Norwich Guildhall

Norwich Guildhall


Norwich Guildhall - Historia


Lado sur del ayuntamiento de Norwich.
La puerta en el extremo occidental originalmente habría sido una entrada a la torre suroeste.
Foto y copia S. Alsford

El inicio de la construcción de un nuevo gremio, en 1407, debe entenderse en el contexto de los cambios constitucionales que resultaron de la carta real de 1404, incorporando el municipio, otorgando el estatus de condado, sustituyendo al alcalde y alguaciles por el ex ejecutivo del baile y dotando el alcalde y cuatro compañeros con poderes de Jueces de Paz. Esto siguió a un período en el que la clase dominante estaba consolidando su poder, con cierta resistencia de otras partes de la comunidad, y precedió a un período de disputas aún más intensas sobre la constitución (ver la página "Historia de Norwich medieval: una división de intereses".

En algún momento de los meses posteriores a la concesión de la carta, una resolución estableció un cuerpo de 80 ciudadanos para participar en las asambleas, aparentemente en nombre y en lugar de la comunidad en general. Anteriormente, se había elegido un comité electoral para que actuara en nombre de la comunidad en la elección de alguaciles, ahora los 80 actuarían en nombre de la comunidad, pero su poder estaba restringido a hacer nominaciones y la decisión final recaía en el alcalde y el concejo, al estilo londinense. Esto no le cayó bien a la comunidad.

En las disputas que siguieron, hubo quejas sobre la sustitución de una cédula real (1380), en su concesión de la facultad de hacer estatutos, de la comunidad por el ayuntamiento (que representa a la comunidad) como el agente para dar aprobación a cualquier tales estatutos. El patriciado contraatacó tratando de eliminar las referencias a la comunidad, como entidad constitucional, de la carta de la ciudad. La solución de la disputa introdujo un procedimiento más complicado para elegir a los diversos funcionarios al mismo tiempo que a los miembros del consejo superior se les otorgó el estatus de membresía vitalicia y el título digno de concejales, y ya no se pretendía que representaran a la comunidad, este rol cayendo al cuerpo más grande (reducido a 60) ahora firmemente establecido como un consejo inferior.


Gablete este del gremio de Norwich.
La torre del reloj fue un adorno de 1850.
Foto y copia S. Alsford

La construcción de un nuevo hogar para el gobierno cívico reflejó la ambición de la clase dominante de tener un control más completo e indiscutible del gobierno. La introducción de nuevos nombres & # 150 alcalde, concejales, barrios, guildhall & # 150 sugieren una emulación de Londres. Al mismo tiempo, el nuevo ayuntamiento era un símbolo del estatus mejorado del municipio incorporado. Se ha sugerido que la escala del gremio, sin precedentes fuera de Londres, puede deberse en algo al ejemplo de "los grandes ayuntamientos que adornaban los ricos pueblos de tela de los Países Bajos, con los que Norfolk tenía estrechos contactos comerciales" [I. Dunn y H. Sutermeister, The Norwich Guildhall, ciudad de Norwich, hacia 1978].

El Guildhall reemplazó una sala más antigua, el Tolbooth, en su sitio inclinado en el lado norte del mercado, una estructura menos impresionante, en términos de tamaño y materiales de construcción, el Tolbooth había servido para la administración judicial y financiera, pero las asambleas electorales tenían que serlo. se llevará a cabo en una capilla grande en otro lugar. Los cambios a principios del siglo XV, el aumento de los poderes judiciales de los funcionarios de la ciudad y el número de tribunales diferentes, así como la sustitución de la asamblea popular por un consejo de dos niveles considerable, deben haber sido factores en la decisión de gastar en un nuevo edificio. . Ese edificio albergaría una cárcel más grande que su predecesor, así como los archivos de la ciudad y la tesorería, todas funciones que exigen una estructura resistente y duradera. La función original del Tolbooth, como punto de recaudación de peajes sobre las mercancías que se llevan al mercado y probablemente de los derechos de licencia para los puestos, se transfirió a partir de entonces & # 150 si no hubiera sido antes & # 150 al Murage Loft, otro edificio en el mercado, originalmente para el cobro de peajes especiales para la construcción de muros.


Lado norte de Norwich Guildhall.
Se pueden distinguir las dos gamas separadas, tal vez imitando la nave y el presbiterio de una iglesia.
Foto y copia S. Alsford

El edificio principal se completó en 1412, gracias a la imposición de impuestos locales especiales tres veces durante el período de construcción, y la impresión de mano de obra (aparentemente no remunerada, a excepción de los carpinteros, albañiles y otros artesanos calificados), con trabajos que a veces se realizan desde amanecer hasta el anochecer. Las donaciones y los legados de los ciudadanos también contribuyeron a lo que debió haber sido un costo considerable, en comparación con los ingresos anuales que formaban parte del presupuesto normal de la ciudad. La elevación de un techo de tejas de plomo en 1412 permitió que el edificio comenzara a ser utilizado, primero para albergar a los presos en la cárcel en los sótanos abovedados. En el mismo período se estaban instalando los bancos para el juzgado de la alcaldía.

El trabajo continuó para equipar, mejorar y construir complementos para Guildhall a lo largo del siglo. Se construyó un porche de varios pisos en la década de 1420, aunque fue reconstruido en 1723 y nuevamente en la época victoriana, de hecho, toda la cordillera en el lado sur (ver foto en la parte superior) es post-medieval. El edificio está construido con el mismo material que las iglesias medievales de Norwich: escombros de pedernal con un revestimiento de pedernal tallado y relleno de fragmentos de pedernal. Las almenas alrededor del techo se muestran en la ilustración más antigua y podrían ser medievales. La mayoría de las ventanas probablemente estaban vidriadas, y algunas contenían imágenes de vidrieras, de las cuales un poco sobrevive. El efecto del edificio debe haber sido, y tenía la intención, de infundir algo de asombro y respeto en los ciudadanos.

El frontón este está decorado de manera similar al ayuntamiento de Lynn: un patrón a cuadros que usa pedernal en contraste con piedra de piedra, posiblemente simboliza la oficina de contabilidad de la ciudad (tesorería). Su ventana es la única que sobrevivió a las renovaciones victorianas. Sin embargo, las armaduras debajo de ella son una adición del siglo XVI. Más abajo, en el nivel del suelo donde ahora se coloca una fuente de agua victoriana contra la pared, puede haber sido originalmente una entrada a la cripta; la ilustración más antigua del edificio muestra lo que parece ser una entrada con barrotes o una ventana al sótano. Contra este muro los escribas instalaron puestos, donde los ciudadanos podían comprar sus servicios, algunos relacionados con la realización de copias de registros oficiales. En el extremo opuesto (oeste) del edificio había dos torres, una que albergaba la tesorería, que se derrumbó a principios del período Tudor, y la segunda sobrevivió hasta el siglo XVIII.

La cordillera más grande (oeste) tenía en su piso superior una sala de reuniones para el consejo en pleno, de dos pisos de altura, que también servía como tribunal de alguaciles y se incorporaba una cámara privada en un extremo. La cordillera más pequeña, aparentemente construida sobre los cimientos del Tolbooth, albergaba en su nivel superior una cámara más pequeña donde se reunía el consejo interno de concejales, que se duplicaba como la corte del alcalde. En la planta baja había cárceles para hombres y mujeres, una pequeña capilla en el porche atendía las necesidades de los presos. Las mazmorras de la cripta eran para criminales más peligrosos.


  1. 1 El diseño holandés podría inspirar la renovación de la rotonda del peligro
  2. 2 Dos restaurantes de Norfolk en los cinco mejores lugares & # 39secret & # 39 para comer en la costa inglesa
  3. 3 Prince William, George y Charlotte comienzan las carreras en Sandringham
  1. 4 Rara condición mata a un conductor de camión & # 39 asombroso & # 39
  2. 5 & ​​# 39Más como marzo & # 39 - Entonces, ¿cuándo recuperaremos la luz del sol?
  3. 6 La venta de maquinaria marca el fin de los 100 años de historia agrícola de la familia
  4. 7 Puede correr, señor Hancock, pero no puede esconderse
  5. 8 Farke sobre su situación contractual en el City
  6. 9 tienda de cactus que vende plantas de £ 95 abre en la cabina telefónica de Norwich
  7. 10 advertencia sobre la estafa de grabaciones de llamadas en frío de & # 39Amazon & # 39 en Norfolk

• El jueves 20 de noviembre a las 6 pm Frank Meeres hablará sobre asesinatos y delitos menores: Norwich Guildhall y los criminales de la ciudad.

