AIR SERVICE

The gathering of war clouds led to a certain change of emphasis in the functions of the SAWAA. The idea of cheaper flying for women was rather overshadowed by the new concept that its members could also be useful in the workshops as well as other work appertaining to aviation, and thereby release men for more important roles at the war front. Consequently, instruction in first aid, fire-fighting, alarms, clerical and administrative work was provided, in accordance with this new emphasis. Military drill was also taught - not without amusement in the opening stages, in which officers had to learn the necessary commands to relay to the novices.
When the Second World War broke out on 3 September 1939, the Association sent a telegram to General Smuts which stated: 'The Women's Aviation Association offers its services to the Govenment.' It was a few months before the offer was accepted. On 24 May 1940, at a parade of the SAWAA, a message was received from the Chief of Staff, General Sir Pierre van Ryneveld, which read, 'I and the Air Force need you, and need you badly.'

On 10 June 1940, the following notice appeared in the 'Government Gazette':

WOMEN'S AUXILIARY AIR FORCE
WOMEN'S AUXILIARY ARMY SERVICE REGULATIONS

  1. There is hereby established a Women's Auxiliary Air Force which shall be associated with and shall act in co-operation with, the South African Air Force.
  2. There is hereby established a Women's Auxiliary Army Service.
  3. The conditions of appointment to and duty in either of the organisations mentioned in Regulations 1 and 2 and all other matters appertaining thereto, shall be as prescribed by further regulation.

Lt Col (Mrs) Doreen Dunning. Portrait by Neville Lewis (1941)

On 1 June 1940, Doreen Hooper was the first woman in South Africa to be called upon to volunteer for full time war service. She was at that time 22 years of age, and entered the WAAFs with the rank of Major, being then known as Major Dunning. Marjorie Egerton Bird was the second woman to be called up ten days later, and then Miss E. Percival-Hart, both with the rank of Captain. Twenty-eight days later 100 girls from the SAWAA volunteered and were accommodated in military camps in Pretoria. Five months later there were 800 WAAFs proudly wearing the orange flash. *[Editors' note: Those who had volunteered for overseas service] The vital role which the SAWAA had played in providing an essential basis for the WAAF was recognized in the re-designation of the SAWAA. On 10 October 1939 Miss Bird announced that she had learnt from Col J. Holthouse, Director General of Air Services, that the Association was henceforth to be recognized as an air auxiliary unit of the South African Air Force, and that the official name of the Association would, therefore, henceforth be 'The South African Womens' Voluntary Auxiliary Air Unit of the South African Air Force.'

THE ROLE OF THE WAAF IN WORLD WAR II

During the Second World War there were some 10 000 WAAFs at one time. They performed in all some 75 different types of work. The military authorities called with increasing frequency on the services of the WAAFs and every one of them was determined that when the call came they would be fully trained and prepared.

In December 1940 the first detachment of WAAFs were sent 'up North' with Miss Muriel Horell in charge. They went to Mombasa in a troopship and from there by train to Nairobi, where a camp was established in a grey stone building rather like a castle. Soon this became too small to hold all the WAAF girls, and they moved to another camp of wooden huts.
In September 1940 the WAAF was sent to the Middle East, where their headquarters were in an hotel in Cairo.

The range of WAAF activities during World War II may be gauged from the following summary of the Service's functions:
Artesanos Metal workers, welders, wood workers, doping**, fabric work, fitters and turners, inspectors, all mechanical work.
[**Editors' note: 'Doping' refers to the impregnation of materials with chemicals in order to prevent deterioration (e.g. on aircraft wings and parachutes)]
Armament Instructors Qualified officers, who lectured at WAAF stations.
Administrative and Camp Staff Organization of discipline, stores, clerical (i.e., work in registry, records and filing general office duties.)
Cooks and Caterers Camp staff. One fully qualified dietician.
Communication Pilots Officers with 'B' licences, used in the Communications Squadron of the WAAF.
Despatch Riders Carrying communications from one station to another.
Hygiene - Aerodromes Details (trained) working on SAAF stations.
Inteligencia Used on Signals Staff. Generally girls who spoke four or five languages.
Link Trainer Instructors 'A' licence WAAF pilots (with approx. 100 hours) trained to instruct on the Link Trainer.
Motor Transport Details used as heavy transport, lorry drivers and also light transport drivers (e.g., cars and light vans).
Meteorological Assistants and Observers
Fotógrafos Work at developing and printing, etc.
Parachute Packers Fully qualified details who packed parachutes and supplied parachutes. Some were instructors.
P.T. Instructors Trained officers who were responsible for all P.T. Instruction at the WAAF camps.
Shorthand Typists Used as private secretaries and for general shorthand/typing in SAAF offices.
Stores Used in air stores and 'Q' stores. *** [*** Editors' note: 'Q' stores refer to items of personal equipment]
Wireless Operators Used on SAAF stations. Fully trained at SAAF radio signals.

The WAAF's activities with regard to communication pilots and Link Trainer instructors point to the role of women pilots in wartime, and it is apposite to expand upon this role.

WOMEN PILOTS WITH THE WAAF

There were 36 'A' licence pilots in the WAAF in 1941, and the following concerns a few of them.
Best known was Doreen Dunning (better remembered as Doreen Hooper). At the outbreak of war she had more than 2 000 flying hours to her credit. At the incredibly early age of 24 she was the youngest officer in the British Commonwealth to attain the rank she held. Fair haired and blue eyed, she had a quiet, forceful personality combined with outstanding ability and tact which made her eminently suitable for the responsible administrative post that she held.
She took her 'A' flying licence at the age of 18. A year later she qualified as an instructor. Before passing her 'B' licence, she took second place in the Union's first air race when pilots competed for the Governor General's Cup over the Vereeniging-Durban- Vereeniging route.

Marjorie Egerton Bird was second-in-command of the WAAFs, and her early background has been discussed above.

The Assistant Deputy Director of the WAAF, Miss Elaine Percival-Hart, was also a pilot. She had her first lessons in 1928 from Dick Bentley who flew out from England in a 'Moth'. Miss Hart got her 'A' licence in 1936, had a passenger endorsement and had many hours flying, with Doreen Dunning as instructor.

Two women who were well known in South African aviation were Miss Rosamund Everard (in private life Mrs Steenkamp) and Miss Sybil Starfield. Rosamund Steenkamp was the first woman in the world to pilot a jet aircraft in Britain's Air Transport Auxiliary Service (ATAS) (whilst still holding the rank of Captain in the SAWAAF). In August 1945 she flew a Meteor Mark III, the type which regained the world's air speed record for Britain with a speed of 606mph (975 kph). She was killed in a flying accident at Littlewick Green, 5 km west of Maidenhead, in Berkshire, England. There was low cloud at the time, and the Spitfire that she was piloting crashed into a hill. She was at that time 33 years old and had over 4 000 flying hours to her credit. She was attached to the Communications Squadron of the WAAF, which ferried important officials to various military centres. Membership of this particular unit was one of the most envied and coveted jobs in the WAAF.

Rosamund Steenkamp. This photograph was taken when Capt Steenkamp was an instructor at the Witwatersdrand Technical College. She was killed in 1946.

Miss Sybil Starfield was one of the founder members of the SAWAAF in 1938 - one of the original six, in actual fact. She was a qualified pilot and for some years a leading figure in women's aviation circles within South Africa. She played a prominent part in recruiting campaigns for the unit, travelling to all the principal centres of the country. Most tragically, in September 1944 the news was cabled that Captain Starfield was missing at sea presumed drowned, as a result of a torpedo action against her ship whilst she was en route to England. She had sailed from South Africa in June 1944, having been seconded to the ATAS.

Another well known personality was Miss Rhenia Slabbert of Kroonstad, who, like Rosamund Everard, was attached to the Communication Squadron of the WAAF.

In 1942 a major re-organization occurred within the WAAF. This re-organization consisted of the amalgamation of all administrative work with the SAAF administrative functions. The fundamental reason for this rationalization of functions was that the WAAF was maintaining a very large WAAF directorate, and most of the work was being duplicated by the SAAF sections. The merger with SAAF administrative duties was therefore dictated by the necessity of saving overlapping and duplicated staff. The directorate remained, but with only a few senior officers serving within it, their function being to direct the policy of the WAAF organization and to maintain a watch over the general welfare and well-being of all the WAAFs on full-time service.