Únase al historiador y archivero Frank para una charla sobre la historia del edificio y su participación en los juicios de algunos de los criminales más infames de la ciudad. Herejes, asesinos y ladrones fueron juzgados por sus crímenes en el Guildhall. Conozca el castigo impuesto por el robo de dos botellas, la trágica historia de la joven Jane Sellers y cómo se utilizó durante las grandes plagas.

• El jueves 27 de noviembre a las 6 pm Maurice Morson hablará sobre los asesinatos de Norwich.

¿Quién era Martha Sheward y por qué sus restos fueron enterrados bajo el Guildhall? ¿Qué juicios tuvieron lugar? ¿Y quién era el asesino arrestado en las afueras por el jefe de policía?

En su charla, Maurice, un ex oficial de policía de la ciudad que se convirtió en jefe del Departamento de Investigación Criminal de Norfolk y ahora es un autor consumado, revelará algunos de los horribles asesinatos que han tenido lugar en la ciudad.

• Los boletos para ambas charlas cuestan £ 5. Para obtener más información, visite www.heritagecity.org

Conviértete en un partidario

Este periódico ha sido una parte central de la vida comunitaria durante muchos años. Nuestra industria se enfrenta a tiempos de prueba, por lo que pedimos su apoyo. Cada contribución nos ayudará a continuar produciendo un periodismo local que marque una diferencia medible en nuestra comunidad.


Una cronología de Norwich

Lea sobre algunas de las fechas más importantes de Norwich y rsquos en la historia, incluido el momento en que se construyeron el castillo de Norwich, la catedral de Norwich y otros edificios históricos e importantes. Cuando la Peste Negra llegó a Norwich, Kett & rsquos Rebellion y cuando devastadores incendios azotaron la ciudad. Vea fechas importantes en la historia de los grandes almacenes Jarrold, Colman & rsquos Mustard, la Universidad de East Anglia, el aeropuerto internacional de Norwich y el Norwich City Football Club.

Norwich es un pequeño asentamiento anglosajón, al norte del río Wensum, con su propia casa de moneda. Durante el siglo X, Norwich creció rápidamente y se extendió a la orilla sur del río.

Los daneses queman Norwich; con los edificios de madera y paja, esto fue fácil. Sin embargo, Norwich fue reconstruida y pronto comenzó a florecer.

Los normandos comienzan a trabajar en el castillo de Norwich

En el momento del Domesday Book, Norwich tenía una población de aproximadamente 6.000 habitantes y era una de las ciudades más grandes de Inglaterra. La principal industria fue la fabricación de lana.

El obispo traslada su asiento de Thetford a Norwich

Comienzan las obras para construir una nueva catedral de pedernal y argamasa

Norwich recibió la carta de la ciudad por Richard I, un documento que otorga a la gente ciertos derechos

El Gran Hospital es fundado por el obispo Walter de Suffield con los beneficiarios originales siendo eruditos pobres, pobres enfermos y hambrientos y sacerdotes ancianos.

Durante una guerra civil, Norwich es saqueada por barones rebeldes, pero pronto se recuperó.

Hay disturbios en Norwich, con un desacuerdo entre los religiosos y los ciudadanos de Norwich sobre deberes, límites y derechos.

Catedral consagrada en presencia de Eduardo I

En 1278 se construye Cow Tower para cobrar peajes

Norwich tiene una población de alrededor de 10.000 habitantes y la principal industria es la fabricación de lana. En este momento también existe una importante industria del cuero.

Plaga / Peste Negra llega a Norwich

Se construye el Bridewell y se utiliza como prisión entre 1583 y 1828

Durante la Revuelta Campesina, los rebeldes capturan Norwich. Sin embargo, no mantuvieron Norwich por mucho tiempo, con el obispo reuniendo un ejército, los rebeldes se retiraron a North Walsham, donde fueron derrotados.

Norwich recibe una nueva carta y ganó un alcalde y dos alguaciles

El Guildhall se construyó entre 1407 y 1413 y sirvió como sede del gobierno de la ciudad desde principios del siglo XV. En 1938 fue reemplazado por el Ayuntamiento de nueva construcción.

Erpingham Gate, una magnífica puerta de entrada de piedra y pedernal se erigió directamente frente al frente oeste de la catedral alrededor de 1420 y fue donada por Sir Thomas Erpingham

Sir Peter Mancroft fue construido entre 1430-1455, la iglesia más grande de Norwich

En 1463, la catedral de Norwich y el chapitel de los rsquos son alcanzados por un rayo y el techo de la nave se destruye. En 1480 se construye una nueva aguja

Norwich sufre un incendio severo, con dos incendios más en 1507. Con la mayoría de los edificios hechos de madera y paja, el fuego era un peligro constante.

La rebelión de Kett & rsquos en Norfolk fue durante el reinado de Eduardo VI. Enfurecidos por el trato de los terratenientes, muchos granjeros se rebelaron y comenzaron una revuelta en Wymondham, destruyendo vallas que habían sido levantadas por terratenientes ricos. Liderados por el granjero Robert Kett, los rebeldes asaltaron Norwich el 29 de julio y tomaron la ciudad. Los rebeldes fueron derrotados en el segundo intento, esta vez por un ejército bajo el liderazgo del conde de Warwick en la batalla de Dussindale. Kett y muchos rebeldes fueron capturados y ahorcados.

Los tejedores llegan a Norwich desde lo que hoy es Holanda y Bélgica, huyendo de la persecución religiosa, trayendo consigo a sus canarios. Los lugareños pronto adoptaron la cría de estas aves como un pasatiempo y, en el siglo XVIII, Norwich se hizo famosa por sus canarios. Aquí es donde el Norwich City Football Club obtuvo su apodo, las Canarias

Un brote de peste mata a alrededor de un tercio de la población de Norwich y rsquos

La población de Norwich es de aproximadamente 25.000 habitantes, a pesar de los brotes de peste en 1625 y 1665.

Se construye el Hospital Bethel, para enfermos mentales

El primer periódico de Norwich se publica en 1721.

Diseñado por el arquitecto Thomas Ivory, se construye la Casa de Asambleas. Se convirtió en un centro de entretenimiento para asambleas, conciertos y bailes, celebrado para la nobleza de Norwich.

El primer banco se funda en Norwich y fue en 1775 cuando una familia local, John y Henry Gurney, iniciaron un banco que todavía sobrevive como parte de Barclays.

Se funda el Norfolk and Norwich Hospital

Norwich tiene una población de 36.000

Theatre Royal es remodelado por William Wilkins, un constructor y arquitecto local.

Se forma un cuerpo de hombres llamados Comisionados de Mejoramiento para pavimentar, limpiar e iluminar las calles de Norwich

Jeremiah Colman fundó Colman & rsquos of Norwich en 1814, en el molino Stoke Holy Cross en el río Tas, cuatro millas al sur de Norwich.

La viruela mata a 530 personas en Norwich

Jarrold & amp Sons Ltd se fundó en 1770 en Woodbridge, Suffolk y se trasladó a Norwich en 1823.

Se forma la primera fuerza policial de Norwich & rsquos

Ferrocarril de Norwich inaugurado en 1844

El ayuntamiento construye un suministro de agua pura

Se abre la primera biblioteca pública en Norwich

Se construye una red de alcantarillado

Se funda Norwich High School for girls

La limpieza de los barrios marginales comienza en Norwich

Inaugurada la estación de tren de Norwich City

Comienzan las obras para construir la Catedral Católica Romana en Norwich

Se establece la prisión HM de Norwich y los prisioneros son trasladados del castillo a la nueva prisión.

Se funda el City College Norwich

El castillo de Norwich abre como museo

Royal Arcade, diseñado y construido por el arquitecto nacido en Dereham George Skipper se construye

Los tranvías eléctricos funcionan en Norwich & # 45 y cubren más de 17 millas

La población en Norwich es de 111.733

Se forma el club de fútbol Norwich City y se cree que su icónico himno & # 39On The Ball, City & # 39, ampliamente considerado como la canción de fútbol más antigua del mundo y que todavía se canta en la actualidad, también data de 1902.

El Norwich City Football Club se muda a The Nest, un pozo de tiza en desuso

Se abre el primer cine de Norwich & rsquos. Conocido como TDL o Theatre de Luxe, fue el primer "palacio de imágenes" de la ciudad.

En 1921 se completa la conversión de la Capilla Católica Romana, en un teatro en funcionamiento y se funda el Teatro Maddermarket.

Ethel Colman es la primera dama alcaldesa de Norwich e hija del gigante de la mostaza Jeremiah James Colman

Se abre formalmente Heigham Park, y el trabajo comenzó en 1921.