RESIGNATION OF LT COL DUNNING: REPERCUSSIONS

The resignation of a senior officer in the WAAF provided the occasion for a manifestation of Gen Smuts's great courtesy. In October 1943 Lt Col Dunning resigned on a point of principle affecting her work. Maj Muriel Horrell took over her duties as senior officer responsible to Air Headquarters.
After Lt Col Dunning had telegraphed the news of her resignation to Maj Egerton Bird, then stationed in Port Elizabeth, the latter was stunned and flew to Pretoria to interview Gen Smuts. Maj Bird informed Gen Smuts that she was convinced that there must be some mistake.

A short while after the interview Gen Smuts had an apology to Lt Col Dunning inserted in the press, which read as follows:- 'I find that I owe you my amends for a statement I made in Parliament last session in connection with questions put to me about your resignation from the Defence Force. I then said that you had resigned without permission and that I would not have tolerated this in the case of a male officer. My attention has since been drawn to the statement as being incorrect and unfair to you. I have, therefore, made enquiries and have been informed by the Adjutant General that you did ask for permission and were given leave to resign. I can but express to you my regret about a statement that was made inadvertently, and under a mistaken impression of the facts. I thought too highly of your services to have intentionally cast any reflection on you.
My only feeling was probably one of regret and annoyance that such good service should have been terminated without previous consultation with me. Please accept my assurance that in my own mind there remains nothing but regret at your leaving us and gratitude for the part you took in a movement for women's service which led to fruitful and far-reaching results.
I am giving a copy of this letter to the Press to remove any wrong impression my remarks in Parliament may have made unintentionally.' There can surely be few instances of a head of state publicly apologizing to a member of the armed forces, especially in war-time.

Maj Egerton Bird was placed in charge of the Women's Dispersal Section of the Directorate of Demobilization. By the end of December 1945 1 955 women had been demobilized. In January 1946 alone, 626 women had been through the dispersal camps. In her new role, Maj Egerton Bird was responsible for the demobilization. of former members of the:
WAAF (Women's Auxiliary Air Force)
WAAS (Women's Auxiliary Army Service)
WAMP (Women's Auxiliary Military Police)
SWANS (South African Women's Naval Service)
SAMNS (South African Military Nursing Service)

Extensive assistance was provided to enable women to overcome the profound transition from war to peace. This help consisted of:- grants for educational and vocational training vocational guidance officers who assisted women to choose training suitable to their capabilities the provision of courses, both full-time and part-time (two of the most popular were shorthand-typing and nursing) demobilization readjustment officers, who assisted women who were not physically or mentally fit schemes for sheltered employment for women, which were put into operation when the need arose assistance for those exservice women who wished to establish businesses (including the establishment of guest farms). Perhaps the greatest problems confronted those women who had been trained as artisans during the War as there were not sufficient factories in the country to absorb all these girls. All the discharge benefits available to men were also provided for those women with equivalent service. The Headquarters of the entire operation was in Pretoria, and the Director of demobilization was Maj Gen (later Lt Gen) Geo E. Brink, CB, CBE, DSO.

Editors' Note: There can be few service institutions which owe so much to the tenacity and enterprise - initially within a hostile environment - of a handful of individuals as the WAAF. When one considers that the South African Women's Aviation Association (or Women's Civil Air Guard) held its inaugural meeting on 5 December 1938, and its first flight at the Rand Flying Club, Germiston, on 6 March 1939, and when one then considers the role and size of the WAAF during World War II, its development compares most favourably with that of the Royal Air Force (which, as an independent organization, pre-dated the SAWAA by some 21 years and which, moreover, had extremely influential personalities guiding its development, including Gen Smuts). Throughout the WAAF's development - from its origins in the SAWAA to demobilization in 1945 - certain personalities recur as dominating forces, moulding and directing its purpose Maj Marjorie Egerton Bird, Lt Col Doreen Dunning (Hooper), Capt Sybil Starfield, Maj Elaine Percival-Hart, and others. Indeed, this powerful theme of continuity had its distinctly tragic overtones in so far as Capt Starfield died in the service of women's aviation. It bears emphasis that the WAAF's role included duties which were far from sedentary Rosamund Steenkamp was the first woman to pilot a jet aircraft and, indeed, was killed whilst on flying operations. In a major respect, the efforts of Maj Egerton Bird and her founder-colleagues of the WAAF (as it ultimately became) anticipate by some three decades the struggle for women's equality which has been such a prominent feature of contemporary social history.