Woodrow Piling Park abre en 1927

Sloughbottom Park y Mile Cross Gardens abiertos

Inauguración oficial del aeropuerto de Norwich en el sitio en Mousehold

Waterloo Park abre en 1933

Los tranvías eléctricos dejan de funcionar en Norwich

Norwich City Football Club se muda a Carrow Road desde su antiguo terreno, The Nest

En abril, Norwich fue alcanzado por bombardeos aéreos de las fuerzas alemanas.

Se construye una nueva biblioteca central en Norwich

Norwich City Football Club gana la Copa de la Liga

La Universidad de Norwich se fundó en 1963 y admitió a su primera cohorte de 87 estudiantes en este año.

El aeropuerto de Norwich se trasladó a Horsham St Faith

Los primeros vuelos chárter de vacaciones comienzan a funcionar desde el aeropuerto de Norwich

El Norwich City Football Club asciende a la máxima categoría

La tienda de mostaza Colman & rsquos abre en Norwich y cierra en abril de 2017

Se abre el Centro de Artes de Norwich

Se abre el Sainsbury Center for Visual Arts, ubicado en el campus de la Universidad de East Anglia & rsquos y diseñado por los arquitectos Norman Foster y Wendy Cheesman

Se funda el Norwich Puppet Theatre. Se abrió al público por primera vez en 1980, tras la conversión de la iglesia medieval de St. James, en el corazón de Norwich.

Se abre el Sewell Barn Theatre

Norwich City Football Club gana la Copa de la Liga

Apertura de la terminal del aeropuerto de Norwich

El lanzamiento oficial del Norwich Research Park

Se abre el centro comercial Castle Mall, que tardó alrededor de 4 años en completarse, ocupando casi 7 acres en el centro de Norwich

La Biblioteca Central de Norwich se incendia

Norwich Playhouse abre en lo que antes era un malteado del siglo XIX

Apertura del complejo de ocio Riverside

Se funda el Hospital Universitario de Norfolk y Norwich

Se completa el Foro, construido en el sitio de la Biblioteca de Norwich anterior que se quemó en 1994

Apertura del centro comercial Chapelfield

99.9 Radio Norwich comienza a transmitir

Se rehabilita el edificio del Teatro Real

En 2009, Norwich fue sede del primer evento del Orgullo Gay de la ciudad y los rsquos, para las comunidades de lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y trans de las regiones.

Comienza el Festival de Cine de Norwich

Un total de 132,512 personas viven en la ciudad de Norwich según el censo de 2011

La tienda de mostaza Colman & rsquos cierra en abril de 2017

Lo anterior es una línea de tiempo de Norwich y tiene la intención de servir como algo de interés y no pretende ser completamente exacto. Aunque se ha tenido mucho cuidado de investigar metódicamente estas fechas y eventos en Norwich, puede haber algunas inexactitudes (por ejemplo, al investigar, se han encontrado fechas diferentes en libros y material en línea para el mismo evento).

Si desea ver algo agregado a esta línea de tiempo que cree que no debería haberse perdido, comuníquese con nosotros.


Tipo de lugar:

Acceso al vestíbulo y Caley's Cocoa Cafe:
De lunes a viernes de 10 a 4:30
Sáb 10.30 - 5
Dom 11 - 3

Visitas al histórico Guildhall: todos los viernes (excepto festivos) 10 y 2

Descubra la historia única de The Guildhall, el ayuntamiento medieval provincial más grande y elaborado de Inglaterra, en este recorrido de una hora de Guildhall Guides, que abre el legado oculto del edificio.

Vea la elaborada Cámara del Consejo del Alcalde con su artesanía en madera decorativa y sus impresionantes vidrieras, la sala del tribunal victoriana tardía prácticamente intacta con sus paneles de roble, y la atmósfera subterránea que es anterior a The Guildhall y se usaba para acomodar a criminales peligrosos.

Las áreas de este edificio actualmente funcionan como oficinas, por lo que algunas áreas son inaccesibles en todo momento.


El escudo de armas de Norwich

Los pueblos y ciudades también utilizaron escudos de armas diseñados para identificar grupos de soldados en el fragor de la batalla para identificarse a sí mismos y la fuente de su autoridad.

Ambos símbolos en el escudo de armas de Norwich son marciales y apuntan a una larga relación con la corona que confirió ciertos privilegios a la ciudad. Este escudo de armas cívico se describe como: & # 8220Gules, un castillo de plata de tres torres y cúpula en la base de un león passant guardant O & # 8221 . En pocas palabras: escudo rojo, castillo plateado, león dorado. Sin embargo, existen muchas variaciones estilísticas: la mayoría de las veces, el castillo de tres torres no tiene cúpula.

Sin azar o abovedado. El escudo de armas de la ciudad de Norwich en el Ayuntamiento (1938). A la izquierda, en la puerta de Bethel Street al Departamento del Tesorero & # 8217s y a la derecha, dentro del & # 8216Rates Hall & # 8217.

El castillo, por supuesto, es normando, pero fue aproximadamente un siglo después de la conquista cuando apareció el león de la ciudad durante el reinado de los Plantagenet. La asociación entre el león y la corona inglesa parece haber comenzado durante el reinado del rey Juan, pero fue el hermano mayor de Juan, Ricardo Corazón de León, quien está particularmente asociado con el rey Juan. león passant guardant [1] es decir, caminar con la pata delantera levantada (pasante) y la cabeza vuelta a la izquierda, cara completa (guardián). Esta es la versión del animal que figura en todos los dispositivos heráldicos de la ciudad. Excepto & # 8230 que custodia la entrada al Ayuntamiento, los leones de bronce de influencia asiria de Alfred Hardiman & # 8217 son dos de nuestras mejores esculturas cívicas, pero están en desacuerdo con otros leones de Norwich al no mirar a la izquierda. Esto puede deberse a que los arquitectos vieron un león expuesto en la Exposición del Imperio Británico de 1936 antes de encargar su gemelo [2].

Mirando al frente, uno de los leones de Alfred Hardiman & # 8217 (1938) fuera del Ayuntamiento [3]

La conexión con Ricardo I se relaciona con la carta de 1194 en la que permitió a los ciudadanos elegir su propio Reeve, equivalente al & # 8216 presidente & # 8217 del municipio [4]. La fundación del autogobierno generalmente se remonta al estatuto de Richard, a pesar de que puede haber habido un cierto grado de independencia municipal antes de esto [5].

El Guildhall, que es el edificio cívico medieval más grande fuera de Londres, fue construido entre 1407 y 1412 para administrar los poderes de autogobierno conferidos a la ciudad por Enrique IV. El estatuto del rey de 1404 otorgó el estatus de condado a la ciudad y, al igual que Londres, permitió a los ciudadanos elegir un alcalde [6]. Los documentos emitidos por el consejo fueron autenticados con el escudo de armas de la ciudad en forma de sello de cera aplicado directamente o pendiente.

Izquierda y derecha: primeros sellos de cera C15 de Colman & # 8217s Collection Norfolk Record Office COL5 / 1. Centro: & # 8220The Common, o City Seal, ahora en uso & # 8221 Blomefield 1806 [6]

La ciudad & # 8217s orgulloso estado como & # 8216civitas& # 8216, una forma de ciudad-estado, se reconoce en el mapa de Cuningham & # 8217s 1558 de Norwich, que es probablemente el mapa impreso más antiguo que se conserva de cualquier pueblo o ciudad inglesa.

Mapa de Norwich por el ciudadano William Cuningham, & # 8216Doctor en Physicke & # 8217 1558 (Biblioteca Británica)

En la esquina superior derecha podemos ver el castillo y el león aumentados por dos seguidores que, como veremos, aparecen en varias formas a lo largo de la historia de la ciudad.

Un siglo antes de esto, alrededor de 1450, el concejal John Wighton, cuyo taller de vidrieras hizo la gran ventana este de San Pedro Mancroft, acristaló la ventana de la cámara del consejo en el Guildhall. Hizo esto por el alcalde y rico comerciante de lana Robert Toppes, que dirigía su negocio desde Dragon Hall en King Street [ver 7 para una descripción más completa del vidrio pintado de la Escuela Norwich].

Entre los dos ángeles está el escudo de armas de Toppes & # 8217, empequeñeciendo el escudo de armas de la ciudad debajo de cada ángel.

Escudo de armas de la ciudad a mediados de C15, desde la ventana de Toppes en el Guildhall

Frente a la entrada trasera de Cinema City, los brazos de la ciudad se pueden ver entre una serie de 13 escudos tallados en el extremo este de la iglesia de St Andrew & # 8217s y que datan de la reconstrucción de la iglesia 1500-1506.