Today in World War II History—June 5, 1940 & 1945

80 Years Ago—June 5, 1940: Battle of France begins: Germans launch offensive south in France.

Britain announces new emergency measures: strikes banned, holidays discouraged, and miners and farmers are not to leave jobs without government permission.

Battleship USS Indiana in a typhoon near Okinawa, 5 Jun 1945 (US National Archives: 80-G-342732)

75 Years Ago—June 5, 1945: Allied Control Council meets, agreeing on the partition of Germany and Berlin into four occupation zones (British, American, French, Soviet).


5 June 1945 - History

Documents on Germany, 1944-1959 : background documents on Germany, 1944-1959, and a chronology of political developments affecting Berlin, 1945-1956
(1959)

Declaration regarding the defeat of Germany and the assumption of supreme authority by the Allied Powers, June 5, 1945, pp. 13-18 PDF (2.3 MB)

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D-Day Facts

Definition and Summary of D-Day
Summary and Definition: D-Day in WW2 began at 6:30am on 6 June, 1944 when American, British and Canadian troops landed on the beaches of Normandy to liberate France, and the rest of North West Europe, from German occupation. The codename for the WW2 invasion of France was Operation Overlord, which would become known as D-Day. The 50-mile (80 km) stretch of the Normandy coast chosen for the Allied invasion was divided into five sectors codenamed Utah Beach, Sword Beach, Gold Beach, Juno Beach, and Omaha Beach. By the end of D-Day, 156,000 soldiers landed on the Normandy beaches with more than 10,000 Allied casualties killed, wounded or missing.

D-Day Facts
Franklin Roosevelt was the 32nd American President who served in office from March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945, the day of his death. One of the important events during his presidency was the D-Day Normandy landings.

US Troops approaching Omaha Beach, Normandy on D-Day

D-Day Facts: Fast Fact Sheet
Fast, fun facts and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's) about D-Day.

What date was D-Day? The date of D-Day and the WW2 Allied landings in Normandy was on 6 June 1944.

Where were the D-Day landings? The location of the D-Day landings was the coastline of Normandy in northern France

What were the D-Day Beaches?
The D-Day Beaches were the fives sections of the Normandy coast chosen for the landings. Their codenames were Omaha Beach, Utah Beach, Sword Beach, Juno Beach, and Gold Beach

What were the D-Day casualties?
There were 10,000 Allied casualties killed, wounded or missing on D-Day. Casualties at each beach were as follows: Utah 589, Omaha 3,686, Gold 1,023, Juno 1,242, Sword 1,304. The total German casualties on D-Day are unknown, but are estimated as being between 4,000-9,000 men.

Who participated in D-Day invasion?
The majority of troops who landed on the D-Day beaches were from the United States, Britain, and Canada however, troops from many other countries including Australia, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Greece, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway and Poland also participated.

Why was it called D-Day and what does it stand for?
The term 'D-Day' is one of the most famous used in WW2, but what does it mean and what did it stand for. 'D-Day' is a piece of military vocabulary used, when secrecy was essential, to designate the day and hour on which a military operation or exercise was planned to commence when the exact had not yet been determined. An example of this was used during WW1 when Field Order No. 8 from the First Army of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) dated September 7, 1918 read, ". the First Army will attack at H-Hour on D-Day with the object of forcing the evacuation of the St. Mihiel salient." The term ' D-Day' is now used almost exclusively in reference to June 6, 1944 which marked the beginning of the Allied invasion of France

Use of the D-Day Military Term
The choice of the letter D has no significance other than that of an unknown date of military significance - it did not stand for doomsday, designated, decision, disembarkation, or death day! Its use was to provide a point of reference from which all other dates could be reckoned. For example, D-Day [minus] 1 would be the day before an operation commenced. D-Day [plus] 1 would be the second day of the operation. This allowed for a military plan to be worked out in advance, even though the actual date of D-Day might remain undecided.

What was Operation Overlord?
Plans for the Allied invasion of France, D-Day, were made by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill at a conference in Tehran. The codename for the invasion was 'Operation Overlord'. FDR appointed a command team led by US General Dwight D. Eisenhower in December 1943 to plan the air, naval and land operations. Operation Overlord was top secret and included the development of Deception campaigns to draw German attention and strength away from Normandy to other parts of France. Hitler had fortified the coast of occupied France and the Allies only advantage was the element of surprise - the Germans did not know where or when the Allies would land. The German High Command were skeptical of an attack on the Normandy coast due to lack of harboring.