Norwich arms on St Andrew & # 8217 Church ca 1505. Nótese el castillo simplificado y el león contrario

Un buen ejemplo C16 del escudo de armas de la ciudad se puede ver en Surrey House, el primer edificio C20 diseñado para Norwich Union por George Skipper. La vidriera es una reliquia de la casa del Conde de Surrey & # 8217s que anteriormente se encontraba en este sitio en lo que ahora es Surrey Street.

Desde la casa del Conde de Surrey & # 8217s C16 en Surrey Street, Norwich

El conde de Surrey, Henry Howard, hijo del duque de Norfolk, se llamaba & # 8220el niño orgulloso más tonto que está en Inglaterra & # 8221 y fue el orgullo lo que lo llevó a la ruina. Surrey se crió en el Castillo de Windsor con Enrique VIII y el hijo ilegítimo Henry Fitzroy. El rey llegó a creer que Surrey, un acérrimo anti-protestante, estaba planeando usurpar al hijo legítimo de Enrique VIII, Eduardo VI, cuando heredó la corona. El desencadenante, sin embargo, pareció ser cuando Surrey hizo alarde de su descendencia de la realeza inglesa al unir (acuartelar) los brazos de Eduardo el Confesor a los suyos. Fue ejecutado por traición a los treinta años, pero su padre, que debía haber compartido ese destino, se salvó cuando Enrique VIII murió el día antes de la ejecución prevista [8].

En este contexto de orgullo excesivo asociado con los escudos de armas, el otro vidrio blindado de la Ante Room de Surrey House [9] adquiere una capa adicional de significado.

Alrededor de 1900, se instalaron tres mosaicos de mármol de los brazos de la ciudad en las entradas a los edificios cívicos: el Guildhall, el Castillo de Norwich y el Instituto Técnico (ahora Universidad de las Artes de Norwich). Pero no puedo encontrar ningún registro de los artesanos italianos que vivían en los alrededores de Ber Street y que, según los informes, los fabricaron.

En el lado sur del Guildhall se encuentra el Bassingham Gateway, originario de la casa London Street de John Bassingham, un orfebre durante el reinado de Enrique VIII. Cuando se amplió London Street en 1855-7, William Wilde compró la puerta de entrada por £ 10 y la insertó en la entrada Magistrate & # 8217s of the Guildhall [10].

Comparando esto con la fotografía de George Plunkett de 1934 de la entrada [10], el tallado nítido parecería ser parte de una renovación de posguerra. El león ahora es decididamente oriental.

Aunque hay variaciones menores en la forma en que se representan, el castillo y el león son constantes en los brazos de la ciudad. Más variables son los seguidores, las figuras que flanquean que aparecen en algunas versiones de los brazos. En el mapa de Cuningham de 1558 (arriba) aparecían como querubines.

En 1511, el techo de la cámara del alcalde en el Guildhall se derrumbó y en la reconstrucción de 1535-7 el tablero de damas de la fachada oriental recibió escudos de armas, los brazos de la ciudad del castillo y el león estaban protegidos por ángeles armados y una forma indeterminada flotando sobre el escudo [3].

La ciudad arma uno de los tres escudos de armas en el extremo este del Guildhall. (Los brazos centrales [no se muestran] eran los de Enrique VIII, pero ya no son legibles)

Sobre este escudo de armas en la pared este hay una torre de reloj con fecha de 1850, dedicada al alcalde Henry Woodcock. Flanqueando la esfera del reloj hay dos ángeles desarmados, cada uno agarrando los brazos de la ciudad.

Curiosamente, la inscripción dorada en el borde inferior del reloj da el lema de los duques de Norfolk (Sola Virtus Invicta, Only Virtue is Invincible) que, durante mucho tiempo, no habían tenido ninguna conexión con la ciudad o el condado [3].

Una ilustración en el libro autorizado de Blomefield & # 8217 sobre la historia de Norwich [6] también tiene dos ángeles como partidarios, esta vez armados, pero el objeto sobre el escudo es difícil de leer en esta forma.

Las armas de la ciudad de Norwich. De Blomefield [7] 1806

El libro de 1906 de Hudson y Tingey & # 8217 sobre la historia de Norwich [4] también muestra el escudo flanqueado por dos ángeles guardianes y, en este caso, el objeto sobre los brazos se resuelve como un sombrero. Una fuente describe esto como un sombrero de capataz y # 8217s (¿capataz y # 8217s?) [2], otra como un gorro de piel [12]. (Después de publicar este artículo, el ex alguacil Beryl Blower me dijo que este podría ser el gorro ceremonial de mantenimiento del alcalde y veo que Blomefield dice que el portador de la espada usa el gorro de mantenimiento en todas las ocasiones públicas).

Los brazos de la ciudad de Norwich grabados en la portada de Hudson y Tingey, 1906 [4]

El sombrero también aparece en la lámpara azul de la comisaría, que se adjunta al lado oeste del Ayuntamiento, pero no hay ángeles de la guarda.

Estación de policía, Bethel Street 1938

El Ayuntamiento en sí es el Escudo de Armas Central, incluso había planes para coronar la torre con un ángel antes de que fuera cortada por razones de costo [3]. Los brazos de la ciudad aparecen sobre la entrada del Departamento del Tesorero de la Ciudad en Bethel Street con todos sus accesorios: el sombrero y los ángeles Art Deco que flanquean un escudo de armas tradicional.

Por Eric Aumonier, quien también diseñó una escultura Art Deco para el metro de Londres.

También se pueden ver ejemplos del & # 8216full set & # 8217 en la ventana de vidrio grabado sobre las escaleras que conducen desde la planta baja del Ayuntamiento & # 8230

Diseñado por Eric Clarke y pintado por James Michie [13]

& # 8230 y en Lutyens & # 8217 War Memorial, frente al Ayuntamiento en St Peter & # 8217s Street.

Los elementos adicionales (sombrero y ángeles) que aparecieron algún tiempo después de la concesión original de los brazos del león y el castillo complican lo que alguna vez fue un diseño simple y efectivo. El Colegio de Armas no reconoce a los ángeles que lo flanquean al prescindir de los partidarios de los brazos en forma de caricatura en estos dos proyectos de mediados del C20 que marcaron un regreso a la simplicidad (aunque la cuestión de si se debe o no dominar el castillo aún no está resuelta). .

Con cúpula o sin cúpula. Izquierda, Hewitt School derecha, Alderson Place, Finkelgate. Estos dos proyectos cívicos fueron supervisados ​​por el arquitecto municipal David Percival ca 1958

La versión de la derecha de los brazos de la ciudad también aparece en la remodelación de Percival & # 8217 en 1960 en Rosary Road.

© 2018 Reggie Unthank

Gracias a Clive Cheesman, Richmond Herald of the College of Arms para obtener información sobre el escudo de armas de Norwich.


7 razones para amar el histórico Norwich

Norwich es la única ciudad inglesa en un Parque Nacional (los Norfolk Broads) y hasta la Revolución Industrial era la segunda ciudad más grande del país.

"Norwich lo tiene todo", según Nikolaus Pevsner.

Bien conocida por sus pubs, iglesias, escena cultural y sinuosas calles adoquinadas, Norwich es la única ciudad inglesa en un Parque Nacional (los Norfolk Broads) y hasta la Revolución Industrial fue la segunda ciudad más grande del país.

Aquí celebramos 7 razones para amar el histórico Norwich:

1. Maravillas medievales

Norwich es la ciudad medieval más completa del Reino Unido y alberga muchas calles adoquinadas intactas de la época. Norwich Guildhall es el edificio cívico medieval más grande que se conserva fuera de Londres y la ciudad tiene una de las catedrales normandas más grandiosas de Gran Bretaña. A lo largo de Elm Hill y en Tombland hay muchos edificios distintivos de estilo Tudor.

2. El mercado cubierto más grande de Europa

En su ubicación actual, el mercado ha funcionado durante más de 900 años, pero el mercado original se abrió a finales del siglo XI para los comerciantes y colonos normandos. Ha sido reconstruido y rediseñado varias veces y hoy es el mercado cubierto más grande de Europa, con puestos que venden comida y ropa de todo el mundo. Norwich fue un importante centro comercial en el siglo XIV, lo que hizo que la ciudad fuera grande y próspera: el Guildhall, catalogado como Grado I, se construyó junto al mercado para servir como centro del gobierno local hasta 1938, cuando se construyó el nuevo ayuntamiento.

3. Una historia religiosa compleja

Se decía que Norwich tenía una iglesia para todos los domingos y un pub para todos los días del año. A pesar de esto, Norwich también fue descrita como la "ciudad más impía" de Inglaterra cuando más del 40% de los residentes declararon que "no tenían religión" en el censo de 2011. También es la única ciudad inglesa que ha sido completamente excomulgada por el Papa, después de que estallaron disturbios en el siglo XIII. St Ethelbert & # 8217s Gate es un monumento programado, pagado por los residentes locales como penitencia por la violencia.

4. Una ciudad de literatura

En 2012, Norwich se convirtió en la primera ciudad de literatura de la UNESCO de Inglaterra, y en 1608 fue el sitio de la primera biblioteca establecida por una corporación en un edificio de propiedad corporativa en las afueras de Londres. Mientras tanto, el muy celebrado curso de escritura creativa en la Universidad de East Anglia ha producido al ganador del Premio Nobel Kazuo Ishiguro y a varios ganadores del Premio Booker.

5. It’s not all medieval

Alongside its medieval history, Norwich is also home to an array of 20th century buildings, many of which are listed. Denys Lasdun’s Norfolk and Suffolk Terrace (better known as the Ziggurats) at the University of East Anglia are Grade II* listed and amongst the boldest designs of any post-war university. Directly opposite, Foster Associates Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts: a vast hanger-like space, is also Grade II* listed.

In the centre of the city The Forum, designed by Hopkins Architects, was opened in 2001 and the large plaza out front is a well-loved meeting place for young people.

6. The first council to get online

Thanks to its forward-thinking Treasurer, Mr A.J. Barnard, the City of Norwich was one of, if not the first, local authority to use computer technology. The Elliott 405 computer was delivered to Norwich City Hall in 1957, and became operational in April of the same year: the event was celebrated with a press conference and hosted by the Lord Mayor.

7. Strangers and canaries

The symbol of the city, the canary, was an import: brought by refugees from the Low Countries, who came to the area seeking refuge from religious persecution in Holland Belgium in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the early 20th century the local football team, Norwich City, began to be referred to as the canaries. The weaving trade was also brought by the refugees, and Grade I listed Strangers Hall got its name from the ‘strangers’ from Belgium and Holland who lived there.

Norwich is special as one of England’s great historic cities, and we are concerned about proposals for the planned redevelopment of Anglia Square. Find out more here.


Contenido

The county town of Norfolk, Norwich is a city on the River Wensum in the East of England. Its origins are unclear, but by the reign of King Æthelstan (924–939) the city was a major trading centre and one of the most important boroughs in England. [1] The Anglo-Saxon settlement was centred around Tombland, a large open space at the point where the roads into Norwich converged. [1] The plain of Tombland was the site of Norwich's market. [1]

Following the Norman conquest of England (1066–1071), Norwich was radically redesigned. Norwich Cathedral was built immediately to the east of Tombland and much of the old town to the southwest of Tombland was cleared for the motte of Norwich Castle. A new Norman town was built west of the Castle, in an area known as Mancroft. [1] [note 1] The new town at Mancroft included a market of its own to provide for the Norman settlers and merchants moving into the area, and possibly also to supply the castle's garrison. [1] The exact date of the foundation of the market at Mancroft is not recorded, but it is known to have been operational by the time the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086. [1] Granting the right to trade in Norman England was a part of the Royal Prerogative and, as with most fairs and markets of the period, the market at Mancroft was operated under licence from the King. The King's Clerk had jurisdiction over all trade conducted at the market, and tolls and rents were collected on behalf of the King. [3]

Almost no records survive of the Norman market in the 11th to 13th centuries. [1] It is known that shortly after the market's establishment, a tollhouse was built nearby, which served as a collection point for taxes on trade. [1] Although the precise location of the tollhouse is not recorded, it was immediately north of the market on part of the site now occupied by the Guildhall. [1] At some point soon after its construction, the tollhouse also became the centre for the civil administration of the city. [1] Although the Tombland market retained its charter to host an annual horse fair, [4] over time the market at Mancroft supplanted that at Tombland as the principal market of the area. [1] At the end of the 11th century, the Tombland market was removed during construction work on Norwich Cathedral. [4]

By the start of the 14th century, Norwich was one of Europe's major cities. East Anglia was at this time one of the most densely populated areas in England, producing large amounts of grain, sheep, cattle and poultry. Much of this produce was traded in Norwich, an inland port roughly at the centre of the region. [5] The City, meanwhile, had industrialised, its growth based on textiles, leather and metalworking, as well as being the administrative centre of the region. [6] By 1300, Norwich had a population of between 6,000–10,000, [5] with a total of around 20,000 people living in the area. [7] (One 19th century historian estimated Norwich's population pre-1349 at as high as 70,000. [8] ) It was one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the country, [5] and was considered the second city of England. [7] Aside from occasional fairs, the majority of all goods produced in or imported to the region passed through the market at Mancroft. [5] While there is some evidence that the market operated daily for a period around 1300, it generally operated on Wednesdays and Saturdays. [5]

Layout Edit

The market had by this time taken on roughly the layout it retains today. It was a long rectangular open space aligned north–south, with the tollhouse (the Guildhall after 1413) marking the northern end and the very large church of St Peter Mancroft marking the southern end. [9] (St Peter Mancroft was built in 1430–55 incorporating an earlier church built in 1075 and was financed by the market's merchants. It retains its association with the market all stallholders retain the right to hold their weddings in the church and to be buried in the churchyard. [10] ) The marketplace sloped downwards from west to east. A long straight passageway called the Nethererowe or Nether Row (later renamed Gentleman's Walk) marked the eastern boundary. Another passage called the Overerowe, or Over Row (later renamed St Peter's Street, and since 1938 occupied by City Hall), marked the western boundary. [9]

The mediaeval market was divided into sections, each dealing with a particular trade. The stalls of the market were arranged in rows. They varied in width from 2 feet (60 cm) to 15 feet (460 cm). [5] Highly valuable, in the early years of the market they were generally owned by major institutions such as trade guilds and religious bodies, and generated a high income from rents. [5] They also provided a steady income for the King, and later the city, from perpetual rents. [3] The marketplace was surrounded by retail buildings, construction of which began in about 1300. These were fixed, permanent structures, some of which had multiple storeys and cellars. [5]

The northern section of the main market place, immediately south of the tollhouse, housed fishmongers, butchers, ironmongers and woolsellers. [9] This section of the market also housed the murage loft after 1294, where tolls to fund the building of Norwich's city walls were collected. [5] The southern section of the main market place, north of St Peter Mancroft, housed a bread market and a number of stalls associated with Norwich's significant cloth and leather industries. A broad space between the main marketplace and the Nethererowe was kept clear for the use of country smallholders, who would set up temporary booths and tents to sell their wares. [3]

South of St Peter Mancroft was a second marketplace dealing in wheat, poultry, cattle and sheep. [9] Pigs, horses, timber and dye were not traded in the main market, but had dedicated markets elsewhere in the city. [5] (The modern Norwich place names of Timberhill, St John Maddermarket and Rampant Horse Street derive from their origins as the sites of the mediaeval timber, dye and horse markets respectively. [5] )

Transfer to city control Edit

In 1341, King Edward III visited Norwich for a jousting tournament, coinciding with the completion of the city's defensive walls. Edward and his mother, Isabella of France, were very impressed by the city and, as a token of appreciation for bearing the costs of the defensive fortifications, Edward granted the franchise of the market to the city in perpetuity. [3] The control by the King's Clerk over trade at the market was ended and tolls and rents from the market from then on went directly to the city's bailiffs (the rulers of the city). [3]

With the powers of the King's Clerk abolished, the bailiffs of Norwich set about regulating the operation of the market for what they felt was the greatest benefit to the city. To encourage fair competition among the market's traders, it was forbidden to sell foodstuffs before the Cathedral bell had tolled for Lady Mass (6.00 am). [3] The practice of forestalling (meeting merchants on their way to the market either to buy their goods for resale, or to prevent them from attending the market and thus make goods of the type they were selling scarce and hence more expensive) was forbidden. Trading anywhere other than in the market was strongly discouraged and the right to re-sell goods at a profit was restricted to Freemen of the city. [3] [note 3] The prices of bread and beer were fixed, [note 4] and a set of standardised weights and measures was introduced, against which measures used by merchants would regularly be checked. [3] Shortly after the transfer of the market to the city a market cross was erected near the centre of the main market (opposite the present day entrance to Davey Place), the design of which is not recorded. [11]

In mid-1348, the outbreak of bubonic plague known as the Great Mortality (later referred to as the Black Death), which had swept across Europe during the past year, reached England for the first time with an outbreak in the south coast port of Melcombe. [12] The plague spread gradually over the rest of the country with devastating effect, causing a mortality estimated at between 30%–45%. [13] In late March 1349, the outbreak reached East Anglia and, for reasons which are not understood, increased drastically in intensity. [13] In 1349–50 alone, more than half the population of East Anglia died. [14] In 1369, East Anglia, whose farming economy had collapsed in the wake of the plague, was struck by famine.