What was Operation Fortitude?
The planners of Operation Overlord and D-Day needed to convince the Germans that Pas-de-Calais, the area of France closest to Britain, was the target for the Allied invasion of occupied France. Operation Fortitude was the code name given to the Allied military deception plan to fool the Germans into believing that the invasion of Europe on D-Day would occur at Pas-de-Calais, rather than in Normandy. The Operation Fortitude deception campaign included placing decoys such as inflated rubber tanks, dummy aircrafts, dummy landing craft, dummy parachutists and empty tents along the British coast opposite Calais. The decoys all looked genuine to the German spy planes who flew over the area and helped to mislead the enemy on the Allies true intention for D-Day.

D-Day Facts for kids
The following fact sheet contains interesting information, history and facts on D-Day for kids.

D-Day Facts - 1: The Germans, under the command of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, had built defenses right along the north coast of France and beyond, referred to as the Atlantic Wall. The Atlantic Wall consisted of barbed wire, thousands of pillboxes, gun placements and bunkers. Over six million mines had been buried along the beaches of the 'Atlantic Wall'.

D-Day Facts - 2: Operation Overlord needed complex and comprehensive planning. The location of the Allied invasion required firm, flat beaches in close proximity to the warplanes based in England together with easy access to roads to move the invasion force further inland after the initial landings. Five beaches in Normandy met the criteria and the destination of the D-Day landings was selected.

D-Day Facts - 3: Over 1.5 million American troops together with US airplanes, arms and equipment were sent to England in preparation for the invasion of Normandy and D-Day.

D-Day Facts - 4: The 50-mile (80 km) stretch of the Normandy coast chosen for the invasion was divided into five sectors codenamed Utah Beach, Sword Beach, Juno Beach, Gold Beach and Omaha Beach.

D-Day Facts - 5: New technology was developed during WW2 to help troops and vehicles land by sea and used on D-Day. The British invented the 'Mulberry harbor' enabling the Allies to land troops, vehicles and equipment on French soil without having to capture a port first. New tanks, called "Funnies" were designed to assist in the invasion of occupied France.

D-Day Facts - 6: The 'mulberries' were concrete pre-fabricated makeshift harbors with mile long piers and landing ramps that were towed across the English Channel in pieces and put into place on the Normandy beaches.

D-Day Facts - 7: The D-D (Duplex Drive) tank, the 'swimming' Sherman, had a propeller enabling it to travel on the sea as well as land. The 'Bobbin' carpet layer tank was an AVRE adapted to lay reinforced matting on soft beach surfaces allowing armored vehicles to drive across difficult terrain and without sinking on the beach.

D-Day Facts - 8: The front of the Crab tank was fitted with revolving steel chains to detonate the German mines and clear the barbed wire. The terrifying 'Crocodile' tanks had napalm flame throwers that could shoot fire at the enemy. The 'Kangaroo' APC tank was used for the rapid transport of infantry increasing the mobility and providing some protection for the troops.

D-Day Facts - 9: The planners of Operation Overlord and D-Day needed to time the Normandy invasion to coincide with a moonlit night, a low tide and good weather. The Allied ships had to arrive at low tide in order to see beach obstacles and the gunners on the ships attacking the coastline also required a low tide Moonlight was needed so that the paratroopers dropped behind enemy lines could see where to land.

D-Day Facts - 10: There were only a few days in June when the required conditions for the Normandy invasion and D-Day would apply: from June 5 - June 7. On June 5 the weather was bad with strong winds, high waves and low clouds making the invasion impossible.

Facts about the D-Day Facts for kids
The following fact sheet continues with interesting information, history and facts on D-Day for kids.

D-Day Facts - 11: Weather forecasts for June 6 indicated a brief improvement and, although conditions were far from perfect, General Eisenhower made the decision to launch the D-Day invasion

D-Day Facts - 12: On June 6, 1944 nearly 7000 ships carried an estimated 156,000 Allied soldiers to the Normandy beaches on D-Day, the majority of them were American, British and Canadian.

D-Day Facts - 13: The D-Day invasion began whilst it was still dark to hide the ships crossing the English Channel towards Normandy.

D-Day Facts - 14: 11,590 Allied aircraft supported the D-Day landings flying 14,674 sorties of which 127 planes were lost. The Allied airmen targeted German bunkers, radar sites and bridges.