Although the market continued to operate, in the immediate aftermath of the plague it was at a much reduced level and many stalls were left empty for some years after. [15] The famine of 1369 overwhelmed Norwich's burial grounds, necessitating an expansion of St Peter Mancroft's churchyard. The southernmost rows of stalls in the main marketplace, which had been occupied by drapers and linen merchants, [9] were removed to clear space for an enlarged churchyard. [15] By 1377, the population of Norwich had fallen from at least 20,000 before the outbreak to below 6,000. [14]

Although social order was maintained throughout the plague years, the economy of the region was devastated. [16] [note 5] However, the surviving merchant community were very influential in the city and, in the wake of the catastrophe, set about increasing the council's influence around the market, buying many of the surrounding shops. [15] The council also bought a set of wharves along King Street near Dragon Hall in 1397 and decreed that all goods entering Norwich by water be unloaded there. This ensured almost complete control of Norwich trade by the merchants who now dominated the council. [15]

The market soon began to recover from the plague years to become a major trading hub again. Records of 1565 show 37 butchers' stalls alone in the market, and Norwich also became a major centre for the import of exotic foods. Sugar, figs and prunes were traded in the market in the 16th century, and it is recorded that 20,000 oranges and 1,000 lemons were provided for the 1581 St Bartholomew's Day fair. [17]

Guildhall and new market cross Edit

In 1404, Norwich secured a royal charter granting it autonomy as "The County of the City of Norwich". The local council was restructured into a body headed by a Mayor and administered by Sheriffs and Aldermen the Mayor also formally became Clerk of the Markets, but in practice the running of the markets was always delegated to deputies. [15]

By this time, the tollhouse was proving inadequate as the seat of local government and between 1407 and 1413 it was demolished, along with an adjoining site which had housed a vegetable market, and was replaced by a new Guildhall. In keeping with Norwich's status, it was one of the largest civic buildings in England outside London and housed all aspects of local government and justice for the new council. [15] [note 6] The Guildhall cost between £400–£500 to build. [18] (As it was built primarily using pressed labour, modern equivalents of the building costs are virtually meaningless. The annual income of the city council at the time the Guildhall was built was around £120. [18] ) The eastern face of the Guildhall was built in a distinctive black and white checked design, representing the exchequer. [18] The undercroft of the tollhouse was retained for use as a dungeon, while a new basement served as a lock-up from the opening of the Guildhall until the 1980s. [18]

The murage loft in the market, redundant since the completion of the city walls, took over the functions of the old tollhouse and became the offices of the market supervisor and the collection office for market tolls and taxes. [15]

Between 1501 and 1503, Mayor John Rightwise had the original market cross demolished [19] and replaced with an elaborate new cross. This was octagonal in shape, stood on a plinth 30 feet (9 m) wide, and rose to a height of 60 to 70 feet (18 to 21 m). The central structure contained an oratory, occupied by a priest. [11]

Rightwise's new market cross only survived in its original form for a short time. During the English Reformation of the 1530s, the rood on the pinnacle was pulled down and the oratory became a storeroom. The octagonal plinth became a shopping arcade of small stalls. In 1549, a temporary gallows was erected at the cross for the mass execution of 60 of the participants in Kett's Rebellion, who had congregated in the marketplace during their brief capture of Norwich. [20] In 1574, a local law was enacted demanding that all unemployed men were to assemble at the market cross each morning at 5.00 am, along with the tools of their trade, and remain there for an hour in the hope that they would be offered work a bonesetter was hired to treat any men who claimed they were unfit for work through injury. The success of this scheme is not recorded. [19]

By the 17th century, the building was known as the Market House, and was used for the sale of grain and other goods sold by the bushel a set of approved measures were chained to the pillars for public use. [11] The archaic title of "Keeper of the Cross" was bestowed on the man appointed to sweep the marketplace weekly. [21] [note 7]

The market cross also served as the focal point of Norfolk's parliamentary elections. Candidates would bring large crowds of voters in by cart from the surrounding countryside and ply them with large quantities of free alcohol to ensure their support. [22] Candidates would pay for lodgings for the voters, but, in closely fought elections, more voters than usual would be shipped in and every inn in the city would fill, forcing voters to sleep in and around the cross. Sir Thomas Browne described the voters around the market cross as "like flocks of sheep" during the unusually close elections of 1678, at the height of the Exclusion Crisis. [22] Following the counting of the vote, the winning candidate would be carried three times around the market, followed by torch-bearers and trumpeters. By this time, the crowds would generally be extremely drunk on the liquor provided by the candidates, and elections would often degenerate into drunken revelry or fighting. [22]

Although it was popular with travelling vendors, particularly of small fancy goods, [11] the maintenance of the market cross was costly and unpopular with Norwich's citizens. In 1732 the cross was demolished, and the stone was sold for £125. [21] In 2005 the base of the cross was rediscovered in excavations during renovation of the market area, but has since been re-covered. [23] Its site is now outlined in red stones embedded in the market floor. [19]

With few fixed structures in the main marketplace, the plain traditionally served as a public open space on days when the market was not operational. [21] Before the Reformation in the 1530s, its main use was as a venue for religious festivals, particularly the annual procession of the Craft Guilds at Corpus Christi. [21] Most public religious festivals were abandoned following the Reformation and the subsequent dissolution of many of the mediaeval guilds, and the leading event on Norwich's civic calendar became the annual inauguration of the mayor, which took place each May. [25] [note 8]

The inauguration ceremony was conducted by the civic authorities and by the surviving, and still powerful, Guild of St George, and combined elements of a public festival and a religious carnival. [26] Four whifflers (city officials carrying swords) marched ahead of the procession to clear a path. Behind the whifflers, the incoming and outgoing mayors rode side-by-side, preceded by trumpeters and standard-bearers carrying the banners of England and St George, and followed by the city's Sheriffs and Aldermen in ceremonial gowns of violet and red, respectively. The procession was flanked by the city's waits (musicians playing loud wind instruments, usually the shawm) (a mediaeval double reed wind instrument with conical wooden body), and accompanied by dick fools (clowns carrying wands and wearing red and yellow gowns adorned with bells and cats' tails) and a man costumed as a dragon. [26]

As well as the mayoral inaugurations, the marketplace was also the setting for other public events, particularly mourning processions on the deaths of monarchs, coronation celebrations, [note 9] royal birthdays and celebrations of military victories. [26] Firework displays and bonfires would be held on these occasions, accompanied by the local militia firing volleys and the ringing of the bells of the surrounding churches, while local residents and shopkeepers would illuminate their windows with lit candles. [26] Often, particularly in the 18th century, temporary triumphal arches would be erected beside the Guildhall. [22] Free beer would traditionally be distributed at these events, which would on occasion degenerate into drunken disorder. [27]

The market was also the location for public punishment of wrongdoers, and stocks and a pillory were set at a prominent position at the eastern end of the Guildhall. The stocks were used for the punishment of relatively minor offences such as breaching the regulations on the price of bread, public brawling or incivility to the Mayor [22] wrongdoers would on occasion also be paraded around the market wearing paper hats bearing details of their offence. [19] The pillory was used for more serious offences such as sedition. On at least two occasions in the late 16th century people convicted of sedition were nailed to the pillory by their ears on completion of their time on the pillory their ears were cut off. Public whippings of criminals were also conducted in the marketplace. [22] Although not all executions in the period are recorded, it is known that public hangings also took place in the market square and around the market cross. [20]

By the 17th century, the market had also become the venue for many travelling entertainments. Exotic animals were displayed, including lions, tigers, camels and jackals, and displays by conjurers, puppeteers, singers, acrobats and other entertainers also regularly took place. Displays of human deformities were also popular records exist from the 1670s and 1680s of the Mayor granting exhibition licences to, among others, "a monstrous man with 2 bodies brought from the Indies by Sir Thomas Grantham", "a girl of sixteen with no bones", "a monstrous hayrie child", and "a monstrous man taken from amongst the hills of Corinthia, he feeds on the roots of trees etc". [20] Stages erected by charlatans selling medicines and demonstrating miracle cures were often erected near the Guildhall, prompting regular complaints from fishmongers that the crowds were blocking access to their stalls on at least one occasion one of these travelling doctors had his licence withdrawn 'because of possible damage to the city's economy by the distraction of "idle minds" from their work'. [20]

Improvements in Norfolk's road infrastructure and the development of the stagecoach system made Norwich an increasingly popular destination with travellers. Norwich was recovering from the plague years and was a major city, with attractions and social events second only to London itself. The increasingly prosperous country landowners of Norfolk and Suffolk began visiting Norwich more frequently and staying for longer when they did so. [28]

By the end of the 17th century many of the strict regulations regarding trade in Norwich were lifted or relaxed, and Norwich became a fashionable shopping town. Shops catering for the growing wealthy classes, such as booksellers, vintners and gunsmiths, grew around the market plain, [28] especially in the large buildings along the eastern side of the market, the Nethererowe, which became so popular with the gentry it became known as Gentleman's Walk. [29] Gentleman's Walk acquired a number of luxury shops, including John Toll's drapers from which Elizabeth Gurney (later Elizabeth Fry) watched the election of 1796, [30] the wine and spirit dealership of Thomas Bignold who in company with other local shopkeepers founded a mutual association to provide fire insurance for the area's shops which became Norwich Union, [31] and Saunders Coffee House, patronised by the young Horatio and William Nelson. [30]

By this time, a row of stalls bordering on St Peter Mancroft's churchyard had developed into a row of three- and four-storey houses running east to west, and a second row of buildings running north to south ran through the main market square. This row of houses cut off the main market from the eastern strip housing the butchers and fishmongers, known as the Upper Market, leaving only two narrow passageways as direct links between the two-halves of the market square. [32] (Although the buildings dividing the upper and lower markets were demolished in the 1930s, one of these connecting passages survives as Pudding Lane. [32] The name "Pudding Lane" derives from "ped", an archaic word for the large baskets from which itinerant traders sold goods in the market. [33] )

With increased numbers of people visiting Norwich, trade boomed in the inns around the marketplace. [32] In addition to the existing taverns, at least four very large coaching inns opened along Gentleman's Walk. By the latter half of the 18th century, stagecoaches were leaving one or other of the inns almost daily to London, and the inns also served as the hub of a network of frequent services throughout East Anglia. [34]

Built around long narrow yards, as well as serving food and drink and providing lodgings, these coaching inns also served as temporary warehouses, auction rooms and gambling halls for travellers doing business in the market. [35] The best known was the Angel, parts of which dated to the 15th century. As well as providing the other functions of the Norwich inns, its yard also served as a popular theatre and venue for other performers. (Despite its significance as a city, Norwich did not have a dedicated theatre until 1758. [35] ) However, in 1699 part of the building collapsed during a performance by Thomas Doggett's troupe of players, killing a woman and injuring many of the audience. The reputation of the Angel was severely damaged, and although still used for small-scale entertainments such as puppet shows, it was never again used for full-scale theatrical performances. [35]

Meanwhile, the livestock market south of St Peter Mancroft was becoming overwhelmingly crowded on market days. Eventually part of the eastern side of the castle mound was levelled, and in 1738 the livestock sales were moved to this new site. The old hay market remained on the old site for more than a century, until it was also moved to the new livestock market site in the early 19th century. [32] The new livestock market was one of the last significant livestock markets in a British city centre, and developed a reputation as "the cruellest in the country". [36] [note 10]

The relocation of the livestock market had done little to resolve the problems of congestion in and around the market. [39] Many of the mediaeval access routes to the market were too narrow for wheeled transport, and the narrow alleys were also dark, dangerous and mostly unpaved. [40] Although the market had been resurfaced during the 18th century, this had been with flint pebble cobblestones which were easily dislodged and trapped refuse. [41] William Chase, editor of the first Norwich Directory, lobbied in the late 18th century for civic improvements and a rationalisation of the streets around the market. However, the economy of Norwich depended heavily on the textile industry, which had suffered badly from the loss of export markets during the French Wars, and funds for improvements were limited. By the beginning of the 19th century the only significant improvement had been the paving of Gentleman's Walk. [40] In 1805 a number of Improvement Commissions were established to propose solutions to the problems facing the area, but little action was taken. Local councils had no powers to levy rates to fund general civic improvements and as a consequence funds for improvement works had to be raised either through tolls and rents, via public appeals, or through long term borrowing, and the city was initially unable to raise sufficient funds. [39]

In 1813 the yard of the King's Head coaching inn was widened to create Davey Place, [35] a new street between the market and Back of the Inns, at that time a narrow passageway which ran parallel to Gentleman's Walk behind the coaching inns. [42] (Although the inns no longer remain, Back of the Inns survives as a street name. [43] ) In 1820 the Gasolier, Norwich's first gas lamp, was installed in the market outside the entrance to Davey Place. [39] Exchange Street, a new road running north from the northeast corner of the market, was completed in 1828 and a roadway was installed alongside the existing footpath. [42] [44] London Street, the main road connecting the market with the older areas of the city around Tombland and the Cathedral was widened in 1856. [42] In 1860 the decrepit fish market adjacent to the Guildhall, by now over 700 years old, was replaced with a new neoclassical building. [45] In 1863 Gentleman's Walk was paved properly with York stone, and in 1874 the cobbles of the marketplace were replaced by timber blocks. [39] Although by this time the market operated on all working days, Sunday trading laws meant it was closed on Sundays. The market space on Sundays was used for public assemblies and gatherings. [46]

Meanwhile, Norwich railway station had opened in 1844. [47] Although many Norwich residents were reluctant to use the railway, and goods carriers initially found it more convenient to continue to collect goods from the coaching inns, [34] as railway usage gradually increased the number of coaches and carts calling at the inns slowly dwindled, reducing congestion. [44] In 1899 the Angel inn—renamed the Royal Hotel in 1840 on the occasion of Queen Victoria's wedding—finally closed, and was replaced with George Skipper's Royal Arcade, a shopping centre in the Art Nouveau style. [48]

Although the civic authorities initially resisted installing tramways in the city centre owing to concerns about nuisance and disruption, they eventually relented by the end of the 19th century Norwich had a total of 16 miles (26 km) of tram routes, including a route along Gentleman's Walk itself. [44] While schemes to rationalise the layout of the market's stalls had been proposed since the 18th century, they had foundered on the fact that so many of the stalls were privately owned. [44]

In the wake of the First World War the council's Markets Committee began a programme of gradually buying back all the privately owned stalls, with the intention of encouraging demobilised servicemen to work on the market. Within a few years the market was entirely publicly owned, and the council took responsibility for the upkeep of the market. [44] The city also bought out and closed many of the 30 or more inns in the area, transferring their licences to the growing suburbs. [49]

Meanwhile, the Guildhall, designed to serve the post-plague city with a population of around 6,000, was hopelessly inadequate as the administrative centre of a major modern city. As an interim solution the row of buildings dividing the upper and main markets had mostly been taken into public ownership and converted into civic offices, [44] and in January 1914 the 1860 fish market had also been enlarged and converted into offices. The Liberal welfare reforms of the early 20th century and the Local Government Act 1929 had greatly increased the role of local government in public health and welfare, and by the 1930s Norwich council was suffering from a severe lack of office space. [44]

The council opted for a radical redevelopment of the area around the upper market. [50] The row of buildings from St Peter Mancroft to the Guildhall, which divided the upper and lower markets, were demolished, opening up the marketplace, as were the buildings along the western side of the market. [50] The mixture of stalls and booths which occupied the market itself were all removed, and replaced by 205 stalls in uniform parallel rows, topped with multi-coloured sloping roofs (known locally as "tilts"). [51] [52] During the rebuilding of the market square, the existing stalls were relocated to a number of temporary locations in the area to allow them to continue trading, including the courtyard and rear of the City Hall development and surrounding streets. [53] In 1938 the coverings of the stalls were given the multi-coloured stripes for which they became famous. [54] [55]

In 1932, despite concerns from some local residents and businesses about the huge expense at a time of recession, a new building was envisaged to replace the demolished civic buildings, spanning the entire length of the western edge of the now unified marketplace. From over 140 entries a design by Charles Holloway James and Stephen Rowland Pierce was selected. [50] [56] Heavily influenced by Scandinavian architecture, the design attracted negative criticism at the time, with John Piper saying that "fog is its friend". [57] Opened by King George VI in 1938 as City Hall, [57] [note 11] the building proved extremely successful, and was described by Nikolaus Pevsner as "the foremost English public building between the Wars". [50] Norwich's war memorial, designed by Edwin Lutyens and opened in 1927 outside the Guildhall, was moved to a long narrow memorial garden on a raised terrace between City Hall and the enlarged market shortly after the opening of City Hall. [59] The Guildhall remained in use as a law court until 1985, and its basement remained in use as cells until that time. [18]