D-Day Facts - 15: Huge naval forces consisting of 6,939 vessels with 195,700 Navy personnel participated in the D-Day assault including 52,889 US ships, 112,824 British ships, and 4,988 vessels from other Allied countries bombarded Normandy with thousands of shells..

D-Day Facts - 16: The three miles wide Utah Beach was westernmost of the five landing beaches and vital for the early capture of the vital port of Cherbourg. The D-Day landing was made by the US 4th Infantry Division and an airborne drop by the US 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions. 20,000 men were landed Utah Beach with 1,700 military vehicles. Casualties were less than 300 men.

D-Day Facts - 17: The 5 mile stretch of Sword Beach was the furthest east of the five beaches targeted for D-Day, located about 9 miles to the north-east of the vital city of Caen. The D-Day landing was made by units of the British 3rd Division together with French and British commandos. 29,000 men landed with 630 casualties.

D-Day Facts - 18: Juno Beach was the second beach from the east among the five landing areas of the Normandy Invasion of WW2 and assaulted by units of the Canadian 3rd Infantry Division. The Canadians suffered 1,200 casualties out of 21,400 troops who landed at Juno Beach.

D-Day Facts - 19: The 5 mile wide Gold Beach was the centre beach of the 5 landing areas of the Normandy Invasion of WW2 and taken by units of the British 50th Infantry Division on D-Day. The British suffered 400 casualties out of 25,000 troops who landed at Gold Beach.

D-Day Facts - 20: The 6 mile wide Omaha Beach, between Utah and Gold, was the largest of all the beaches and assaulted by the U.S. 29th and 1st infantry divisions led by Omar Bradley. The Americans suffered 2,400 casualties out of 34,000 troops who landed at Omaha Beach on D-Day.

D-Day Facts - 21: The Normandy landings at Omaha Beach on D-Day resulted in the greatest number of casualties during the D-Day offensive. Many the soldiers were drowned during the approach from ships offshore before they even reached Omaha Beach.

D-Day Facts - 22: The Omaha Beach troops were without armored support as most of the DD (Duplex Drive) 'swimming' tanks had foundered in the heavy swell of the sea.

D-Day Facts - 23: The Omaha troops were surrounded by great cliffs and faced heavy enemy fire from a German fortress on top of the cliffs at Pointe de Hoc and from German trenches and guns built into the bluffs.

D-Day Facts - 24: Many of the Omaha troops were mown down as soon as the doors of the landing crafts opened. Those who survived had to cross 300 yards littered with man-made booby traps. The landing crafts were forced together and the large groups of Americans storming Omaha Beach made easy targets. Despite the carnage the Americans took Omaha Beach on D-Day and began to fight their way inland.

D-Day Facts - 25: The Allied troops took all five of the beaches during D-Day. The Allied invasion of Normandy had been successful.

D-Day Facts - 26: For the D-Day invasion all Allied aircraft had black and white stripes painted on the underside of their wings for easy identification. Likewise, all military vehicles had a white star in a white circle painted on them, regardless of nationality.

D-Day Facts - 27: The French Resistance begin to sabotage the German response to the Normandy invasion on D-Day, by blowing up telephone exchanges and railway lines.

D-Day Facts - 28: All D-Day troops were given 'clickers' as a means of identification in the dark, regardless of language. A click indicated a 'friendly' response - no such response indicated the enemy.

D-Day Facts - 29: By 11 June, 1944 (D-Day + 5), 326,547 troops, 54,186 vehicles and 104,428 tons of supplies had been landed on the Normandy beaches.

D-Day Facts - 30: The "Battle of Normandy" lasted from June 6, 1944 September 1, 1944 and including Operation Overlord (June 6, 1944 August 25, 1944) and Operation Cobra, the breakout from Normandy. Over 425,000 Allied and German troops were killed, wounded or went missing in the "Battle of Normandy".

D-Day Facts - 31: The 1962 movie 'The Longest Day', starring John Wayne, Robert Ryan and Richard Burton, is based on the 1959 book by Cornelius Ryan, tells the story of the WW2 Normandy landings on June 6, 1944 - D-Day.