Although superficially the market remained little changed in the decades following the 1930s redevelopment, by the 1960s it was falling into disrepair, and it no longer met modern hygiene regulations. [60] A lack of funds delayed improvement works, and renovation works did not begin until February 1976. Hot and cold running water and refrigeration were provided to those stalls handling food, and many of the stalls were converted into lockable units. [51] New electrical mains cables were installed throughout the market, the site was resurfaced, and the elegant but ageing 19th century lavatories were demolished. [60] Aside from the demolition of the Victorian toilets, the only significant visible alteration was the addition of corrugated plastic covers over the walkways between the stalls. [51] [52] Although competition from supermarkets was by this time affecting shopping patterns, and the decline of market gardening meant a virtual end to stall-holders selling their own produce, the market survived competitive pressures. Many stalls diversified into specialist foods, clothing and other goods and the high number of stalls allowed the market to sell a range of goods as great as that provided by the supermarkets. [51]

While the 1976 renovations prolonged the life of the 1930s market, by the 1990s the market was once more becoming decrepit. The covers erected in 1976 over the walkways blocked sunlight, leaving much of the market dingy and poorly lit. The walkways themselves, already narrow, were becoming even more restricted as stalls erected external displays and additional weatherproofing. Removable shutters used to secure the stalls overnight were stacked against the sides of the stalls during trading hours, causing further obstruction, while on those stalls fitted with doors the doors opened outwards to maximise the limited space inside the units. In addition, the floors of stalls followed the slope of the hill, a gradient of about 1:12, causing health problems for those market workers who had to stand at this angle for prolonged periods during the day. [61] Norwich City Council decided that these problems needed to be addressed, and in December 2003 invited the public to choose between three proposals for a rebuilt market. [62]

These plans were extremely controversial. All three envisaged reducing the number of stalls from 205 to 140–160 to increase space, and all three involved splitting the market into isolated clusters of stalls, significantly altering its character and appearance. los Eastern Daily Press organised a campaign against the perceived unattractiveness of the designs, the proposed reduction in the number of stalls which would mean stallholders losing their jobs and the remaining stallholders facing rent increases to cover the difference, and the change to the character of central Norwich that such a radical redesign of the market would entail. A petition of over 12,000 signatories rejecting all three proposed designs was gathered. [63]

Following a public meeting on 26 January 2004 the council backed down, and Hereward Cooke, deputy leader of the council, said that "We are finding out what the stall-holders and people of Norwich want and we will try our best to fulfill their wishes". Architect Michael Innes proposed a new design, which was accepted by the council. [63] The new design was put in place in 2005. [64]

Innes's design retained the market's layout of parallel rows of stalls with striped coloured roofs. The new stalls were built as steel and aluminium prefabricated units consisting of four stalls each, each stall having a level floor accessed by a step. These "pods" were arranged in rows, with 2-metre (6 ft 7 in) wide walkways between the "pods". Transparent retractable canopies were installed above the aisles, which could be opened and closed centrally. [sesenta y cinco]

To allow the market to continue trading while the rebuilding took place, a set of temporary stalls were built in Gentleman's Walk and surrounding streets. A third of the market's stalls at a time traded from these temporary stalls while their stalls in the main market were replaced, a process taking four months for each third of the market. [64] The rebuilding was officially completed on 25 March 2006. [66] Although generally popular with traders and shoppers, the redesign was criticised by Los tiempos, who described it as "an anaemic shopping mall for health and safety inspectors: straight lines, wipe-clean boxy cubicles, all life and love drained out." [67]

Meanwhile, in November 2004 engineers identified cracks in the terrace supporting the Memorial Gardens, and they were closed to the public as a potential hazard. Eventually in 2009 work began on renovating the gardens. Lutyens's memorial was dismantled and cleaned, and reassembled at a higher level to be visible from the street it was also rotated 180° to face City Hall, rather than the market. The terrace was strengthened, and the gardens were landscaped around a new sculpture by Paul de Monchaux on the original site of the memorial. [68]

Supermarkets continued to affect shopping patterns. In 1979 fruit and vegetable stalls occupied 70 of the market's 205 stalls by 1988 greengrocers occupied only 28 stalls, and by 2010 there were only seven remaining fruit and vegetable stalls on the market. [69] A wide variety of other stalls have taken their place, and the market remains active. One of the largest markets in Britain, it is a tourist attraction as well as remaining heavily used by local residents, and is a focal point of the city. [66]


Norwich Guildhall - History

Norwich Guildhall. The southern side view from outside City Hall

Norwich Guildhall es un Grade I building on Gaol Hill in Norwich, Norfolk. It was constructed between 1407 and 1413 to enable the greater self-governing powers conferred upon Norwich by the Carta of 1404 to be administered more efficiently.

Henry IV had introduced a ‘Charter of Incorporation’ to Norwich, granting special privileges to the city and raising its importance to a new level. The charter allowed burgesses to elect a Mayor, collect taxes and hold their own courts of law and with the removal of the popular assembly, was a chance for the government to become more locally representative. Crucially, the charter gave Norwich ciudad estado.

El edificio
By 1435 the tower and porch had been added and in 1440 all of the city records were brought over, a reminder of its political responsibility. By 1453 the final windows of the magnificent building were glazed, essentially marking the building’s completion.

An upper council (of twenty-four Aldermen, one Mayor and two Sheriffs), with members from ‘dignified’ society and given life-long membership, were to govern alongside the associated lower council, whose sixty members were to act as representatives from the local community. These changes to the political structure instigated a sense of civic pride among the citizens of Norwich many felt that the growth in the city’s responsibilities and self-governing power should be marked by the establishment of an equally fitting civic building.

Prisoners first occupied the crypts of the building in 1412. In 1511 both the tower at the west end and the roof of the Council Chamber, collapsed. The roof was reconstructed between 1534 and 1537 by Augustine Steward, at a cost of over £200. The destruction forced the Council Chamber to move to the east end of the building. As part of the works, the exterior wall of the eastern face of the new Chamber was faced with chequered flint work and freestone, and a central panel containing a fragment of the Arms of Enrique VIII, flanked by the City Arms and the arms of the St George’s Company.

In 1635 the Guildhall was almost accidentally demolished as salitre diggers went down too far. 1723 saw the reconstruction of the porch, and in 1747, after the destruction of the Shire Hall, the Guildhall took on further responsibilities and additional alterations were made. In 1850 the clock tower was erected as a gift from the Mayor, Henry Woodcock.

More renovations came in 1857, when the doorway of a house belonging to a Tudor goldsmith was taken down from its original location in London Street and placed in the south-west corner of the Guildhall. Additions to the south side of the building were constructed in 1861 by Thomas Barry, the City Surveyor, and further work was undertaken in 1908.

The Mayor and Officials Royal procession from Guildhall to open City Hall at Norwich in 1938

The Norwich Guildhall served as the seat of city government from the early 15th century until 1938, when it was replaced by the newly built City Hall. At the time of the building’s construction and for much of its history Norwich was one of the largest and wealthiest cities in England, and today the Guildhall is the largest surviving medieval civic building in the country outside of London.

As well as various courts, a prison and a chapel, the building contained facilities for accounting and tax collection, accommodation for civic officials (it remains the home of the Sheriff’s parlour today) and storage space for records, money and civic regalia. The Assembly Chamber (or Sheriff’s Court) was designed for meetings of the full medieval council. It now contains a virtually intact late Victorian courtroom.

The council chamber (or mayor’s court) is more elaborate with oak panelling, a 16-bay roof with tie-beams, renaissance decorative woodwork and stained glass. los undercroft, beneath the east end pre-dates the building, and is thought to be an original feature of the earlier toll-house on this site. It was used to accommodate more dangerous criminals.

los Norwich’s Heritage Economic and Regeneration Trust (HEART) has taken on a 25-year lease of the iconic landmark from Norwich City Council. As of January 2015 the building will be another place to explore Norwich’s past.

The Gates
The porch previously had a pair of iron gates to its outer threshold. These are thought to date from the 1720s and were removed several decades ago. They were recently ‘rediscovered’ and the City wishes to reinstate them.

I was asked to examine the paint on the gates.

NOTAS
This has been taken from a variety of sources including Norwich HEART, Wikipedia and the Eastern Daily Press


Amazing Then and Now photos Show How Norwich Has Changed from the Norwich Blitz

During World War II, the German forces heavily bombarded Norwich and its surrounding areas, known as ‘The Norwich Blitz.’ The bombing was also launched in several other Britain’s cities in 1940. However, Norwich was not attacked until April and May 1942 as part of the so-called Baedeker raids. Targets were chosen for their cultural and historical value and not as strategic or military targets.

The furious bombing was launched on the evening of 27 April 1942, and it lasted for two days. There were further attacks in May and a heavy bombardment on 26 and 27 June in which Norwich Cathedral was damaged. Norwich Castle, the City Hall, and the Guildhall escaped while many residential streets were destroyed.

Here is a fantastic set of then and now photographs that show the Norwich landmarks immediately after the attack and how they look years later. Two pictures of the exact location in a single frame with the same angle.


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