D-Day Facts - 32: Other notable WW2 movies about the Normandy Invasion and D-Day include Saving Private Ryan (1998 movie), The Americanization of Emily (1964 movie), Overlord (1975 movie), The Big Red One (1980 movie), Ike: Countdown to D-Day (2004 movie) and Red Ball Express (1952 movie)

Facts about D-Day for kids
For visitors interested in the important US battles in WW2 refer to the following articles:


June 22, 1941 – Hitler Calls off Invasion of Soviet Union

Upon the receipt of confirmed espionage of the military preparedness of the Soviet Union, German Fuhrer Adolf Hitler gave the last-minute order scrubbing his intended invasion. Knowledge of Stalin's military buildup was well known, but the exact numbers were suddenly daunting. As seen by Hitler then and later calculated upon declassified documents by state historian Mikhail Meltyukhov in his work, Stalin's Gift, Russians outnumbered the Germans and their allies 1.4-to-1 in infantry and artillery, 2.6-to-1 in aircraft, and stunningly more than 3.8-to-1 in tanks. Hitler had surprise on his side as Stalin, despite the advice of several spies who had given him the exact date of invasion, believed Hitler would hold longer than two years to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and wait until he finished war with Britain. Hitler had already postponed the intended Operation Barbarossa several weeks from its initial deadline in May due to logistical problems, and now he knew certainly he was too late.

Germany and the Soviet Union seemed doomed to fight each other, however. Stalin addressed military academy graduates with, “War with Germany is inevitable,” just weeks before the intended invasion. Both nations were diametrically opposed with policies in Hitler's fascism and Stalin's communism. Both were hopeful for expansion as Hitler called for “elbow room” and Stalin worked to rebuild the Russian Empire, such as dominating Finland in the 1939-40 Winter War. Because Stalin understood Hitler's need for oil to fuel his power would bring him to Baku, the Soviet leader began programs to expand the Russian military by leaps. From '39 to '41, he more than doubled the size of the army and especially built aircraft, which increased from 7,700 to 18,700.

As Hitler and his staff reviewed the numbers, he knew that Germany would be unable to maintain the blitzkrieg he had used successfully against Poland and France without control of the air and against numerically superior tanks, with Russian heavy tanks even arguably superior to Panzers one-on-one. Finally Hitler realized that the Russians were simply too powerful by weight and determined that he would need new kinds of weapons to fight, redoubling his already heavy investment in research and development for rockets, atomic bombs, and more. He let continue the lie that his massing troops on the border with the Soviet Union was keeping them away from attacks by Britain and eventually recalled them for Operation Sea Lion, which had been postponed indefinitely since September, 1940.

Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought Britain's near-ally America into the war fully that December. With American resources turned toward the Pacific, Hitler's invasion of Britain began, which quickly turned into a quagmire of resistance and sabotage of nearly every public work. Although Hitler held Western Europe for several years, the Allied counter-attack through Africa enabled Britain to be liberated by the D-Day landing at Devon, June 6, 1944.

In early 1945, with Hitler reeling despite some Soviet support Stalin made good on his original strategy of waiting. Called the “Icebreaker” theory by exiled historian Viktor Suvorov, Russia swept in as liberators across Europe, meeting with American and British allies as they took Berlin and continued toward the Western Front, spreading as far as France and Italy. Churchill and Roosevelt encouraged Russia to relinquish their control of Europe as soon as order could be maintained, but Stalin decided to stay. As war with Japan ended with the new A-bomb, political stakes were raised with the Americans holding a powerful card, but Russia practically fresh for a fight.

War-weary President Truman decided to leave the Russians in Europe, establishing doctrine that would work just to keep the Soviets from expanding further. This, too, would prove a blunder of waiting as the Russians would use captured German scientists, now pampered celebrities outside Moscow, to surpass the atomic bomb with an H-bomb and rocketry capable of intercontinental delivery by the 1950s. An Iron Curtain fell from East France to North Italy and across the Soviet Balkans that looked to expand through the Middle East, Africa, even Latin America, and absorb Chinese Communism into the Soviet-led World Community. Any opposition to the world superpower had to be covert, such as escapes across the Swiss border and arming of Afghan guerillas, as no nation could stand against Stalin's legacy until it eventually collapsed into corruption and civil war.

In reality, Operation Barbarossa proceeded. With army strengths of more than seven million, Hitler and Stalin fought bitterly over Eastern Europe for months until the Germans were finally stopped and held by sheer numbers. Eventually, the tide would favor the Russians, who would come to take much of Eastern Europe under their influence after World War II and hold it until the wave of independence movements in 1989.


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